C H A P T E R SIX                  FLAVORS AND FLAVORING                      “         The number of flavors in infinite,...
After studying this unit                                                                                            2     ...
Flavors                                                                                                             3     ...
Tastes                                                                                                              4     ...
The Human Tongue                                                                                                 5        ...
The Human Olfactory System                                                                                       6        ...
Factors Affecting FlavorPerception                                                                                        ...
Compromises to the Perceptionof Taste                                                                                     ...
Food Flavor Profiles                                                                                                9     ...
Flavoring                                                                                                   10            ...
Seasoning                                                                                                   11            ...
Flavorings - Herbs andSpices                                                                                              ...
Flavorings - Condiment                                                                                      13            ...
Seasoning and FlavoringGuidelines                                                                                         ...
Salt – The Most CommonSeasoning                                                                                           ...
Oils                                                                                                        16            ...
Types of Oils                                                                                               17            ...
Vinegars                                                                                                    18            ...
Condiments                                                                                                  19            ...
Wines                                                                                                       20            ...
Wines of the United States                                                                                  21            ...
Red Varietals                                                                                               22            ...
White Varietals                                                                                             23            ...
Sparkling Wines                                                                                           24              ...
Fortified Wines                                                                                           25              ...
Evaluating Wines                                                                                          26              ...
Matching Food with Wine                                                                                     27            ...
Selecting Wines to Use asFlavorings                                                                                       ...
Beer                                                                                                      29              ...
Types of Beers                                                                                              30            ...
Selecting Beers to Use asFlavorings                                                                                       ...
Brandy                                                                                                      32            ...
Liquors                                                                                                     33            ...
Liqueurs                                                                                                    34            ...
Flambéing: Cooking withAlcohol                                                                                            ...
Guidelines for Cooking withWines and Spirits                                                                              ...
International FlavorPrinciples                                                                                            ...
International FlavorPrinciples                                                                                            ...
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Chapter 6

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On Cooking
Flavors and Flavoring

