Presented byStephen McCoolThe University of MontanaMissoula, Montana
Shortcourse Goals Understand consequences of growing tourist demand for Namibian resources Provide a framework for thinking about management Build awareness of the science and practice of visitor management A focus more on the why rather than the what or how
ShortcourseOrganization/Procedures Facilitated discussion Participants provide examples, opportunities and challenges from real world Facilitator provides a sense of principles from the literature and experience Organization Protected Areas and Tourism in a Changing World Identification of Issues Presentation and Discussion of Principles
Stewardship Responsibilities Developing a vision Protect values and resources Enhance quality of life Provide opportunities for employment and income Designing a pathway to achieve it What actions are effective, efficient, and equitable? Monitoring the journey along the pathway Is what we thought would happen, really happening?
How do we meet these responsibilitieswith respect to tourism and visitation? Use best knowledge available, including science and our experience, we manage: Competing Demands Relationships with Joint Learning Constituencies
But, we know there are obstacles toaddressing any of the above tasks Funding Politics Organizational learning, technical proficiency Lack of trust Institutional design Procedural orientation
And we know that protected areastewardship exists within A dynamic, often contentious political context, Groups vie and compete for “veto” power over protected area actions, Disagreements over goals of protected areas exist, There is often scientific uncertainty about cause-effect relationships, The power to plan and the power to implement plans are often distinct and separated, and Inequities in access to information exist
Thus, protected area stewardship Is a wicked problem Framing the question of management itself is problematic And a messy situation There are no solutions (e.g., answers) Just resolutions (e.g., agreements) Problems are interconnected Problems return because the context changes Cannot proceed as normal Finally, the future is not like the past
What is the world like? The PLUS world of the past Predictable Linear Understandable Stable The DICE World of the future Dynamic Impossible to understand completely Complex Ever-changing
Small Group Assignment What do you see as the key issue in the provision of visitor and tourism opportunities on MET administered lands over the next decade? Short phrases Take 30 minutes Each group reports on three most significant
So, What Principles will Help AddressThese Issues in a DICE World …So We Can be Better Stewards?
Some Principles for Managing Visitorsin Protected Areas – A Preface Making tradeoffs between protection and visitation/tourism What objective ultimately constrains tourism development? Determine how much change is acceptable Making tradeoffs, but involves more than just the biophysical, also includes the experiential, how much change is acceptable Principles derived from science
In a Messy World … Need a framework to work through issues, challenges and opportunities Principles help us do the working through Principles are not answers, but they serve as a framework to structure our thinking
Principle 1:Appropriate Management DependsUpon Objectives Objectives tell us what to achieve Help organize action Reflect social agreement on purpose of protected area
Objectives Provide Vision of theFuture But, whose future? Desired Various futures Present
Typical objectives “protect the resource” “provide a diversity of recreation opportunities” Do not provide specific enough direction for decisions Do not provide for benchmarks to measure progress Not specific enough, lead to an illusion of agreement when in fact there is significant disagreement
What are the characteristics ofgood objectives? Specific – not vague (e.g., protect the resource) Output-oriented – what is the desired result? Type of experience, biophysical condition Quantitative – how to measure the objective so we know if it is achieved So many people have achieved adventure, challenge, etc. No more than 80% of the campsites have more than 50 sq. meters of barren soil Realistic – the objective is attainable with some effort Time-bound – the time frame for achieving the objective is specified
Principle 2:Diversity in Biophysical and SocialConditions Is Inevitable and May beDesirable Human induced changes vary by location Such changes also vary in acceptability Is such variation desirable? If so, allocating areas to different opportunities is a useful technique--allocation termed zoning
Example:Expected outcomes for visitors inGlacier National Park Nature appreciation Solitude Introspection Security Challenge/Adventure Group cohesiveness Personal Control
Motivations Occur in Packages Escapists High on personal control and solitude Naturalists Scenery, introspection and wildlife Parkists Introspection, security and personal control Frustrated Solitude Seekers Solitude, security and scenery
Visitor Data Glacier National Park Frustrated Solit ude 21. 9 Parkist s 19. 5 Naturalists 14. 7 Escapist s 36. 7 0.0 5.0 10. 0 15. 0 20. 0 25. 0 30. 0 35. 0 40. 0 Percent of Respondents
Variability in Acceptability Percent selecting picture with nine or more people, Swiftcurrent F rus trated Solit ude Park ist s Naturalis ts Prefer red Acceptable Esc apist s 0.0 10. 0 20. 0 30. 0 40. 0 50. 0 60. 0 70. 0 80. 0 Percent of Respondents Outdoor Recreation Planning Capstone 6 -- Fall 2002
