C H A P T E R TWENTY-ONE                                        VEGETABLES                              “                 ...
After studying this unit                                                                                 2                ...
Identifying Vegetables:Cabbages (Brassica)                                                                                ...
Identifying Vegetables:Fruit-Vegetables                                                                                   ...
Identifying Vegetables:Gourds and Squashes                                                                                ...
Identifying Vegetables:Greens                                                                                             ...
Identifying Vegetables:Mushrooms and Truffles                                                                             ...
Identifying Vegetables:Olives                                                                                             ...
Identifying Vegetables:Onions                                                                                             ...
Identifying Vegetables:Pods and Seeds                                                                                     ...
Identifying Vegetables:Roots and Tubers                                                                                   ...
Identifying Vegetables:Stalks                                                                                             ...
Identifying Vegetables:Baby Vegetables                                                                                    ...
Purchasing Fresh Vegetables                                                                          14                   ...
Purchasing from Farmer’sMarkets                                                                                           ...
Storage                                                                                              16                   ...
Nutrition                                                                                            17                   ...
Irradiated Vegetables                                                                                18                   ...
SAFTEY ALERT – WashingVegetables                                                                                          ...
Canned Vegetables                                                                                    20                   ...
Frozen Vegetables                                                                                    21                   ...
Dried Vegetables                                                                                     22                   ...
Acid/Alkali Reactions                                                                                23                   ...
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Chapter 21

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On Cooking
Vegetables

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Chapter 21

  1. 1. C H A P T E R TWENTY-ONE VEGETABLES “ Cuisine is when things taste like themselves. – Juila Child, American cooking teacher and writer (1912-2004) ” Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  2. 2. After studying this unit 2 VEGETABLES You will be able to: – Identify a variety of vegetables – Purchase vegetables appropriate for your needs – Store vegetables properly – Understand how vegetables are preserved – Prepare vegetables for cooking or service – Apply various cooking methods to vegetables Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  3. 3. Identifying Vegetables:Cabbages (Brassica) 3 VEGETABLES Bok choy Broccoli Brussels sprouts Cauliflower Head cabbage Kale Kohlrabi Napa cabbage Savoy Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  4. 4. Identifying Vegetables:Fruit-Vegetables 4 VEGETABLES Avocados Eggplants Peppers – Hot – Sweet Tomatillos Tomatoes Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  5. 5. Identifying Vegetables:Gourds and Squashes 5 VEGETABLES Chayotes Cucumbers Squashes – Winter  Acorn  Banana  Butternut  Pumpkin – Summer  Zucchini  Yellow Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  6. 6. Identifying Vegetables:Greens 6 VEGETABLES Collards Mustard Sorrel Spinach Swiss chard Turnip greens Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  7. 7. Identifying Vegetables:Mushrooms and Truffles 7 VEGETABLES Black trumpet  Portabella Clam shell  Shiitake Enokidake  Oyster Hen of the woods  White  Truffles Pom Pom blanc Porcini – White – Black Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  8. 8. Identifying Vegetables:Olives 8 VEGETABLES Green olives, those harvested unripened Black olives, fully ripened Bitter when raw, olives must be washed, soaked and cured or pickled before eating. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  9. 9. Identifying Vegetables:Onions 9 VEGETABLES Bulb onions Garlic Leeks Scallions Shallots Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  10. 10. Identifying Vegetables:Pods and Seeds 10 VEGETABLES Corn Legumes – Fresh beans  Green beans  Haricot verts – Dry beans  Black beans  Black-eyed peas  Lentils  Red kidney beans  Pinto beans  Great northern beans Okra Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  11. 11. Identifying Vegetables:Roots and Tubers 11 VEGETABLES Beets Carrots Celery root Jerusalem artichoke Jicama Parsnips Radishes Rutabaga Turnips Water chestnuts Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  12. 12. Identifying Vegetables:Stalks 12 VEGETABLES Artichokes Asparagus Bamboo shoots Celery Fennel Hearts of palm Nopales Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  13. 13. Identifying Vegetables:Baby Vegetables 13 VEGETABLES Hybrids bred to be true miniatures or Regular varieties picked before maturity Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  14. 14. Purchasing Fresh Vegetables 14 VEGETABLES Sold by weight and count Packed in: – Lugs – Bushels – Flats – Crates Some common vegetables can be purchased preprocessed – Trimmed – Cleaned – Cut to specification Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  15. 15. Purchasing from Farmer’sMarkets 15 VEGETABLES Farmer’s markets offer highly perishable items, those with short growing seasons and regional specialties. – Check with department of agriculture in your state to learn about farm-to-chef programs. – Consult your local health department for regulations about serving food sourced from farmer’s markets. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  16. 16. Storage 16 VEGETABLES Hearty vegetables are best stored at cool temperatures 40°F to 60°F More delicate vegetables are best stored at 34°F TO 40°F Store delicate greens away from fruits with give off ethylene gas. A separate produce cooler is best Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  17. 17. Nutrition 17 VEGETABLES Most vegetables are more than 80% water; the remaining portion consists of mostly carbohydrates and small amounts of protein and fat Most vegetables are extremely low in fat and calories Most of the structure is indigestible fiber Vegetables are a good source of a wide array of vitamins and minerals Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  18. 18. Irradiated Vegetables 18 VEGETABLES Process uses ionizing radiation to sterilize food Destroys bacteria, parasites and insects Does not affect the taste and texture of foods Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  19. 19. SAFTEY ALERT – WashingVegetables 19 VEGETABLES Surface contaminants from soil, water and handling can spread food-borne illnesses. Proper washing essential – Remove tags, ties – Do not soak. Wash uncut under cold running water, 10ºF warmer than produce – Refrigerate promptly Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  20. 20. Canned Vegetables 20 VEGETABLES Raw vegetables are cleaned and placed in sealed containers, then subjected to high heat Grading – U.S. Grade A or Fancy – U.S. Grade B or Extra-Select – U.S. Grade C or Standard Canned vegetables are purchased in cases of standard size cans Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  21. 21. Frozen Vegetables 21 VEGETABLES Almost as convenient as canned Severely inhibits the growth of microorganisms that cause spoilage Grading the same as canned IQF (individually quick-frozen) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  22. 22. Dried Vegetables 22 VEGETABLES Drying dramatically alters the flavor, texture and appearance of vegetables Loss of moisture when drying concentrates the flavors and sugars in the plant Drying greatly extends shelf life of vegetables Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  23. 23. Acid/Alkali Reactions 23 VEGETABLES Acid or alkali of cooking liquid affects texture and color of vegetables Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel

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