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Chapter 12
 

Chapter 12

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On Cooking

On Cooking
Principles of Meat Cookery

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    Chapter 12 Chapter 12 Presentation Transcript

    • C H A P T E R TWELVE PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY “ Cooking is at once one of the simplest and most gratifying of the art, but to cook well one must love and respect food. – Craig Carlson, American food critic (1920 - 2000) ” Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc.On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint]Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • After studying this unit 2 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY You will be able to: – Understand the structure and composition of meat – Understand meat inspection and grading practices – Purchase meats appropriate for your needs – Store meats properly – Prepare meats for cooking – Apply various cooking methods to meats Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Meats 3 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Beef, veal, lamb, pork Often consume the largest portion of your food purchasing dollar; we will discuss how to protect your investment Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Muscle Composition 4 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Muscle tissue gives meat its characteristic appearance The amount of connective tissue determines the meat’s tenderness Muscle tissue is approximately 72% water, 20% protein, 7% fat and 1% minerals – Proper cooking prevents shrinkage Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Muscle Composition (cont.) 5 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY A single muscle is composed of bundles of muscle cells or fibers and connective tissue Meat’s texture id determined by – Thickness of cells – Size of cell bundles – Size of connective tissue Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Marbeling 6 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY When an animal fattens, some water and protein in lean muscle tissue turns to fat Marbeling refers to the whitish streaks of inter- and intra-muscular fat – Adds tenderness and flavor to cooked meat – Principal factor in determining meat quality Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Connective Tissue in Meat 7 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Forms walls of long muscle cells, primarily in frequently used muscles – Tendons, ligaments Consists of either collagen or elastin When cooked with moist heat, contracts then breaks down into water and gelatin – Meat of older animals more resistant to breaking down using moist heat Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Muscle Tissue 8 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Crosscut of a Bundle ofMuscle Fiber 9 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Inspection and Grading of Meats 10 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERYAll meats are inspected by the USDA Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • USDA Quality Grades 11 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Beef – USDA Prime, Choice, Select, Commercial, Utility, Cutter, Canner Veal – USDA Prime, Choice, Good, Standard, Utility Lamb – USDA Prime, Choice, Good, Utility Pork – USDA No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, Utility Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • USDA Quality Grade Stamp 12 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Aging Meats 13 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERYWet Aging Dry Aging Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Purchasing Meat 14 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Styles of cuts – Primal Primary divisions of muscle, bone and connective tissue produced by initial butchering of the carcass – Subprimal Basic cuts produced from each primal – Fabricated Individual portions cut from the subprimal Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Purchasing MeatTerminology 15 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Specifications – IMPS – International Meat Purchasing Specifications – NAMP – National Association of Meat Purveyors Portion control (P.C.) – Ready to cook and serve Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Meat Labeling: Grass-Fed 16 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Most meat animals consume grains for some part of their lives. Agricultural Marketing Service of the USDA has voluntary standards for the labeling of purely grass-fed meat. – Grass and forage shall be the only feed source for the lifetime of the animal except for milk consumed prior to weaning. Range-fed, pastured and pasture-raised Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Storing Meat 17 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Meat is highly perishable and a potentially hazardous food Store at temperatures between 30°F and 35°F When freezing, do so rapidly to –50°F Use moisture- and vapor-proof packaging to prevent freezer burn Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Preparing Meats for Cooking 18 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Tying and Trussing – Tying meat to form a uniform shape Barding – Adding a layer of fat to the outside of meat Larding – Inserting small strips of fat into meat Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Cooking Methods 19 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Dry-heat cooking methods – Must use high-quality, tender cuts of meat Broiling and grilling Roasting Sautéing Pan-frying Deep-frying Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Degree of Doneness 20 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Special Considerations forLarge Cuts of Meat 21 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Carryover cooking – Cooking does not stop the moment that the roast is removed from the oven; it continues to cook inward through conduction Resting – Allows the juices to redistribute themselves evenly throughout the roast Carving – Roasts are always carved against the grain; carving with the grain will produce long, stringy, tough slices Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Cooking Methods (cont.) 22 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Moist-heat cooking methods – Used quite often to tenderize tougher cuts of meat Simmering Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Cooking Methods (cont.) 23 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Combination cooking methods – Both dry and moist heat are used to achieve the desired result Braising Stewing Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Stewing Terminology 24 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Ragout Fricassee Navarin Blanquette Chili con carne Goulash Tagine Adobo Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel
    • Sous Vide Cooking 25 PRINCIPLES OF MEAT COOKERY Low-temperature, moist-heat cooking under vacuum Resembles poaching and braising – Vacuum seal food in plastic pouches – Cook in a precisely regulated hot water bath, below simmering – Foods may be browned after cooking Food safety of utmost concern; local food regulations may require training, licensing and record keeping Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. On Cooking: A Textbook of Culinary Fundamentals, 5e publishing as Pearson [imprint] Labensky • Hause • Martel