C H A P T E R SEVENTEEN                                               POULTRY                              “      The fact...
After studying this unit                                                                              2                   ...
Poultry Overview                                                                                     3                    ...
Muscle Composition                                                                                    4                   ...
Muscle Composition                                                                                                     5  ...
Identifying Poultry                                                                                   6                   ...
Chicken (Fr. Poulet)                                                                                  7                   ...
Chicken Classes                                                                                       8                   ...
Game Hen                                                                                              9                   ...
Broiler/fryer                                                                                       10                    ...
Capon                                                                                               11                    ...
Duck (Fr. Canard)                                                                                   12                    ...
Goose (Fr. Oie)                                                                                     13                    ...
Guinea (Fr. Pintade)                                                                                14                    ...
Pigeon (Fr. Pigeon)                                                                                 15                    ...
Turkey (Fr. Dinde)                                                                                   16                   ...
Ratites                                                                                                              17   ...
Giblets                                                                                             18                    ...
Nutrition                                                                                           19                    ...
Inspection                                                                                          20                    ...
Grading                                                                                              21                   ...
Purchasing Poultry                                                                                  22                    ...
Storing Poultry                                                                                     23                    ...
Safety Alert-Sanitation andCross-Contamination                                                                            ...
Procedure for Cutting a Bird inHalf                                                                                       ...
Cutting Procedure (cont.)                                                                                              26 ...
Cutting Procedure (cont.)                                                                                              27 ...
Procedure for Cutting a Birdinto Pieces                                                                                   ...
Cutting Procedure (cont.)                                                                                               29...
Classic Poultry Flavors                                                                             30                    ...
Safety Alert –Handling Stuffed Poultry                                                                            31      ...
Nutrition                                                                                           32                    ...
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Chapter 17

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On Cooking
Poultry

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Chapter 17

  1. 1. C H A P T E R SEVENTEEN POULTRY “ The fact is that it takes more than ingredients and technique to cook a good meal. A good cook puts something of himself into the preparation–he cooks with enjoyment, anticipation, ” spontaneity, and he is willing to experiment. – Pearl Bailey, American entertainer (1918-1999) in Pearl’s Kitchen Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
  2. 2. After studying this unit 2 POULTRY You will be able to: – Understand the structure and composition of poultry – Identify various kinds and classes of poultry – Understand poultry inspection and grading practices – Purchase poultry appropriate for your needs – Store poultry properly – Prepare poultry for cooking – Apply various cooking methods to poultry Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  3. 3. Poultry Overview 3 POULTRYPoultry is the collective term for domesticated birds bred for eating. Brillat-Savarin observed “poultry is for the cook what canvas is for the painter” – poultry is very versatile.Poultry is generally the least expensive and most versatile of all main-dish foods. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  4. 4. Muscle Composition 4 POULTRY Muscle tissue contains approximately 72% water, 20% protein, 7% fat and 1% minerals Contains no intramuscular fat Fat is stored under the skin and in the abdominal cavity Poultry fat has a lower melting point than other animal fats Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  5. 5. Muscle Composition 5 POULTRY Dark meat  White meat – Thigh and leg of – Breast and wing of flightless birds flightless birds – Full body of flight birds – Larger muscle mass – Contains more – Contains less fat myoglobin – Contains more fat and – Can dry out if connective tissue overcooked – Longer cooking time Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  6. 6. Identifying Poultry 6 POULTRY Categories of poultry recognized by the USDA – Chicken – Duck – Goose – Guinea – Pigeon – Turkey Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  7. 7. Chicken (Fr. Poulet) 7 POULTRY Most popular and widely eaten poultry in the world Inexpensive and readily available Contains both light and dark meat Relatively lean Available fresh or frozen in a variety of forms Extremely versatile Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  8. 8. Chicken Classes 8 POULTRY Game Hen – 5-6 weeks old Broiler/fryer – 13 weeks old Roaster – 3-5 months old Capon – Under 8 months old Hen/stewing – Over 10 months old Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  9. 9. Game Hen 9 POULTRY Young or immature progeny of Cornish chickens or of a Cornish chicken and a White Rock chicken Very flavorful 2 lb. or less, (Fr. poussin) Split and broil, grill or roast Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  10. 10. Broiler/fryer 10 POULTRY Young with soft, smooth textured skin Relatively lean Flexible breastbone 3 lb. 8 oz. or less Can use any cooking method Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  11. 11. Capon 11 POULTRY Surgically castrated male Tender meat with soft smooth skin Bred for well-flavored meat Contains a high portion of light to dark meat Relatively high in fat 6-10 lb. Roast Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  12. 12. Duck (Fr. Canard) 12 POULTRY Classes – Broiler – Roaster – Mature Contains only dark meat Large amount of fat High percentage of bone and fat to meat Roast Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  13. 13. Goose (Fr. Oie) 13 POULTRY Classes – Young – Mature Contains only dark meat Very fatty skin Popular at holidays Served with acidic fruit- based sauces to offset fattiness Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  14. 14. Guinea (Fr. Pintade) 14 POULTRY Classes – Young – Mature Domesticated descendant of a game bird Has both light and dark meat Tender enough to sauté Contains little fat Usually is barded prior to roasting Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  15. 15. Pigeon (Fr. Pigeon) 15 POULTRY Commonly called squab Contains only dark meat Meat is tender Contains very little fat Suited for broiling, sautéing or roasting Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  16. 16. Turkey (Fr. Dinde) 16 POULTRY Classes – Fryer/roaster – Young – Yearling – Mature Second most popular category of poultry in the U.S. Contains both light and dark meat Relatively small amount of fat Young turkey can be prepared in any manner Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  17. 17. Ratites 17 POULTRY Ostrich  Classified as red meat Emu  Low in fat and calories Rhea  Often prepared like veal Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  18. 18. Giblets 18 POULTRY Livers – Often sautéed, broiled or used in pâtés Gizzards – A bird’s second stomach – Often deep-fried Hearts – Sometimes served sautéed or creamed Necks – Can be used to add flavor to stock Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  19. 19. Nutrition 19 POULTRY Economical source of high-quality protein Similar to other meats Chicken and turkey breast are lower in fat and higher in niacin than other lean meats Generally dark meat contains more niacin and riboflavin than white meat Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  20. 20. Inspection 20 POULTRY All poultry produced for public consumption is inspected by the USDA Processed under strict sanitary guidelines Wholesome and fit for human consumption Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  21. 21. Grading 21 POULTRY USDA Grades A, B, C Grade A poultry – Free of deformities – Thick flesh with well- developed fat layer – Free of pinfeathers – Free of cuts, tears and broken bones Grades B & C – Used primarily for processed poultry products Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  22. 22. Purchasing Poultry 22 POULTRY Fresh or frozen Whole or cut up Bone-in or boneless Portion control (P.C.) Individually quick-frozen (IQF) Ground Prepared and convenience items Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  23. 23. Storing Poultry 23 POULTRY Poultry is a potentially hazardous food It is highly perishable Particularly susceptible to contamination by salmonella bacteria Store on ice or at 32°F–34°F Thaw under refrigeration Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  24. 24. Safety Alert-Sanitation andCross-Contamination 24 POULTRY Be sure that all equipment used in the preparation of poultry is sanitized before and after coming in contact with poultry Be careful that juices and trimmings from poultry do not come into contact with other foods Rinse poultry in cold running water and dry before cooking to remove collected juices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  25. 25. Procedure for Cutting a Bird inHalf 25 POULTRY 1 Square up the bird by placing it on its back and 2 Place the bird pressing on the on its breast and legs and breast hold its tail to create a more tightly with the uniform thumb and appearance. forefinger of one hand. Using a rigid boning knife and in a 3 Lay the bird single swift flat on the movement, cut cutting board alongside the and remove the backbone form backbone by the bird’s tail to cutting through the head. the ribs connecting it to the breast. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  26. 26. Cutting Procedure (cont.) 26 POULTRY 4 Bend the bird 5 Run your back, breaking fingers along the the breastbone bone to separate free. the meat from it; pull the bone completely free. Be sure to remove the flexible cartilage completely. 6 Cut through the skin to separate the bird into two halves. The halves are ready to be cooked; for a more attractive presentation, follow Steps 7 and 8. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  27. 27. Cutting Procedure (cont.) 27 POULTRY 7 Trim off the wing tips and the ends of the leg bone. 8 Make a slit in the skin below the leg and tuck the leg bone into the slit Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  28. 28. Procedure for Cutting a Birdinto Pieces 28 POULTRY 1 Remove the 2 Cut down to leg by pulling the the thigh joint, leg and thigh twist the leg to away from the break the joint breast and and cut the thigh cutting through and leg from the the skin and carcass. Be flesh toward the careful to trim thigh joint. around the oyster meat (the 3 To split the tender morsel of breast, follow meat located Steps 2 through next to the 6 for cutting a backbone); leave bird in half. Cut it attached to the the breast into thigh. Repeat two halves. with the other leg. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  29. 29. Cutting Procedure (cont.) 29 POULTRY 4 The bird is now 5 To cut the bird cut into four into six pieces, quarters. separate the thigh from the leg by making a cut guided by the line of fat on the inside of the thigh and leg. 6 To cut the bird into eight pieces, separate the wing form the breast by cutting the joint, or split the breast, leaving a portion of the breast meat attached to the wing. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  30. 30. Classic Poultry Flavors 30 POULTRY Versatile chicken can be flavored with – Delicate herbs – Robust spices – Light sauces made from pan juices or velouté – Wet or dry rubs from adobo to garum masala Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  31. 31. Safety Alert –Handling Stuffed Poultry 31 POULTRY Stuffing is a PHF/TTC – All ingredients for stuffing must be cold and stay below 41ºF when mixing and stuffing. – Stuff bird as close to cooking time as possible. – Roast until bird and stuffing reaches 165ºF. – Remove stuffing promptly. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
  32. 32. Nutrition 32 POULTRY Poultry is an economical source of high-quality protein Chicken and turkey breast meat is lower in fat and higher in niacin than other lean meats Generally, dark meat contains more niacin and riboflavin than white meat. Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel

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