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Chapter 7

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On Cooking

On Cooking
Dairy Products

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Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Presentation Transcript

  • C H A P T E R SEVEN DAIRY PRODUCTS “ Food history is as important as a baroque church. Governments should recognize cultural heritage and protect traditional foods. A cheese is as ” worthy of preservation as a sixteenth-century building.. – Carlo Petrini, Italian journalist (1950 – ) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • After studying this unit 2 DAIRY PRODUCTS You will be able to: – Identify, store and use a variety of milk-based products – Identify, store and serve a variety of fine cheeses Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Milk 3 DAIRY PRODUCTS Provides texture, flavor, color and nutritional value for cooked or baked items Whole milk contains – 88% water – 3.5% milk fat – 8.5% milk solids Whole milk is graded A, B or C Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Processing Techniques 4 DAIRY PRODUCTS Pasteurization – Process of heating milk to a sufficiently high temperature for a sufficient length of time to destroy pathogenic bacteria Ultra-pasteurization – Process by which milk is heated to a very high temperature for a very short time Ultra-high-temperature processing (UHT) – Process by which milk is heated to a very high temperature for a short period of time and is then packaged in sterile packages under sterile conditions Homogenization – Process in which the fat globules in whole milk are reduced in size and permanently dispersed throughout the liquid Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Milk Fat Removal 5 DAIRY PRODUCTS Reduced-fat – 2% Low-fat – 1% Nonfat – 0% Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Concentrated Milks 6 DAIRY PRODUCTS Evaporated – 60% of the water is removed Sweetened condensed – 60% of the water is removed and 40%-45% sugar has been added Dry milk powder – Virtually all of the water has been removed Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • SAFETY ALERT - Milk Storage 7 DAIRY PRODUCTS Canned milk, aseptically-packaged milk and dry milk powder are shelf-stable. They need no refrigeration After opening or reconstituting, they become PHT/TTS foods. Refrigerate at or below 41F Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Cream 8 DAIRY PRODUCTS Half and half – A mixture of whole milk and cream, contains 10%-18% milkfat Light cream, coffee cream, table cream – More than 18% but less than 30% milkfat Light whipping cream – Contains between 30% and 36% milkfat Heavy whipping cream – Contains not less than 36% milkfat Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Cultured Dairy Products 9 DAIRY PRODUCTS Buttermilk – Tart milk with a thick texture; fresh milk whole or low-fat with a culture (Streptococcus lactis) added Sour cream – White, tangy gel used as a condiment; the same culture is added to pasteurized, homogenized light cream Crème fraîche – Thinner and richer than sour cream; the same culture is added to heavy cream Yogurt – Thick, tart, custard like product cultured with Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus; can be made with whole, low-fat or skim milks Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Butter 10 DAIRY PRODUCTS Salted butter – Butter with 2.5% salt added – Salt alters the flavor, extends keeping qualities European-style butter – Contains more butterfat than regular butter, up to 82%-86%; contains very little salt Whipped butter – Made by incorporating air into butter Clarified butter – Butter that has had its water and milk solids removed Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Margarine 11 DAIRY PRODUCTS A nondairy product Manufactured from animal or vegetable fats Flavorings, colorings, emulsifiers, preservatives and vitamins are added Like butter, contains 80% fat and 16% water Frequently used as a substitute for butter in baking and cooking Does not equal butter’s flavor Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Natural Cheeses 12 DAIRY PRODUCTS Cheese is one of the oldest and most widely used foods known to man Hundreds of natural cheeses are produced worldwide Cheeses are a product of their environment Cheese is made from a variety of animal milks Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Natural Cheeses (cont.) 13 DAIRY PRODUCTS Cheeses may develop a natural rind The higher the moisture content the softer and more perishable a cheese will be Fat content ranges from less than 20% (low fat) to at least 60% (double cream) and at least 72% (triple cream) FDA rules require that raw milk cheeses must be aged more than 