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Chapter 6

  1. 1. C H A P T E R SIX FLAVORS AND FLAVORING “ The number of flavors in infinite, for every soluble body has a peculiar flavor; like no other. – Jean-Anthelem Brillat-Savarin, The Physiology of Taste ” Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  2. 2. After studying this unit 2 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING You will be able to: – Understand the basic principles of the physiology of the sense of taste and smell – Recognize a variety of herbs, spices, oils, vinegars, wines and other flavorings – Understand how to use flavoring ingredients to create, enhance or alter the natural flavors of a dish – Appreciate the flavor principles in a variety of international cuisines Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  3. 3. Flavors 3 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING The combination of tastes, aromas and other sensations caused by the presence of a foreign substance in the mouth Flavor is to food what hue is to color and what timbre is to music Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  4. 4. Tastes 4 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING The sensations we detect when a substance comes in contact with the taste buds on the tongue – Sweet – Sour – Salt – Bitter – Umami Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  5. 5. The Human Tongue 5 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  6. 6. The Human Olfactory System 6 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  7. 7. Factors Affecting FlavorPerception 7 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Temperature Consistency Presence of contrasting tastes Presence of fats Color Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  8. 8. Compromises to the Perceptionof Taste 8 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Age Health Smoking Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  9. 9. Food Flavor Profiles 9 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Top notes or high notes – The sharpest first flavors or aromas Middle notes – The second wave of flavor, more subtle Low notes – The most dominant lingering flavor Aftertaste or finish – The final flavor Roundness – The unity of a dish’s various flavors Depth of flavor – A broad range of flavors Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  10. 10. Flavoring 10 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING An item that adds a new taste to food and alters its natural flavors Flavorings include herbs, spices, vinegars and condiments Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  11. 11. Seasoning 11 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING An item added to enhance the natural flavors of a food without changing its taste Salt is the most common seasoning Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  12. 12. Flavorings - Herbs andSpices 12 FLAVORS AND FLAVORINGHerbs Spices – Any of a large – Any of a large group of group of aromatic aromatic plants whose plants whose bark, roots, seeds, buds leaves, stems or or berries are used as flowers are used as flavoring a flavoring – Usually used in dry form, whole or ground – Used either dry or fresh Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  13. 13. Flavorings - Condiment 13 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Any item added to a dish for flavor, including herbs, spices and vinegars Also refers to cooked or prepared flavorings such as prepared mustards, relishes, bottled sauces and pickles Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  14. 14. Seasoning and FlavoringGuidelines 14 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Flavorings should not hide the taste or aroma of the primary ingredient Flavorings should be combined in balance, so as not to overwhelm the palate Flavorings should not be used to disguise poor quality or poorly prepared products Flavorings should be added sparingly when foods are being cooked over a long period of time Taste and season foods frequently during cooking Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  15. 15. Salt – The Most CommonSeasoning 15 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Culinary salt or table salt Rock salt Kosher salt Sea salt Sel gris Fleur de sel Specialty salts – Smoked salt Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  16. 16. Oils 16 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING A type of fat that remains liquid at room temperature Cooking oils are refined from various seeds, plants and vegetables Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  17. 17. Types of Oils 17 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Vegetable oils – Cottonseed, peanut, grape seed, sesame seed and soybean Canola – Rapeseeds Nut oils – Walnut, hazelnut and others Olive oil – Extra virgin, virgin and pure Flavored (infused) oils – Infused with basil, garlic, citrus and spices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  18. 18. Vinegars 18 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Wine vinegars Malt vinegars Distilled vinegars Cider vinegars Rice vinegars Flavored vinegars Balsamic vinegars Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  19. 19. Condiments 19 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Relishes and pickles Chipotle Chutneys Fish sauce and fermented black beans Ketchup Prepared mustards – Yellow, Dijon, whole grain Soy sauce, Tamari Tahini Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  20. 20. Wines 20 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Vinification Vintner Tannins Fermentation Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  21. 21. Wines of the United States 21 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Most wines are named for the variety of grape that is used The U.S. government requires that 75% of the wine comes from a particular grape Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  22. 22. Red Varietals 22 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Cabernet Sauvignon Merlot Nebbiolo Pinot Noir Syrah Sangiovese Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  23. 23. White Varietals 23 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Chardonnay Riesling Pinot Grigio Sauvignon Blanc Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  24. 24. Sparkling Wines 24 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Méthode Champenoise Riddling Disgorging Charmat process Dosage Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  25. 25. Fortified Wines 25 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Port Sherry Madeira Marsala Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  26. 26. Evaluating Wines 26 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Aroma Flavor Body Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  27. 27. Matching Food with Wine 27 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Match wine to the food following these guidelines: – Colors – Tastes – Strengths – Opposites – Origins Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  28. 28. Selecting Wines to Use asFlavorings 28 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Cooking wines – Inferior product – Have added salt Do not cook with a wine that you would not drink Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  29. 29. Beer 29 FLAVORS AND FLAVORINGMade from: Water Hops Barley – Malt Fermenting yeast Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  30. 30. Types of Beers 30 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Ales – Pale – Brown Lagers Porters Stout, Bock American pilsner European lager Belgian Lambic Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  31. 31. Selecting Beers to Use asFlavorings 31 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Match beer to the food following these guidelines: – Tastes – Strengths – Opposites – Origins Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  32. 32. Brandy 32 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Grape brandy – Cognac – Armagnac Fruit Brandy – Calvados – Kirschwasser – Framboise – Poire – Slivovitz Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  33. 33. Liquors 33 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Gin Rum Tequila Vodka Whiskey – Blended – Bourbon – Canadian – Irish – Rye – Scotch Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  34. 34. Liqueurs 34 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Made from herbs, fruits, nuts, spices, flowers or other flavors In a base of neutral spirits, brandy, rum or whiskey Cream liqueurs are made with cream Crème liqueurs contain no cream, but contain additional sugar Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  35. 35. Flambéing: Cooking withAlcohol 35 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Igniting brandy, rum or other liquor so that alcohol burns off and the flavor is retained – Never pour alcohol directly from the bottle – Heat liquor until warm before igniting – Tilt pan away from you then ignite flame – Allow flame to subside before finishing Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  36. 36. Guidelines for Cooking withWines and Spirits 36 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Use quality products Pay attention to the cooking time once the wine or other alcoholic beverages have been added Brown foods before adding wine or other alcoholic beverages to finish a dish such as a sauce or stew Alcohol and acids in wine may interact with aluminum or cast-iron cookware Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  37. 37. International FlavorPrinciples 37 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Six general components help distinguish the essence of many world cuisines – Primary ingredients (proteins and starches) – Religious influences – Typical cooking methods – Cooking liquids – Fats – Flavorings Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  38. 38. International FlavorPrinciples 38 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING“Every culture tends to combine a small number of flavoring ingredients so frequently and so consistently that they become definitive of a particular cuisine.” Elizabeth Rozin, Ethnic Cuisine: The Flavor Principle Cookbook Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
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