Thus, No such thing as an average visitor!! Acceptability of conditions varies by visitor type Who is the park managed for? Finally, management is driven by variability more than averages
Zoning as a means of protection forboth biophysical and social conditions Allocates land to different opportunities and conditions Controls the spread of the types and amounts of impacts Protects unique and highly valued opportunities
Principle 3:Management is Directed atInfluencing Human-Induced Change Ecosystems are dynamic, change always occurring Human use occurs within context of change Underlying assumption that human uses threaten park values Protected area planning is directed toward the location, type and intensity of human-induced change
Some Visitor ManagementProcesses for Dealing with Change Carrying (Visitor) Capacity based Frameworks – 1960s + Social, Biophysical, Facility Recreation Opportunity Spectrum based Frameworks Recreation Opportunity Spectrum – 1970s Tourism Opportunity Spectrum – 1990s Water Recreation Opportunity Spectrum – 2000s
Some Visitor ManagementProcesses for Dealing with Change Limits of Acceptable Change based Frameworks Limits of Acceptable Change – 1980s Visitor Impact Management – 1980s Visitor Experience and Resource Protection – 1990s Tourism Optimization and Management Model– 1990s The Benefits Based Management Framework – 1990s Placed-based Frameworks – 2000s
Principle 4:Impacts on Resources and SocialConditions are Inevitable Consequencesof Human Use Any level of use leads to some kind of impact Can managers prevent visitor impacts from occurring?
What is the relationship betweenuse level and impact? Impact Use Level
Given this relationship … How much change is acceptable? How would you decide? Is this a technical question or a value judgment?
But, Setting Standards Means MakingChoices Among Visitor Experiences What standard should we use? Impact How do we decide? Setting standards is a function of human values. Use Level
Principle 5:Impacts may be Spatially orTemporally Discontinuous Impacts often occur offsite Impacts may take a long time to appear Secondary and tertiary effects difficult to ascertain and attribute Need to think regionally, the Whack a Mole Phenomenon
An example Campsite impacts too high, Thus, closing campsites to reduce impacts seems to be a reasonable action. But, didn’t work Visitors create new campsites Thus, the total impact is actually larger This represents a focus on the event (campsite impacts, not understanding the system)
A “Fixes that Fail” System Close Campsites Delay Delay Unintended Gap Consequence People createDesired Current Campsite new campsitesCondition Condition
Principle 6:Many Variables Influence theUse/Impact Relationship Use level may be important in influencing amount of impact, but Other variables often more significant behavior season type and size of group biophysical characteristics
Principle 7:Many Management Problems areNot Use Density Dependent Visitors seek many different things during a visit to a protected area Motivations such as solitude, adventure, learning, appreciating and learning about nature, family cohesiveness not all of the above are adversely affected by number of visitors Other problems--littering, etc.
Principle 8:Limiting Use is Only One of ManyManagement Options Limiting use may be one management tool, but … It may not be effective in dealing with problems It controls use levels, but does it control impacts The problem of problem displacement
Managers have a box of “tools” available,but … to what extent do we want regulationand intrusive measures?
How Systems Thinking Can Help AvoidTraps when Limiting Use Limit Use Side Effects: Implement More Rules Unacceptable Impacts Shift Use Elsewhere Impact Visitor Experience Visitor Behavior and Development Patterns
Principle 9:Monitoring is Essential toProfessional Management Periodic remeasurement of key information variables or indicators Followed by evaluation and reflection Key attributes feasible objective timely
Monitoring Plan is an Essential Partof Management Description of procedures How data will be analyzed, displayed and evaluated How does monitoring data influence planning and management? Personnel assignments
Monitoring Principles Where conditions are at or in violation of standards Where conditions are changing rapidly Where values are threatened by visitation Where effects of management are unknown Source: Cole 1989
Principle 10:The Decision-Making ProcessShould Separate TechnicalDescription from Value Judgments What is is not necessarily what should be Separate inventory from decisions about what should be done in time
Principle 11:Consensus among Affected Groupsis Needed for Implementation Shared problem definition Problem can be resolved through public involvement Inclusive Live with results Knowledge distributed equally Permission to act
Successful ManagementTechnical Public Process Engagement
Implementation of plan Understanding social acceptability Representativeness Learning Ownership Relationships
Many visitor management issues confronting MET Principles serve as a framework for thinking through Not answers, but ways to reflect In the long run, reflection leads to more efficient management
Thank You Steve.McCool@gmail.com Perspectives on Protected Area Planninghttp://pasqueflowerparadigms.blogspot.com