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  • 1. C H A P T E R SIX FLAVORS AND FLAVORING “ The number of flavors in infinite, for every soluble body has a peculiar flavor; like no other. – Jean-Anthelem Brillat-Savarin, The Physiology of Taste ” Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 2. After studying this unit 2 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING You will be able to: – Understand the basic principles of the physiology of the sense of taste and smell – Recognize a variety of herbs, spices, oils, vinegars, wines and other flavorings – Understand how to use flavoring ingredients to create, enhance or alter the natural flavors of a dish – Appreciate the flavor principles in a variety of international cuisines Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 3. Flavors 3 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING The combination of tastes, aromas and other sensations caused by the presence of a foreign substance in the mouth Flavor is to food what hue is to color and what timbre is to music Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 4. Tastes 4 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING The sensations we detect when a substance comes in contact with the taste buds on the tongue – Sweet – Sour – Salt – Bitter – Umami Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 5. The Human Tongue 5 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 6. The Human Olfactory System 6 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 7. Factors Affecting FlavorPerception 7 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Temperature Consistency Presence of contrasting tastes Presence of fats Color Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 8. Compromises to the Perceptionof Taste 8 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Age Health Smoking Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 9. Food Flavor Profiles 9 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Top notes or high notes – The sharpest first flavors or aromas Middle notes – The second wave of flavor, more subtle Low notes – The most dominant lingering flavor Aftertaste or finish – The final flavor Roundness – The unity of a dish’s various flavors Depth of flavor – A broad range of flavors Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 10. Flavoring 10 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING An item that adds a new taste to food and alters its natural flavors Flavorings include herbs, spices, vinegars and condiments Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 11. Seasoning 11 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING An item added to enhance the natural flavors of a food without changing its taste Salt is the most common seasoning Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 12. Flavorings - Herbs andSpices 12 FLAVORS AND FLAVORINGHerbs Spices – Any of a large – Any of a large group of group of aromatic aromatic plants whose plants whose bark, roots, seeds, buds leaves, stems or or berries are used as flowers are used as flavoring a flavoring – Usually used in dry form, whole or ground – Used either dry or fresh Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 13. Flavorings - Condiment 13 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Any item added to a dish for flavor, including herbs, spices and vinegars Also refers to cooked or prepared flavorings such as prepared mustards, relishes, bottled sauces and pickles Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 14. Seasoning and FlavoringGuidelines 14 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Flavorings should not hide the taste or aroma of the primary ingredient Flavorings should be combined in balance, so as not to overwhelm the palate Flavorings should not be used to disguise poor quality or poorly prepared products Flavorings should be added sparingly when foods are being cooked over a long period of time Taste and season foods frequently during cooking Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 15. Salt – The Most CommonSeasoning 15 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Culinary salt or table salt Rock salt Kosher salt Sea salt Sel gris Fleur de sel Specialty salts – Smoked salt Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 16. Oils 16 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING A type of fat that remains liquid at room temperature Cooking oils are refined from various seeds, plants and vegetables Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 17. Types of Oils 17 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Vegetable oils – Cottonseed, peanut, grape seed, sesame seed and soybean Canola – Rapeseeds Nut oils – Walnut, hazelnut and others Olive oil – Extra virgin, virgin and pure Flavored (infused) oils – Infused with basil, garlic, citrus and spices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 18. Vinegars 18 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Wine vinegars Malt vinegars Distilled vinegars Cider vinegars Rice vinegars Flavored vinegars Balsamic vinegars Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 19. Condiments 19 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Relishes and pickles Chipotle Chutneys Fish sauce and fermented black beans Ketchup Prepared mustards – Yellow, Dijon, whole grain Soy sauce, Tamari Tahini Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 20. Wines 20 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Vinification Vintner Tannins Fermentation Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 21. Wines of the United States 21 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Most wines are named for the variety of grape that is used The U.S. government requires that 75% of the wine comes from a particular grape Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 22. Red Varietals 22 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Cabernet Sauvignon Merlot Nebbiolo Pinot Noir Syrah Sangiovese Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 23. White Varietals 23 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Chardonnay Riesling Pinot Grigio Sauvignon Blanc Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 24. Sparkling Wines 24 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Méthode Champenoise Riddling Disgorging Charmat process Dosage Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 25. Fortified Wines 25 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Port Sherry Madeira Marsala Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 26. Evaluating Wines 26 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Aroma Flavor Body Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 27. Matching Food with Wine 27 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Match wine to the food following these guidelines: – Colors – Tastes – Strengths – Opposites – Origins Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 28. Selecting Wines to Use asFlavorings 28 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Cooking wines – Inferior product – Have added salt Do not cook with a wine that you would not drink Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 29. Beer 29 FLAVORS AND FLAVORINGMade from: Water Hops Barley – Malt Fermenting yeast Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 30. Types of Beers 30 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Ales – Pale – Brown Lagers Porters Stout, Bock American pilsner European lager Belgian Lambic Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 31. Selecting Beers to Use asFlavorings 31 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Match beer to the food following these guidelines: – Tastes – Strengths – Opposites – Origins Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 32. Brandy 32 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Grape brandy – Cognac – Armagnac Fruit Brandy – Calvados – Kirschwasser – Framboise – Poire – Slivovitz Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 33. Liquors 33 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Gin Rum Tequila Vodka Whiskey – Blended – Bourbon – Canadian – Irish – Rye – Scotch Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 34. Liqueurs 34 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Made from herbs, fruits, nuts, spices, flowers or other flavors In a base of neutral spirits, brandy, rum or whiskey Cream liqueurs are made with cream Crème liqueurs contain no cream, but contain additional sugar Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 35. Flambéing: Cooking withAlcohol 35 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Igniting brandy, rum or other liquor so that alcohol burns off and the flavor is retained – Never pour alcohol directly from the bottle – Heat liquor until warm before igniting – Tilt pan away from you then ignite flame – Allow flame to subside before finishing Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 36. Guidelines for Cooking withWines and Spirits 36 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Use quality products Pay attention to the cooking time once the wine or other alcoholic beverages have been added Brown foods before adding wine or other alcoholic beverages to finish a dish such as a sauce or stew Alcohol and acids in wine may interact with aluminum or cast-iron cookware Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 37. International FlavorPrinciples 37 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING Six general components help distinguish the essence of many world cuisines – Primary ingredients (proteins and starches) – Religious influences – Typical cooking methods – Cooking liquids – Fats – Flavorings Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  • 38. International FlavorPrinciples 38 FLAVORS AND FLAVORING“Every culture tends to combine a small number of flavoring ingredients so frequently and so consistently that they become definitive of a particular cuisine.” Elizabeth Rozin, Ethnic Cuisine: The Flavor Principle Cookbook Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel