C H A P T E R TWENTY-THREE                              HEALTHY COOKING                          “                If we co...
After studying this unit                                                                                        2         ...
After studying this unit(cont.)                                                                                           ...
Nutrition                                                                                                     4           ...
Calories (kcal)                                                                                               5           ...
Six Categories of Nutrients                                                                                   6           ...
Essential Nutrients                                                                                           7           ...
Nonessential Nutrients                                                                                        8           ...
Macronutrients                                                                                                9           ...
Carbohydrates                                                                                           10                ...
Lipids                                                                                                  11                ...
Proteins                                                                                                12                ...
Micronutrients                                                                                          13                ...
Vitamins                                                                                                14                ...
Cooking Techniques ControlVitamin Retention                                                                               ...
Minerals                                                                                                16                ...
Water                                                                                                   17                ...
Phytochemicals                                                                                          18                ...
Tools for Healthy Eating                                                                                19                ...
Federal Regulatory Agencies                                                                             20                ...
Other Federal Agencies                                                                                  21                ...
Health Organizations                                                                                    22                ...
2005 Dietary Guidelines                                                                                 23                ...
2005 Dietary Guidelines(cont.)                                                                                            ...
The Food Guide Pyramid                                                                                  25                ...
MyPyramid                                                                                            26                   ...
Nutrition Labeling                                                                                      27                ...
Nutrition Facts Label                                                                                28                   ...
Ingredient Substitutes andAlternatives                                                                                    ...
Commonly SubstitutedIngredients                                                                                           ...
Nutrition, Eating Out and theChef                                                                                         ...
Sample Healthy RestaurantMenu                                                                                             ...
Sample Healthy RestaurantMenu (cont.)                                                                                     ...
Vegetarianism                                                                                            34               ...
Vegetarianism (cont.)                                                                                   35                ...
Soybean-Based Products                                                                                           36       ...
Soybean-Based Products(cont.)                                                                                             ...
Other Popular Ingredients inVegetarian Cooking                                                                            ...
Vegetarian Cuisine                                                                                      39                ...
More Considerations                                                                                     40                ...
Religious Dietary Laws                                                                                  41                ...
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Chapter 23

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On Cooking
Healthy Cooking

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Chapter 23

  1. 1. C H A P T E R TWENTY-THREE HEALTHY COOKING “ If we could give every individual the right amount of nourishment and exercise, not too little and not too much, ” we would have found the safest way to health. – Hippocrates, Greek physician and father of medicine (ca. 460-377 b.c.e.) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  2. 2. After studying this unit 2 HEALTHY COOKING You will be able to: – Identify categories of nutrients and explain their importance in a healthy diet – Identify the characteristics of a nutritious diet for healthy adults – Describe diet-planning tools available to consumers and chefs Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  3. 3. After studying this unit(cont.) 3 HEALTHY COOKING – Understand the effects of storage and preparation techniques on the nutritional value of food – Appreciate the use of alternative ingredients and substitutes in developing recipes and menus to provide guests with nutritious foods – Understand the range of vegetarian diets and use a variety of protein products as alternatives to meat, poultry, fish or dairy Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  4. 4. Nutrition 4 HEALTHY COOKING The science that studies nutrients—(chemical) substances found in food that nourish the body by promoting growth, maintenance and repair of the body and by and facilitating body functions such as digestion and metabolism (the chemical reactions that go on in the body); some nutrients also provide energy (calories) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  5. 5. Calories (kcal) 5 HEALTHY COOKING The unit of energy measured by the amount of heat required to raise 1,000 grams of water one degree Celsius Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  6. 6. Six Categories of Nutrients 6 HEALTHY COOKING Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  7. 7. Essential Nutrients 7 HEALTHY COOKING Provide calories or energy needed in larger quantities than other nutrients because body doesn’t make them in sufficient quantity Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  8. 8. Nonessential Nutrients 8 HEALTHY COOKING Healthy, well-nourished bodies can make them in sufficient quantities to satisfy their needs Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  9. 9. Macronutrients 9 HEALTHY COOKING Provide calories for energy Needed in large quantities – Carbohydrates – Lipids Fats found in animal and plant foods – Proteins Necessary for manufacturing, maintaining and repairing body tissue Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  10. 10. Carbohydrates 10 HEALTHY COOKING Simple – Occur in naturally occurring sugars as well as in sweeteners Complex – Occur in starch and fiber – Found in fruit, vegetables and cereal grains such as wheat, barley and oats Soluble fiber forms a gel in the digestive tract Insoluble fiber increases fecal bulk Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  11. 11. Lipids 11 HEALTHY COOKING The fats in foods can be classified as – Saturated Mainly animal foods – Monounsaturated Primarily plants and plant food – Polyunsaturated Found in plants and fish Cholesterol is only found in foods of animal origin Trans fats are found in hydrogenated fats Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  12. 12. Proteins 12 HEALTHY COOKING Protein chains consist of amino acids – There are 20 amino acids – 9 are essential for healthy adults Proteins regulate the balance of water, acids and bases and move nutrients in and out of cells Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  13. 13. Micronutrients 13 HEALTHY COOKING Needed in smaller amounts – Vitamins – Minerals Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  14. 14. Vitamins 14 HEALTHY COOKING Vital dietary substances needed to regulate the metabolism and normal growth and body functions – Fat-soluble A, D, E and K are found in food containing fat – Water-soluble C and the B complex vitamins are not stored to the extent of fat-soluble vitamins Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  15. 15. Cooking Techniques ControlVitamin Retention 15 HEALTHY COOKING Prepare vegetables close to serving time Steaming and microwaving helps retain water- soluble vitamins Roasting and grilling can preserve vitamins in animal foods Use airtight and opaque containers Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  16. 16. Minerals 16 HEALTHY COOKING Cannot be manufactured in the body – Trace minerals Needed in small amounts – Iron – Major minerals Needed in relatively larger quantities – Calcium Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  17. 17. Water 17 HEALTHY COOKING The human body is approximately 60% water Water is necessary for transporting nutrients and wastes throughout the body Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  18. 18. Phytochemicals 18 HEALTHY COOKING Non-nutritive components of plant foods which may be important in preventing some forms of cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, heart disease and other degenerative diseases – Brightly colored fruits and vegetables such as blueberries, pomegranates and green tea are high in flavonoids phytochemicals especially beneficial to health Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  19. 19. Tools for Healthy Eating 19 HEALTHY COOKING Recommendations from Federal regulatory agencies as well as health organizations helps chefs and consumers plan a healthy diet and lifestyle Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  20. 20. Federal Regulatory Agencies 20 HEALTHY COOKING Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services – Protects the nation’s health against impure and unsafe foods U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Responsible to make sure that individual food items are safe, wholesome and accurately labeled Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  21. 21. Other Federal Agencies 21 HEALTHY COOKING Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) – Tracks illnesses, including those caused by food-borne pathogens National Institutes of Health (NIH) – Basic biological and nutritional research Department of the Interior – Sets environmental and land use standards Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  22. 22. Health Organizations 22 HEALTHY COOKING American Heart Association American Cancer Society U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Drug Administration U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  23. 23. 2005 Dietary Guidelines 23 HEALTHY COOKING Consumer a wide variety of foods. Limit added sugar, solid fats, alcoholic beverages Control calorie intake Be physically active every day Increase daily intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nonfat dairy products Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  24. 