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Chapter 19

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On Cooking

On Cooking
Fish and Shellfish

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    Chapter 19 Chapter 19 Presentation Transcript

    • C H A P T E R NINETEEN FISH AND SHELLFISH “ In the hands of an able cook, fish can become an inexhaustible source of perpetual delight. – Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826) ” Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • After studying this unit 2 FISH AND SHELLFISH You will be able to: – Understand the structure and composition of fish and shellfish – Identify a variety of fish and shellfish – Purchase fish and shellfish appropriate for your needs – Store fish and shellfish properly – Prepare fish and shellfish for cooking – Apply various cooking methods to fish and shellfish Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Fish and Shellfish 3 FISH AND SHELLFISH Fish are aquatic  Shellfish are aquatic vertebrates with fins invertebrates with for swimming and gills shells or carapaces for breathing Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Round Fish 4 FISH AND SHELLFISH Include fresh and saltwater varieties Have fins and internal bone structures Have eyes on both sides of their heads Bodies are truly round, oval, or compressed Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Flatfish 5 FISH AND SHELLFISH Found in deep ocean waters Have asymmetrical, compressed bodies Swim in a horizontal position Have both eyes on top of their heads Bottom dwellers Top of their bodies is dark and the bottom is lighter in color Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Muscle Composition 6 FISH AND SHELLFISH Flesh of fish composed of short muscle fibers. Unlike connective tissue in meat, connective tissue in fish is weak. Long cooking times are not required to break it down. Purpose of cooking to firm proteins and enhance flavor. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Muscle fibers in round fish 7 FISH AND SHELLFISH Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Mollusks 8 FISH AND SHELLFISH Have small unsegmented bodies and no internal skeleton – Univalves – Bivalves – Cephalopods Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Univalves 9 FISH AND SHELLFISH Single shell – Marine snails Abalone Conch Snails Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Bivalves 10 FISH AND SHELLFISH Two bilateral shells – Clams – Oysters – Scallops – Mussels – Cockles Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Cephalopods 11 FISH AND SHELLFISH No exterior shell One single internal shell called a pen – Squid – Octopus Calamari Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Crustaceans 12 FISH AND SHELLFISH Have a hard outer shell and jointed appendages Found in both fresh and salt water They breathe through gills – Crayfish – Crab – Lobster – Shrimp Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Crab 13 FISH AND SHELLFISH King Dungeness Soft-shell Blue Stone King Snow Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Interior Structure of a Maine Lobster 14 FISH AND SHELLFISH Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Inspection and Grading of Fishand Shellfish 15 FISH AND SHELLFISH Grades assigned to fish are A, B, C Inspections on fish and shellfish are voluntary – Type 1: plant, product and processing methods from raw to final product – Type 2: warehouses, processing plants and cold storage facilities – Type 3: fishing vessels and plants Inspection services for sanitation only Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Determining Freshness inFish 16 FISH AND SHELLFISH Smell – No odor or the smell of the sea Eyes – Clear and full Gills – Intact and bright red Texture – Flesh should be firm Fins and scales – Moist and full Appearance – Moist and glistening Movement – Shellfish that is purchased alive should show movement – Crustaceans should close their shells when tapped Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Market Forms of Fish 17 FISH AND SHELLFISH Whole or round Drawn Dressed Pan-dressed Butterflied Fillet Steak Wheel or center-cut Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Market Forms 18 FISH AND SHELLFISH Whole or Round Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Market Forms (cont’d) 19 FISH AND SHELLFISH Drawn Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Market Forms (cont’d) 20 FISH AND SHELLFISH Dressed or Pan-Dressed Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Market Forms (cont’d) 21 FISH AND SHELLFISH Butterflied Fillets Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Market Forms (cont’d) 22 FISH AND SHELLFISH Fillets Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Market Forms (cont’d) 23 FISH AND SHELLFISH Steaks Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Market Forms (cont’d) 24 FISH AND SHELLFISH Wheel or Center-Cut Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Storing Fresh Fish andShellfish 25 FISH AND SHELLFISH Temperature between 30°F and 34°F If shipped in ice, store in ice Do not allow seafood to become dry Scallops and fish fillets should not be in direct contact with ice Live animals should be stored in saltwater tanks or in boxes with seaweed Bivalves should be stored in net bags or boxes at high humidity Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Purchasing Terms 26 FISH AND SHELLFISH Fresh – Never frozen Chilled – Fresh, held at 30°F to 34°F Flash-frozen – Quickly frozen onboard ship, within hours of being caught Fresh-frozen – Frozen while fresh, but not quickly Frozen – Subject to temperature below 0°F Glazed – Dipped in water to form a protective shell of ice Fancy – Code word for previously frozen Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Seafood Supply 27 FISH AND SHELLFISH Damaged habitat, overfishing, fishing practices and demand threaten world fish supplies. Consult resources to inform seafood sourcing options such as – Aquaculture or fish farming – Purchasing certain types of fish Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Fabricating Fish - Scaling 28 FISH AND SHELLFISH Procedure for Scaling FishPlace the fish on a work surface or in a large sink. Grip the fish by the tail and, working from the tail toward the head, scrape the scales off with a fish scaler or the back of a knife. Be careful not to damage the flesh by pressing too hard. Turn the fish over and remove the scales from the other side. Rinse the fish under cool water. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Fabricating Fish - Skinning 29 FISH AND SHELLFISH Procedure for Skinning Fish FilletsPlace the fillet on a cutting board with the skin side down. Starting at the tail, use a meatslicer or a chef’s knife to cut between the flesh and skin. Angle the knife down toward the skin, grip the skin tightly with one hand and use a smooth sawing motion to cut the skin cleanly away from the flesh. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Cooking Seafood 30 FISH AND SHELLFISH All cooking methods can be used Seafood is inherently tender Should be cooked until just done Overcooking is the most common mistake made in preparing seafood Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Determining Doneness 31 FISH AND SHELLFISH Translucent flesh becomes opaque Flesh becomes firm Flesh separates from the bone easily Flesh begins to flake Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Safety Alert – Serving RawFish 32 FISH AND SHELLFISH Raw fish such as clams on the half shell, ceviche and sushi are popular dishes. Raw fish and shellfish are potentially hazardous foods. – Follow Model Food Code for freezing fish before using to kill harmful parasites – Know the source of all fish and shellfish Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Nutrition 33 FISH AND SHELLFISH Fish and shellfish are low in calories, fat and sodium and high in certain vitamins and minerals Fish are high in a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids called omega-3 Crustaceans are higher in cholesterol than mollusks but both have considerably lower levels than red meat or eggs Most common cooking methods used for fish also contribute to their healthfulness – Broiling, grilling, poaching and steaming Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel