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C H A P T E R NINETEEN                           FISH AND SHELLFISH                              “                       I...
After studying this unit                                                                                         2        ...
Fish and Shellfish                                                                                                        ...
Round Fish                                                                                                       4        ...
Flatfish                                                                                                         5        ...
Muscle Composition                                                                                               6        ...
Muscle fibers in round fish                                                                                   7           ...
Mollusks                                                                                                         8        ...
Univalves                                                                                                        9        ...
Bivalves                                                                                                  10              ...
Cephalopods                                                                                               11              ...
Crustaceans                                                                                               12              ...
Crab                                                                                                      13              ...
Interior Structure of a Maine Lobster                                                                                     ...
Inspection and Grading of Fishand Shellfish                                                                               ...
Determining Freshness inFish                                                                                              ...
Market Forms of Fish                                                                                      17              ...
Market Forms                                                                                                    18        ...
Market Forms (cont’d)                                                                                          19         ...
Market Forms (cont’d)                                                                                          20         ...
Market Forms (cont’d)                                                                                               21    ...
Market Forms (cont’d)                                                                                            22       ...
Market Forms (cont’d)                                                                                           23        ...
Market Forms (cont’d)                                                                                           24        ...
Storing Fresh Fish andShellfish                                                                                           ...
Purchasing Terms                                                                                           26             ...
Seafood Supply                                                                                            27              ...
Fabricating Fish - Scaling                                                                             28                 ...
Fabricating Fish - Skinning                                                                                    29         ...
Cooking Seafood                                                                                           30              ...
Determining Doneness                                                                                      31              ...
Safety Alert – Serving RawFish                                                                                            ...
Nutrition                                                                                                 33              ...
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Chapter 19

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On Cooking
Fish and Shellfish

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  1. 1. C H A P T E R NINETEEN FISH AND SHELLFISH “ In the hands of an able cook, fish can become an inexhaustible source of perpetual delight. – Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826) ” Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  2. 2. After studying this unit 2 FISH AND SHELLFISH You will be able to: – Understand the structure and composition of fish and shellfish – Identify a variety of fish and shellfish – Purchase fish and shellfish appropriate for your needs – Store fish and shellfish properly – Prepare fish and shellfish for cooking – Apply various cooking methods to fish and shellfish Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  3. 3. Fish and Shellfish 3 FISH AND SHELLFISH Fish are aquatic  Shellfish are aquatic vertebrates with fins invertebrates with for swimming and gills shells or carapaces for breathing Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  4. 4. Round Fish 4 FISH AND SHELLFISH Include fresh and saltwater varieties Have fins and internal bone structures Have eyes on both sides of their heads Bodies are truly round, oval, or compressed Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  5. 5. Flatfish 5 FISH AND SHELLFISH Found in deep ocean waters Have asymmetrical, compressed bodies Swim in a horizontal position Have both eyes on top of their heads Bottom dwellers Top of their bodies is dark and the bottom is lighter in color Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  6. 6. Muscle Composition 6 FISH AND SHELLFISH Flesh of fish composed of short muscle fibers. Unlike connective tissue in meat, connective tissue in fish is weak. Long cooking times are not required to break it down. Purpose of cooking to firm proteins and enhance flavor. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  7. 7. Muscle fibers in round fish 7 FISH AND SHELLFISH Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  8. 8. Mollusks 8 FISH AND SHELLFISH Have small unsegmented bodies and no internal skeleton – Univalves – Bivalves – Cephalopods Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  9. 9. Univalves 9 FISH AND SHELLFISH Single shell – Marine snails Abalone Conch Snails Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  10. 10. Bivalves 10 FISH AND SHELLFISH Two bilateral shells – Clams – Oysters – Scallops – Mussels – Cockles Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  11. 11. Cephalopods 11 FISH AND SHELLFISH No exterior shell One single internal shell called a pen – Squid – Octopus Calamari Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  12. 12. Crustaceans 12 FISH AND SHELLFISH Have a hard outer shell and jointed appendages Found in both fresh and salt water They breathe through gills – Crayfish – Crab – Lobster – Shrimp Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  13. 13. Crab 13 FISH AND SHELLFISH King Dungeness Soft-shell Blue Stone King Snow Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  14. 14. Interior Structure of a Maine Lobster 14 FISH AND SHELLFISH Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  15. 15. Inspection and Grading of Fishand Shellfish 15 FISH AND SHELLFISH Grades assigned to fish are A, B, C Inspections on fish and shellfish are voluntary – Type 1: plant, product and processing methods from raw to final product – Type 2: warehouses, processing plants and cold storage facilities – Type 3: fishing vessels and plants Inspection services for sanitation only Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  16. 16. Determining Freshness inFish 16 FISH AND SHELLFISH Smell – No odor or the smell of the sea Eyes – Clear and full Gills – Intact and bright red Texture – Flesh should be firm Fins and scales – Moist and full Appearance – Moist and glistening Movement – Shellfish that is purchased alive should show movement – Crustaceans should close their shells when tapped Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  17. 17. Market Forms of Fish 17 FISH AND SHELLFISH Whole or round Drawn Dressed Pan-dressed Butterflied Fillet Steak Wheel or center-cut Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  18. 18. Market Forms 18 FISH AND SHELLFISH Whole or Round Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  19. 19. Market Forms (cont’d) 19 FISH AND SHELLFISH Drawn Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  20. 20. Market Forms (cont’d) 20 FISH AND SHELLFISH Dressed or Pan-Dressed Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  21. 21. Market Forms (cont’d) 21 FISH AND SHELLFISH Butterflied Fillets Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  22. 22. Market Forms (cont’d) 22 FISH AND SHELLFISH Fillets Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  23. 23. Market Forms (cont’d) 23 FISH AND SHELLFISH Steaks Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  24. 24. Market Forms (cont’d) 24 FISH AND SHELLFISH Wheel or Center-Cut Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  25. 25. Storing Fresh Fish andShellfish 25 FISH AND SHELLFISH Temperature between 30°F and 34°F If shipped in ice, store in ice Do not allow seafood to become dry Scallops and fish fillets should not be in direct contact with ice Live animals should be stored in saltwater tanks or in boxes with seaweed Bivalves should be stored in net bags or boxes at high humidity Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  26. 26. Purchasing Terms 26 FISH AND SHELLFISH Fresh – Never frozen Chilled – Fresh, held at 30°F to 34°F Flash-frozen – Quickly frozen onboard ship, within hours of being caught Fresh-frozen – Frozen while fresh, but not quickly Frozen – Subject to temperature below 0°F Glazed – Dipped in water to form a protective shell of ice Fancy – Code word for previously frozen Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  27. 27. Seafood Supply 27 FISH AND SHELLFISH Damaged habitat, overfishing, fishing practices and demand threaten world fish supplies. Consult resources to inform seafood sourcing options such as – Aquaculture or fish farming – Purchasing certain types of fish Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  28. 28. Fabricating Fish - Scaling 28 FISH AND SHELLFISH Procedure for Scaling FishPlace the fish on a work surface or in a large sink. Grip the fish by the tail and, working from the tail toward the head, scrape the scales off with a fish scaler or the back of a knife. Be careful not to damage the flesh by pressing too hard. Turn the fish over and remove the scales from the other side. Rinse the fish under cool water. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  29. 29. Fabricating Fish - Skinning 29 FISH AND SHELLFISH Procedure for Skinning Fish FilletsPlace the fillet on a cutting board with the skin side down. Starting at the tail, use a meatslicer or a chef’s knife to cut between the flesh and skin. Angle the knife down toward the skin, grip the skin tightly with one hand and use a smooth sawing motion to cut the skin cleanly away from the flesh. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  30. 30. Cooking Seafood 30 FISH AND SHELLFISH All cooking methods can be used Seafood is inherently tender Should be cooked until just done Overcooking is the most common mistake made in preparing seafood Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  31. 31. Determining Doneness 31 FISH AND SHELLFISH Translucent flesh becomes opaque Flesh becomes firm Flesh separates from the bone easily Flesh begins to flake Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  32. 32. Safety Alert – Serving RawFish 32 FISH AND SHELLFISH Raw fish such as clams on the half shell, ceviche and sushi are popular dishes. Raw fish and shellfish are potentially hazardous foods. – Follow Model Food Code for freezing fish before using to kill harmful parasites – Know the source of all fish and shellfish Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  33. 33. Nutrition 33 FISH AND SHELLFISH Fish and shellfish are low in calories, fat and sodium and high in certain vitamins and minerals Fish are high in a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids called omega-3 Crustaceans are higher in cholesterol than mollusks but both have considerably lower levels than red meat or eggs Most common cooking methods used for fish also contribute to their healthfulness – Broiling, grilling, poaching and steaming Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
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