C H A P T E R TWENTY-NINE                             PRINCIPLES OF THE                                 BAKESHOP          ...
After studying this unit                                                                                                2 ...
Formulas                                                                                                                3 ...
Bakeshop Tools andEquipment                                                                                               ...
Bakeshop Tools                                                                                                            ...
Ingredients                                                                                                             6 ...
Wheat Flours                                                                                                            7 ...
Composition of WheatFlours                                                                                                ...
Wheat Flours (cont.)                                                                                                    9 ...
Specialty Flours                                                                                               10         ...
Function of Sugars andSweeteners                                                                                          ...
Sugars                                                                                                        12          ...
Types of Sugar                                                                                                13          ...
Types of Sugar (cont.)                                                                                        14          ...
Liquid Sweeteners                                                                                             15          ...
Simple Sugar Syrups                                                                                           16          ...
Cooked Sugars                                                                                                 17          ...
Stages of Cooked Sugar                                                                                     18             ...
Stages of Cooked Sugar                                                                                                    ...
SAFETY ALERT – Hot SugarSyrups                                                                                            ...
Fats                                                                                                                21    ...
Thickeners                                                                                                     22         ...
Thickeners (cont.)                                                                                            23          ...
Flavorings                                                                                                    24          ...
Chocolate                                                                                                     25          ...
Factors of Chocolate Quality                                                                                  26          ...
Types of Chocolate                                                                                            27          ...
Types of Chocolate (cont.)                                                                                    28          ...
Types of Chocolate (cont.)                                                                                      29        ...
Nuts                                                                                                          30          ...
Measuring Ingredients                                                                                         31          ...
Mixing Ingredients                                                                                            32          ...
Mixing Methods                                                                                                33          ...
The Baking Process                                                                                             34         ...
The Baking Process (cont.)                                                                                    35          ...
The Baking Process (cont.)                                                                                    36          ...
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Chapter 29

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On Cooking
Principles of the Bakeshop