60 days at 35°F Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Fresh or Unripened Cheeses 14 DAIRY PRODUCTS Cream Cheese – Soft cow’s-milk cheese; smooth and mild flavor Feta – Semisoft Greek or Italian cheese made from sheep’s or goat’s milk; white flaky cheese that is stored in brine Mascarpone – Soft cow’s-milk cheese originally from Italy; extremely smooth and creamy Mozzarella – Firm Italian cheese traditionally made with water buffalo’s milk; very mild white cheese that is stringy when melted Queso Oaxaca – One of the most popular cheeses made in Mexico; good melting cheese with a smooth, semisoft texture Ricotta – A soft Italian cheese similar to American cottage cheese Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Soft Cheeses 15 DAIRY PRODUCTS Brie – Rind-ripened French cheese, creamy and rich; contains 60% fat Boursin – Triple-cream cow’s-milk cheese flavored with peppers, herbs and garlic Camembert – Rind-ripened French cheese, creamy and rich; contains 45% fat; milder than brie Taleggio – Orange-colored washed rind cheese made from cow’s milk; contains 48% fat Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Semisoft Cheeses 16 DAIRY PRODUCTS Cabrales – Blue-veined cheese, made from a blend of raw cow’s, ewe’s and goat’s milks Fontina – Has a dark gold, crusty rind; the pale gold, dense interior has few small holes; nutty and rich Gorgonzola – Italian blue-veined cow’s-milk cheese; creamier than other blues Gouda – This Dutch cheese is yellow with few small holes and a mild buttery flavor Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Semisoft Cheeses (cont.) 17 DAIRY PRODUCTS Havarti – Cow’s-milk monastery-style cheese from Denmark; mild flavor and creamy texture Port du Salut – French monastery-style cow’s-milk cheese; smooth, rich and savory Roquefort – Blue-veined sheep’s-milk cheese from France; intensely pungent with a rich, salty flavor and strong aroma Stilton – Blue-veined cheese of Great Britain; pungent, rich and tangy; combines the best of blues and cheddars Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Firm Cheeses 18 DAIRY PRODUCTS Cheddars – Product of North America and Great Britain; flavors range from mild to very sharp Emmenthaler – The original Swiss cheese; mellow, rich and nutty Gruyère – Cow’s-milk cheese made in the Swiss Alps; moist and highly flavorful Jarlsberg – Swiss-type cheese from Norway; mild with a delicate sweet flavor Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Firm Cheeses (cont.) 19 DAIRY PRODUCTS Manchego – Spanish sheeps-milk cheese; it has a buttery and slightly piquant flavor Monterey Jack – A cheddar like cow’s-milk cheese from California; often flavored with peppers and herbs Provolone – A cow’s-milk cheese of southern Italy; commonly used for melting and in pizza and pasta dishes Provolone dolce; aged 2 months Provolone piccante; aged up to six months Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Hard Cheeses 20 DAIRY PRODUCTS Asiago – Sharp and nutty with a cheddar like flavor; aged 1 year Parmigiano-Reggiano – Made exclusively in the Parma region of Italy; primarily used for grating, it has a rich, spicy and sharp flavor Pecorino Romano – A goat’s-milk cheese; brittle and sharper than other grating cheeses, with a “sheepy” tang Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Goat’s-Milk Cheese 21 DAIRY PRODUCTS Chèvre – French for goat, refers to small, soft, creamy cheeses produced in a variety of shapes – Often coated with ash, herbs and seasonings Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Processed Cheeses 22 DAIRY PRODUCTS Pasteurized processed cheese – Made from a combination of aged and green cheeses mixed with emulsifiers and flavorings, pasteurized and poured into molds Processed cheese food – Contains less natural cheese; often has vegetable oils and milk solids added Imitation cheese – Manufactured with dairy by-products and soy products mixed with emulsifiers, coloring and flavoring agents and enzymes Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Serving Cheese 23 DAIRY PRODUCTS Cheese can be served any time of the day Best if served at room temperature Use a variety of shapes and colors for visual appeal Use a variety of flavors and textures Provide a separate serving knife for each cheese Serve with plain bread or crackers Noncitrus fruits are a nice accompaniment Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • Cooking with Cheese 24 DAIRY PRODUCTS Because of its high protein content, cheese can melt into a tough stringy mass Heating can cause cheese to curdle or separate – Use low temperatures and short cooking times. Do not boil. – Grate cheese before stirring into warm sauces/soups. Keep warm in a bain marie Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel