NWTC General Chemistry Ch 06
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NWTC General Chemistry Ch 06

NWTC General Chemistry Ch 06

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NWTC General Chemistry Ch 06 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 6Nomenclature of Inorganic CompoundsThis seashell isformed from thechemical calciumcarbonate,commonly calledlimestone. It isthe samechemical used inmany calciumsupplements forour diets. Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry 10e John Wiley & Sons, Inc Morris Hein, Scott Pattison, and Susan Arena
  • 2. Chapter Outline6.1 Common and Systematic 6.4 Naming Binary Compounds Names 6.5 Naming Compounds6.2 Elements and Ions Containing Polyatomic Ions6.3 Writing Formulas from 6.6 Acids Names of Ionic Compounds Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 3. Common and Systematic NamesCommon names are arbitrary and are often related to the physical or chemical properties of the compound.Systematic names precisely identify the chemical composition of the compound.Formula Common Name Systematic NameN2O laughing gas dinitrogen monoxideHCl muriatic acid hydrochloric acidCaCO3 limestone calcium carbonateNaCl table salt sodium chloride Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 4. Element Some elements do not exist as single atoms when they are not in compounds. Diatomic molecules exist as two atoms bonded together. Polyatomic molecules contain more than two atoms.The air you are breathing is 78%N2, 21%O2 and 1%Ar. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 5. Forming CationsMetals lose electrons to be stable.Metal ions are positively charged because they have more positive protons than negative electrons. potassium potassium ion K  K+ + e- Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 6. Naming CationsCations are named the same as their parent atoms, as shown here: Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 7. Forming AnionsNonmetals gain electrons to be stable.Nonmetal ions are negatively charged because they have fewer positive protons than negative electrons. chlorine chloride ion Cl + e-  Cl- Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 8. Naming AnionsMonatomic anions use the stem of the element’s name and the ending changed to ide. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 9. Ion ChargesMetals on the left side of the periodic table form only one ion.Many metals form more than one ion. Often these are the transition metals.The charge of a nonmetal is group number -8. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 10. Your Turn!Calcium is an element in group 2A. Which of the following statements is correct about calcium forming an ion?a. Ca gains two electrons, forming Ca2+b. Ca gains two electrons, forming Ca2-c. Ca loses two electrons, forming Ca2-d. Ca loses two electrons, forming Ca2+ Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 11. Your Turn!Phosphorus is a nonmetal in group 5A. The charge on the phosphide ion isa. -3 because the element lost 3 electrons.b. -3 because the element gained 3 electrons.c. +3 because the element lost 3 electrons.d. +3 because the element gained 3 electrons. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 12. Ionic Compounds• Compounds are held together by the attractive forces between the cations (positive ions) and the anions (negative ions).• Formulas are the simplest whole number ratio of each element.• Solids at room temperature. NaCl• Conduct electricity when molten. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 13. Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds1. Write the formula for the metal ion followed by the formula for the nonmetal ion.2. Combine the smallest numbers of each ion needed to give the charge sum equal to zero.3. Write the formula for the compound as the symbol for the metal and nonmetal each followed by a subscript of the number determined in step 2. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 14. Zinc Oxide 1. Write the formula for the metal ion followed by the formula for the nonmetal ion. Zn2+ O2- 2. Combine the smallest numbers of each ion needed to give the charge sum equal to zero. 1 Zn2+ to 1O2- is neutral. 1(+2) + 1(-2) = 0 2. Write the formula for the compound as the symbol for the metal and nonmetal each followed by a subscript of the number determined in step 2. ZnOReview Question 2: Does the fact Copyrightelements combineInc a one-to-one ratio mean that the that 2 2012 John Wiley & Sons, incharges on their ions are both 1?
  • 15. Calcium Chloride1. Write the formula for the metal ion followed by the formula for the nonmetal ion. Ca2+ Cl-2. Combine the smallest numbers of each ion needed to give the charge sum equal to zero. 1 Ca2+ to 2 Cl- is neutral. 1(+2) + 2(-1) = 02. Write the formula for the compound as the symbol for the metal and nonmetal each followed by a subscript of the number determined in step 2. CaCl2 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 16. Aluminum Sulfide1. Write the formula for the metal ion followed by the formula for the nonmetal ion. Al3+ S2-2. Combine the smallest numbers of each ion needed to give the charge sum equal to zero. 2 Al3+ to 3 S2- is neutral. 2(+3) + 3(-2) = 02. Write the formula for the compound as the symbol for the metal and nonmetal each followed by a subscript of the number determined in step 2. Al2S3 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 17. Writing Formulas for Ionic CompoundsWrite the formulas for the compounds containing the following ions:1. Al3+ and F- AlF32. Ca2+ and N3- Ca3N23. K+ and Cl- KCl4. Mg2+ and I- MgI 2 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 18. Your Turn!What is the correct formula for the compound beryllium fluoride? Be2+ and F-a. BeFb. Be2Fc. BeF2d. Be2F2 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 19. Your Turn!What is the correct formula for the compound silver sulfide? Ag+ and S-2a. AgSb. AgS2c. Ag2Sd. 2AgS Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 20. Naming Binary Ionic CompoundsBinary ionic compounds contain only two elements: a metal and a nonmetal.Compounds containing a metal that forms only one type of cation1. Write the name of the cation.2. Write the name of the anion with the -ide ending. AlF3 aluminum fluoride Ca3N2 calcium nitride KCl potassium chloride Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 21. Naming Binary Ionic CompoundsCommon metals with only one type of cation: All metals in Group 1A, Group 2A, Al, Zn, Ag and Cd. Their charge is the group number.Name these compounds: 1. BaI2 barium iodide 2. Li2O lithium oxide 3. CaC2 calcium carbide 4. Ag2S silver sulfide 5. Rb3N rubidium nitride Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 22. Your Turn!What is the correct name for CdF2?a. Cadmium flourineb. Cadmium flouridec. Cadmium fluorined. Cadmium fluoride Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 23. Naming Binary Ionic CompoundsCompounds containing a metal that can form two or more types of cationsStock System: The name of the cation is the name of the element with a Roman numeral in parentheses equal to the charge. Fe2+ iron(II) Cu+ copper(I) Fe3+ iron(III) Cu2+ copper(II) Sn2+ tin(II) Pb2+ lead(II) Sn4+ tin(IV) Pb4+ lead(IV) Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 24. Naming Binary Ionic Compounds1. Write the name of the cation.2. Write the charge on the cation as a Roman numeral in parenthesis.3. Write the name of the anion with suffix –ide. CoCl3 cobalt(III) chloride Fe3P2 iron(II) phosphide CuO copper(II) oxide SnBr4 tin(IV) bromide Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 25. Naming Binary Ionic CompoundsMore Practice1. CoCl3 cobalt(III) chloride2. K2S potassium sulfide3. HgF2 mercury(II) fluoride4. AgBr silver bromide5. Fe3P2 iron(II) phosphide Review Question 66. PbI4 lead(IV) iodideBaCl2 Why not barium (I) chloride? Barium has 1 ionic state Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 26. Naming Binary Ionic CompoundsClassic System: the Latin name of the metal is modified with the suffixes –ous and –ic depending on the metal charge Fe2+ ferrous Cu+ cuprous Fe3+ ferric Cu2+ cupric Sn2+ stannous Pb2+ plumbous Sn4+ stannic Pb4+ plumbicSnF2 stannous fluoride Fe O ferric oxide 2 3 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 27. Your Turn!CuCl2 is Cl-1 so 1*(-2) = -2a. Copper chloride So Cu must be ? to balanceb. Copper (I) chloridec. Copper (II) chlorided. Copper chloride (I)e. Copper chloride (II) Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 28. Your Turn! Review Question 1a. potassium + sulfide K2Sb. Cobalt (II) + bromate CoBr2c. Ammonium + Nitrate NH4NO3d. Hydrogen + Phosphate H3PO4e. Iron (III) + Oxide Fe2O3f. Magnesium + Hydroxide MgOH Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 29. Naming Binary Molecular CompoundsBinary molecular compounds contain two Atoms Prefixes nonmetals or a nonmetal and a metalloid. 1 mono 2 di1. Write the name for the first element using 3 tri a prefix if there is more than one atom of 4 tetra this element. 5 penta2. Write the stem of the second element with 6 hexa the suffix –ide. Use a prefix to indicate 7 hepta the number of atoms for the second 8 octa element. 9 nona 10 decaCO carbon monoxide CO2 carbon dioxide Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 30. Naming Binary Molecular CompoundsName the following compounds: Atoms Prefixes 1 mono1. P2O5 diphosphorus pentoxide 2 di2. N2O dinitrogen monoxide 3 tri3. NO2 nitrogen dioxide 4 tetra4. SF6 5 penta sulfur hexafluoride 6 hexa5. S2Cl2 disulfur dichloride 7 hepta6. SiCl4 silicon tetrachloride 8 octa 9 nona 10 decaAl2O3 Aluminum Oxide – metal and nonmetal Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc Review Question 4: Why different?