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Chapter 29

  1. 1. C H A P T E R TWENTY-NINE PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP “ No one who cooks, cooks alone. Even at her most solitary, a cook in the kitchen is surrounded by generations of cooks past, ” the advice and wisdom of cookbook writers. – Laurie Colwin, Cookbook author and American writer (1944-1992) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  2. 2. After studying this unit 2 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP You will be able to: – Recognize many of the specialized tools and equipment used in the bakeshop – Recognize and select ingredients used in a bakeshop – Control the development of gluten – Cook sugar correctly – Understand the baking process Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  3. 3. Formulas 3 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Standard term used throughout the industry for bakeshop recipes; formulas rely on weighing to ensure accurate measuring of ingredients Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  4. 4. Bakeshop Tools andEquipment 4 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Some are very specialized – Cake and tart pans – Various spatulas for spreading icings – Piping tools and cake combs for decorating Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  5. 5. Bakeshop Tools 5 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP (clockwise from center back): cake turntable, cake pans, flan ring, tartlet pans,cannoli form, cake comb, offset spatulas, flat cake spatula, blade for scoring breads,flower nail, rectangular tartlet pans, piping bag and tips, metal spatula, dough cutter,rolling pin, springform pan, copper sugar pot (on cooling rack), nest of round cutters. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  6. 6. Ingredients 6 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Flour – Provides bulk and structure to baked goods, thickens liquids and prevents foods from sticking during preparation and baking – Flour is produced when grain kernels are milled or ground – Corn, rice and wheat are the most significant grains used in the bakeshop Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  7. 7. Wheat Flours 7 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Produced by milling wheat kernels Contain starch and protein The innermost part of the kernel is the germ, which contains fat During milling the kernels are cracked and the bran and the germ are removed – Patent flour is made from the portion of the endosperm closest to the germ – Clear flour is made from the portion of endosperm that is closest to the bran Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  8. 8. Composition of WheatFlours 8 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Flour contains 5 nutrients – Fat – Minerals – Moisture  Cannot exceed 15% by government standards, but will vary depending on climatic conditions – Starch  Necessary for the absorption of moisture – Protein  Gluten is the tough rubbery substance created when wheat flour is mixed with water – Lower protein content creates lighter, more tender goods – Higher protein content creates chewier, crisper products Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  9. 9. Wheat Flours (cont.) 9 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Soft or weak flours – Low in protein – Best for tender products such as cakes Hard or strong flours – High in protein – Good for producing yeast breads Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  10. 10. Specialty Flours 10 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Whole-wheat flour – Milled from the entire wheat kernel Vital wheat gluten – Pure protein extracted from wheat flour Self-rising flour – All-purpose flour with salt and chemical leavener added Nonwheat flours or composition flours – Made from grains, seeds or beans – Often do not contain proteins and do not develop Rye flour – Milled from the rye berry – Comes in four grades or colors  White, medium, dark and rye meal Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  11. 11. Function of Sugars andSweeteners 11 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Provide flavor and color Tenderize products by weakening gluten strands Provide food for yeast Serve as a preservatives Act as a creaming and foaming agents Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  12. 12. Sugars 12 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Are carbohydrates – Single or simple sugars Glucose and fructose – Double or complex Lactose or refined sugar Most sugar is sucrose made from sugar cane or sugar beets Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  13. 13. Types of Sugar 13 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Turbinado sugar – Coarse crystals that are light brown in color and have a caramel flavor Sanding sugar – Large coarse crystals used for decorating cookies and pastries Granulated sugar – Common table sugar Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  14. 14. Types of Sugar (cont.) 14 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Brown sugar – Regular refined cane sugar with some of the molasses returned to it  Light or dark Superfine or castor sugar – Granulated sugar with a smaller-sized crystal; dissolves quickly in liquids and produces light, tender cakes Powdered (confectioners) sugar – Finely ground sugar with 3% starch added Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  15. 15. Liquid Sweeteners 15 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Molasses – Liquid by-product of refined sugar Corn syrup – Extremely viscous and less sweet than honey or refined sugar Honey – Created by honeybees – A strong sweetener consisting of fructose and glucose Maple syrup – Made from the sap of sugar maple trees Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  16. 16. Simple Sugar Syrups 16 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Light syrup – Boil 2 parts water with 1 part sugar Medium syrup – Boil 1½ parts water with 1 part sugar Heavy syrup – Boil equal parts water and sugar Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  17. 17. Cooked Sugars 17 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Used to make caramel sauce, meringues, buttercream, candy and other confections Unstable and susceptible to recrystalization – Use clean saucepan – Use an interferent – Brush down sides of pan with cold water Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  18. 18. Stages of Cooked Sugar 18 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  19. 19. Stages of Cooked Sugar 19 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Soft ball stage. Hard ball stage. Hard crack stage. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  20. 20. SAFETY ALERT – Hot SugarSyrups 20 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Because sugar can be heated to very high temperatures, sugar syrups can cause severe burns – Do not touch liquefied or caramelized sugar with your bare hands – Allow the sugar to cool completely before touching it Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  21. 21. Fats 21 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Butter – Prized for its flavor – Melts at a relatively low temperature, 93°F Margarine – Useful in rolled-in dough – Melts at a slightly higher temperature than butter Lard – Rendered pork fat – Yields flaky and flavorful pastries Shortening – Made from animal fats and vegetable fats that are hydrogenated to make them solid Oil – Liquid – Blends throughout the mixture Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  22. 22. Thickeners 22 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Starches – Used as thickeners in pastry creams, sauces, custards and fruit fillings – Cornstarch  Must be dissolved in cold water, added to mixture and then heated and cooked  Not good for frozen products – Arrowroot  Can break down if overcooked – Tapioca  Needs to be soaked in cold liquid several hours before cooking  Instant tapioca only needs 20-30 minutes to soak Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  23. 23. Thickeners (cont.) 23 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Gelatin – Natural product derived from animal protein – Must be bloomed in cold liquid and then dissolved in hot liquid – Available in two forms Granulated Sheet or leaf Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  24. 24. Flavorings 24 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Emulsions – Flavoring oils mixed into water with the aid of emulsifiers Extracts – Flavoring oils or essential oils and ethyl alcohol Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  25. 25. Chocolate 25 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Nib – The usable part of the chocolate pod Chocolate liquor – The liquid that is extracted from the roasted nib Cocoa butter – The fat part of the liquor Cocoa powder – The dry product that remains after the cocoa butter has been removed Conching – A Swiss technique that increases smoothness Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  26. 26. Factors of Chocolate Quality 26 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Appearance – Color should be even and glossy without any discoloration Smell – Should be chocolaty with no off-odors or staleness Break – Should snap cleanly without crumbling Texture – Should melt quickly and evenly on the tongue Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  27. 27. Types of Chocolate 27 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Unsweetened – Pure hardened chocolate liquor with no added sugar Bittersweet and semisweet – At least 35% chocolate liquor with added coca butter, sugar, flavorings and sometimes emulsifiers Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  28. 28. Types of Chocolate (cont.) 28 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Couverture – High-quality chocolate containing 32% cocoa butter Milk chocolate – Contains sugar, vanilla, milk solids and possibly other flavoring ingredients Chocolate chips – Drops of chocolate available in count sizes from 14 to 160 per ounce Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  29. 29. Types of Chocolate (cont.) 29 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Cocoa Powder – Contains no sweeteners or flavorings and is used primarily in baked goods – Two types  Alkalized  Dutch processed Cocoa butter – The fat that comes from the cocoa bean White chocolate – A confectionery product that contains no chocolate solids or liquors Imitation chocolate and chocolate-flavored coating – Made with hydrogenated vegetable oil instead of cocoa butter Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  30. 30. Nuts 30 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP The edible single-seed kernel of a fruit surrounded by a hard shell High in fat Susceptible to rancidity Should be stored in airtight, nonmetal containers Peanuts are technically not nuts but legumes Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  31. 31. Measuring Ingredients 31 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Precise and accurate measurement is extremely important in bakeshop – When measuring ingredients for baking formulas, use weights, even for liquids – Balance scales are often used in the bakeshop Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  32. 32. Mixing Ingredients 32 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP The technique used to mix a product affects its final volume Distributes ingredients evenly Activates proteins Incorporates air to help mixture to rise and develop a light texture Different methods ensure that ingredients are combined in the proper order to achieve the desired result Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  33. 33. Mixing Methods 33 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Beating Blending Creaming Cutting Folding Kneading Sifting Stirring Whipping Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  34. 34. The Baking Process 34 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Gases form – Carbon dioxide, air and steam Gases are trapped – The stretchable protein in the batter or dough captures the gas Starches gelatinize – At a temperature of 140°F, starches absorb additional moisture and expand Proteins coagulate – When the dough or batter reaches a temperature of 160°F, gluten and dairy and egg proteins solidify Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  35. 35. The Baking Process (cont.) 35 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Fats melt – As fat melts it coats the starch granules, moistening and tenderizing the product by keeping gluten strands short Water evaporates – Steam, which can be used as a leavener, is produced Sugars caramelize – Adding flavor and color Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  36. 36. The Baking Process (cont.) 36 PRINCIPLES OF THE BAKESHOP Carryover baking – The residual heat that remains in the product continues the baking process as the product cools Staling – Changes in texture and aroma caused by both moisture loss and changes in the structure of the starch granules Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel

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