24. 2005 Dietary Guidelines(cont.) 24 HEALTHY COOKING Choose good fats and limit intake Eat whole food sources of carbohydrates Eat less than 1 teaspoon salt daily Follow safe food handling practices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  25. 25. The Food Guide Pyramid 25 HEALTHY COOKING A tool and customizable guidance system to help consumers make healthy food and lifestyle choices – Activity – Moderation – Personalization – Proportionality – Variety – Gradual improvement Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  26. 26. MyPyramid 26 HEALTHY COOKING Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  27. 27. Nutrition Labeling 27 HEALTHY COOKING An effort to provide consumers with greater information about the nutritional value of foods they purchase The FDA requires that most food products be clearly labeled All packaged food products must include the Nutrition Facts Label Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  28. 28. Nutrition Facts Label 28 HEALTHY COOKING Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  29. 29. Ingredient Substitutes andAlternatives 29 HEALTHY COOKING Ingredient substitutions – The replacement of one ingredient with another of presumably similar, although not necessarily identical, flavor, texture, appearance and other sensory characteristics Ingredient alternatives – Replacement of one ingredient with another of different flavor, texture, appearance or other characteristics Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  30. 30. Commonly SubstitutedIngredients 30 HEALTHY COOKING Salt Sugars Fats Dairy Egg Gluten – Gluten allergies (celiac disease) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  31. 31. Nutrition, Eating Out and theChef 31 HEALTHY COOKING Tremendous public interest in nutrition presents a special challenge to chefs Chefs should be able to prepare and serve food that meets the high standards for health demanded by some patrons, while maintaining the flavor and appearance important to everyone Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  32. 32. Sample Healthy RestaurantMenu 32 HEALTHY COOKING General guidelines for creating an overall healthy 3-course meal are: – meal should contain no more than 1000 calories – 15 to 25% calories from protein – 45 to 65% calories from carbohydrates (whole grains and sugars from natural sources) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  33. 33. Sample Healthy RestaurantMenu (cont.) 33 HEALTHY COOKING – 20 to 35% calories from fat (<10% of the total calories from saturated fats). More of the fat should be from olive oil, fatty fish or nuts. – Meal should offer 8 to 12 grams fiber – Total meal no more than 1000 Mg salt – Healthy meal should include 1 to 1 ½ cups fresh vegetables Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  34. 34. Vegetarianism 34 HEALTHY COOKING Vegan – A person who will not eat any meat Raw foodist – Typically a vegan who eats only raw or slightly warmed plant foods Fruitarian – A person who eats only fruit, nuts, seeds and other plant products Ovo-vegetarian – A vegetarian who eats eggs but no dairy products Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  35. 35. Vegetarianism (cont.) 35 HEALTHY COOKING Ovo-lacto-vegetarian – A person who eats plant products as well as eggs and dairy products Lacto-vegetarian – A vegetarian who eats dairy products but not eggs Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  36. 36. Soybean-Based Products 36 HEALTHY COOKING Soy “milk” – Liquid that is created by soaking and cooking dried soybeans Tofu or bean curd – Soy milk that has been coagulated or cultured, then formed into a cake  Silken tofu – Silky smooth texture and appearance suitable for creamy substances  Cotton tofu – Solid blocks in three styles: soft, firm and extra firm Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  37. 37. Soybean-Based Products(cont.) 37 HEALTHY COOKING Miso – Made by salting and fermenting soybeans and rice or barley Tempeh – Whole bean cake made from fermented whole soybeans and grain Textured soy protein – Also known as TSP or textured soy flour; defatted soy protein that is dried and compressed into granules, chunks or shapes Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  38. 38. Other Popular Ingredients inVegetarian Cooking 38 HEALTHY COOKING Seitan – “Wheat meat,” formed from wheat gluten Grain beverages – Can be used instead of stock in vegetarian cooking Analogous foods – Products made to mimic the appearance and texture of popular animal-based products Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  39. 39. Vegetarian Cuisine 39 HEALTHY COOKING Use or adapt items from the regular menu – Many existing items may already be on the menu Add grains and beans for texture and satiation – Consider these for the center of the plate options Utilize meaty vegetables and soy products – Many vegetables have flavor and body that mimic meats Compose dishes with an eye to balancing color – We eat with our eyes as well as our taste buds Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  40. 40. More Considerations 40 HEALTHY COOKING Balance textures on the same plate – Look for complementary and contrasting textures Layer flavors for complexity of taste – Combine cooking methods and ingredients Create a vegetarian pantry – Stock ingredients to enhance plant-based cooking Seek inspiration from ethnic cuisines – Many ethnic cuisines offer exciting vegetarian options Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  41. 41. Religious Dietary Laws 41 HEALTHY COOKING Many religions have dietary laws, which strict observers of these religions may follow – Jewish Religion Keeping Kosher – Muslim Religion Halal – Buddhism Vegetarianism Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel

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