  • 31. Your Turn!Arsenic pentachloride isa. AsCl5b. As5Clc. As2Cl5d. AsCl Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 32. Acids Derived from Binary CompoundsAcid formulas begin with the element hydrogen.The acid name refers to a solution while the pure substance is named using the previous rules.To name binary acids in the aqueous phase:1. Write the prefix hydro- followed by the stem of the second element and add the suffix –ic.2. Write the word acid. HCl(aq) hydrochloric acid Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 33. Acids Derived from Binary CompoundsName the following compounds:1. HBr(g) hydrogen bromide gas2. HBr(aq) hydrobromic acid3. H2S(aq) hydrosulfuric acid4. HF(aq) hydrofluoric acid5. HI(aq) hydroiodic acid Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 34. Naming Binary Compounds Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 35. Your Turn!V2O5 isa. divanadium pentoxideb. vanadium pentoxidec. vanadium(II) oxided. vanadium(V) oxide Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 36. Your Turn!Sulfur dioxide isa. SOb. S2Oc. SO2 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 37. Your Turn!A solution containing HF should be nameda. hydrogen fluorideb. hydrofluoric acidc. hydrofluoride acid Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 38. Polyatomic IonsA polyatomic ion is an ion that contains 2 or more elements. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 39. Polyatomic IonsMany polyatomic ions that contain oxygen are called oxy-anions and generally have the suffix -ate or -ite.• Learn the names and formulas of the ions that end in -ate. 2 sulfate SO 4 nitrate N O 3• The ions whose names end in –ite have one less oxygen. 2 sulfite S O 3 nitrite N O 2 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 40. Polyatomic IonsSome elements form more than two oxy-anions. Formula Anion Name ClO4- perchlorate per- means one more oxygen than -ate ion ClO3- chlorate ClO2- chlorite hypo- means one less ClO- hypochlorite oxygen than -ite ionThese additional prefixes are also used by bromate (BrO3-), iodate (IO3-), and phosphate (PO43-). Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 41. Polyatomic IonsSome polyatomic names end in –ide: hydroxide OH- cyanide CN- hydrogen sulfide HS- 2 peroxide O2Only one polyatomic ion is positive: ammonium NH 4 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 42. Writing Formulas with Polyatomic IonsUse parentheses around the polyatomic ion if you need to add a subscript to balance the charge.Example: Ba2+ + N O 3 Ba(NO3)2 21. Mn2+ + CO3 MnCO32. Sr2+ + OH Sr(OH)2 23. K+ + C rO 4 K2CrO4 34. Cu2+ + PO 4 Cu3(PO4)2 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 43. Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions1. Write the name of the cation.2. Write the name of the anion.Name these compounds: Hg(ClO2)2 mercury(II) chlorite Zn3(PO4)2 zinc phosphate NH4NO3 ammonium nitrate Pb(C2H3O2)2 lead(II) acetate Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 44. Your Turn!Sulfate is SO42-. Name the compound FeSO4.a. iron sulfateb. iron(I) sulfatec. iron(II) sulfated. iron(IV) sulfate Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 45. Oxy-AcidsOxy-acids are neutral compounds that begin with H and end with an oxygen-containing polyatomic ion.The name of the acid ends in –ic acid if the polyatomic ion ends in –ate. sulfate SO42- H2SO4 sulfuric acid chlorate ClO3- HClO3 chloric acidThe name of the acid ends in –ous acid if the polyatomic ion ends in –ite. sulfite SO32- H2SO3 sulfurous acid chlorite ClO2- HClO2 chlorous acid Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 46. Oxy-AcidsWhy are there 3 H in phosphoric acid? Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 47. Oxy-AcidsTable 6.9 Comparison of Acid and Anion Names Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 48. Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
  • 49. QuestionsReview Questions – Did in classPaired Questions (pg 210) – Do 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 15, 21, 27, 29, 31, 35 – Practice later 2, 6, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 34 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 1-51