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C H A P T E R TWO                                     FOOD SAFETY                                    AND SANITATION       ...
After studying this unit                                                                                                2 ...
3                                                                                            FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Th...
4                                                                                            FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Pr...
Sanitation                                                                                                              5 ...
Sources of Contamination                                                                                                 6...
Contamination Occurs in Two Ways                                                                                        7 ...
Direct Contamination                                                                                                    8 ...
Bacteria                                                                                                                9 ...
Shape Classifications of Bacteria                                                                                         ...
Bacteria Reproduce byBinary Fission                                                                                       ...
Causes of Bacterial Illness                                                                                   12          ...
Controls in the Fight Against Bacteria                                                                                    ...
Potentially Hazardous FoodsTime/Temperature Controlled for Safety(PHT/TTS Foods)                                          ...
Temperature                                                                                                   15          ...
Temperature Danger Zone                                                                                    16             ...
Time                                                                                                          17          ...
Bacterial Growth Curve                                                                                     18             ...
Moisture                                                                                                      19          ...
Acid/Alkali Balance                                                                                           20          ...
Atmosphere                                                                                                    21          ...
Parasites                                                                                                     22          ...
Viruses                                                                                                       23          ...
Fungi                                                                                                         24          ...
Contaminants                                                                                                  25          ...
Cross-Contamination                                                                                           26          ...
Reducing Cross-Contamination                                                                                  27          ...
Sanitizing Solution                                                                                           28          ...
Hand Washing                                                                                                  29          ...
Three-Compartment Sink Procedure                                                                                          ...
Pest Management                                                                                               31          ...
Stock Rotation - FIFO                                                                                         32          ...
HACCP                                                                                                         33          ...
HACCP System Flowchart                                                                                     34             ...
The Safe Worker                                                                                               35          ...
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Chapter 2

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On Cooking
Food Safety and Sanitation

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  1. 1. C H A P T E R TWO FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION “ Our lives are not in the laps of the gods, ” but in the laps of our cooks. – Lin Yuang,Chinese-American Writer, in The Importance of Living 193) Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  2. 2. After studying this unit 2 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION You will be able to: – Identify the causes of food-borne illness – Handle foods in a safe manner – Explain and follow a HACCP system – Take appropriate actions to create and maintain a safe and sanitary working environment Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  3. 3. 3 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION The U.S. Public Health Service identifies more than 40 diseases that can be transmitted through food.Many can cause serious illness; some are even deadly. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  4. 4. 4 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Providing consumers with safe food is thefood handler’s most important responsibility. Unfortunately, food handlers are also the primary cause of food-related illnesses. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  5. 5. Sanitation 5 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION The creation and maintenance of conditions that will prevent food contamination or food-borne illness Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  6. 6. Sources of Contamination 6 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Biological – Caused by disease-causing microorganisms such as bacteria, molds, yeasts, viruses or fungi Chemical – Caused by chemical substances, especially cleaning agents, pesticides and toxic metals Physical – Caused by particles such as glass chips, metal shavings, bits of wood or other foreign matter Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  7. 7. Contamination Occurs in Two Ways 7 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Direct contamination – The contamination of raw foods in their natural setting or habitat Cross-contamination – The transfer of bacteria or other contaminants from one food, work surface or piece of equipment to another Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  8. 8. Direct Contamination 8 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Biological Contaminants – Microorganisms Bacteria Parasites Viruses Fungi – Single-celled organisms as well as tiny plants and animals that can be seen only through a microscope Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  9. 9. Bacteria 9 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Single-celled microorganisms The leading cause of food-borne illness Putrefactive – Bacteria that spoil food without rendering it unfit for human consumption Pathogenic – Any organism that causes disease; usually refers to bacteria; undetected by smell, sight or taste – Responsible for as many as 95% of all food-borne illnesses Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  10. 10. Shape Classifications of Bacteria 10 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  11. 11. Bacteria Reproduce byBinary Fission 11 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  12. 12. Causes of Bacterial Illness 12 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Intoxication – Certain bacteria produce toxins; the toxins can poison the consumer Infection – Occurs when live pathogenic bacteria are ingested Toxin-mediated infection – Living organisms are ingested; they then produce toxins Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  13. 13. Controls in the Fight Against Bacteria 13 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Temperature Time Moisture Acid/alkali balance Atmosphere Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  14. 14. Potentially Hazardous FoodsTime/Temperature Controlled for Safety(PHT/TTS Foods) 14 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Foods from animal sources Food from a plant that has been heat treated Raw seed sprouts Cut melons Cut tomatoes or mixtures of cut unprocessed tomatoes Garlic in oil mixtures, non-acidic Foods containing any of the items above Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  15. 15. Temperature 15 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION The most important factor in the pathogenic bacteria’s environment because it is the factor most easily controlled by food service workers Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  16. 16. Temperature Danger Zone 16 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  17. 17. Time 17 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Lag phase – Getting comfortable Log phase – Accelerated growth Stationary phase – Overcrowding Decline or negative growth phase – Bacteria die at an accelerated rate Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  18. 18. Bacterial Growth Curve 18 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  19. 19. Moisture 19 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Bacteria need moisture to live – Bacteria growth is halted but not killed in dehydrated foods – When dehydrated foods are rehydrated, bacteria present can flourish and the food may become potentially hazardous Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  20. 20. Acid/Alkali Balance 20 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Bacteria are affected by the pH of their environment They can survive in a wide range of pH levels They prefer a neutral environment with a pH of 6.6-7.5 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  21. 21. Atmosphere 21 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Aerobic (bacteria) – Thrive on oxygen Anaerobic (bacteria) – Cannot survive in the presence of oxygen Facultative (bacteria) – Will adapt and can survive with or without oxygen Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  22. 22. Parasites 22 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Tiny organisms that depend on nutrients from a living host to complete their life cycle – Trichinosis – Anisakiasis – Cyclospora Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  23. 23. Viruses 23 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Invade the living cells of a host, take over those cells’ genetic material and cause the cells to produce more viruses – Hepatitis A – Norovirus – Foot and mouth disease Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  24. 24. Fungi 24 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Plants ranging from single-celled organisms to giant mushrooms – Mold – Yeast Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  25. 25. Contaminants 25 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Residual Chemicals – Used in growing the food supply Food service chemicals – Cleaners, polishes, pesticides and abrasives Toxic metals – Lead, mercury, copper, zinc and antimony Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  26. 26. Cross-Contamination 26 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION The transfer of bacteria or other contaminants from one food, work surface or piece of equipment to another Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  27. 27. Reducing Cross-Contamination 27 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Personal cleanliness Dish and equipment cleanliness – Clean - to remove visible dirt and soil – Sanitize – to reduce pathogenic organisms to safe levels Pest management Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  28. 28. Sanitizing Solution 28 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION 1 gallon lukewarm water + 1 tablespoon chlorine bleach Sanitize all work surfaces, equipment and tools Sanitize with a clean cloth dipped in the solutiuon Change solution every 2 hours Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  29. 29. Hand Washing 29 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Use hot water Apply antibacterial soap Rub hands and forearms briskly with lather for at least 20 seconds Scrub between fingers and clean nails with a clean nail brush Rinse thoroughly under hot running water; reapply soap and scrub hands and forearms for another 5- 10 seconds; rinse again Dry hands with a single-use towel using the towel to turn off the water; discard the towel in a trash receptacle Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  30. 30. Three-Compartment Sink Procedure 30 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  31. 31. Pest Management 31 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Build them out of your facility Create an environment in which they cannot find food, water or shelter Rely on professional extermination Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  32. 32. Stock Rotation - FIFO 32 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION First In First Out Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  33. 33. HACCP 33 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION An effective and efficient system for managing and maintaining sanitary conditions in all types of food service operations – Hazard – Analysis – Critical – Control – Points Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  34. 34. HACCP System Flowchart 34 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  35. 35. The Safe Worker 35 FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION Personal safety – Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) Fire safety – Know what kind of fire extinguisher you have and how to use it First aid – CPR – Heimlich maneuver Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
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