Chapter 3     Elements and CompoundsThisrecliningBuddha inthe GrandPalace inBangkok, Thailand, ismade ofgold.      Introdu...
Chapter Outline3.1 Elements                              3.6 Elements in Their Natural3.2 Distribution of Elements        ...
ElementsAn element is …An atom is …                  Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
ElementsAn element is a fundamental substance that cannot be  broken down by chemical means to simpler  substances.There a...
ElementsAn atom is the smallest particle of an element that can exist.                   Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons,...
Distribution of Elements      Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Your Turn!The most abundant element in the earth’s crust, oceans,  and atmosphere is   A. Water   B. Hydrogen   C. Iron   ...
Distribution of Elements      Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Names of the ElementsThe names of the elements are derived from a variety of  sources:• Iodine comes from Greek iodes, whi...
Symbols of the ElementsRules for symbols of elements1. Symbols have either one, two or three letters.2. If one letter is u...
Symbols of Common Elements        Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Symbols of ElementsDerived from Early Names      Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Introduction to the Periodic TableElements are arranged in order of increasing atomic  number.Elements within a group have...
Periodic Table
Your Turn!The element potassium is in the first group on the   Periodic Table (group IA). Potassium isa. an alkali metalb....
Your Turn!The elements on the periodic table are placed in order of  increasinga. Densityb. Atomic numberc. Boiling pointd...
Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids          Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Classifying Elements: MetalsSome properties of metals:• Lustrous• Malleable• Conduct heat and electricity• Ductile• High d...
Classifying Elements: NonmetalsSome properties of nonmetals:• Dull (if solid)• Brittle (if solid)• Poor conductors of heat...
Classifying Elements: MetalloidsMetalloids have properties that  are intermediate between those  of metals and those of  n...
Your Turn!A solid sample of an unknown element is dull and  brittle and does not conduct heat or electricity. How  should ...
Your Turn!The majority of the elements area. Metalsb. Gasesc. Nonmetalsd. Metalloids                   Copyright 2012 John...
Your Turn!Which is not a metalloid?a. Boron (B)b. Silicon (Si)c. Germanium (Ge)d. Aluminum (Al)                   Copyrigh...
Elements in Their Natural StatesMost elements are found as compounds in nature because they are very reactive.The noble me...
Physical States of the Elements• Most are solids at room temperature.• Some are gases (the noble gases, nitrogen, oxygen, ...
ElementsCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Elements That Exist as            Diatomic Molecules• Diatomic molecules each contain  exactly two atoms.• There are 7 dia...
Your Turn!Which of the following is not a diatomic element?a. Fluorineb. Oxygenc. Nitrogend. Carbon                   Copy...
Your Turn!Which of the following metals is not a solid at room   temperature?a. Ironb. Aluminumc. Chromiumd. Calciume. Mer...
Your Turn!Which of the following nonmetals is not reactive?a. Heliumb. Fluorinec. Oxygend. Carbon                   Copyri...
CompoundsCompounds are composed of two or more elements  combined in a definite proportion by mass.• Elements are always c...
CompoundsCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Molecules• A molecule is the smallest uncharged individual unit  of a compound.• Usually composed of two or more nonmetals...
Water• Water molecules can be decomposed into oxygen  molecules and hydrogen molecules.• The properties of water are very ...
Your Turn!Which of the following is not likely to be a molecule?a. CaCl2b. NH3c. CO2d. SF6                   Copyright 201...
Ionic Compounds• Contain ions (charged particles).• Compounds are held together by  the attractive forces between the  cat...
Sodium ChlorideThe properties of sodium chloride are very differentfrom the properties of sodium metal and chlorine gas.  ...
Your Turn!Which of the following is true?a. Metals form anions with negative charges.b. Metals form anions with positive c...
Chemical FormulasSpecifies the number of atoms of each element in the   compound.                   Copyright 2012 John Wi...
Chemical FormulasWhen the formula contains more than one of a group of  atoms that occurs as a unit, parentheses are place...
Your Turn!The formula for table sugar is C12H22O11. How many   oxygen atoms are found in a molecule of sugar?a. 1b. 12c. 2...
Your Turn!Aluminum sulfate is a compound that is often found in   baking powder. How many sulfur atoms are found in   Al2(...
Your Turn!How many hydrogen atoms are found in Al(C2H3O2)3?a. 1b. 9                  1 Alc. 6                  3*2=6Cd. 7 ...
Your Turn!The formula for ethyl alcohol is CH3CH2OH. How   many H atoms are found in a molecule of ethyl   alcohol?a. 6   ...
QuestionsReview Questions (pg 58)  – Do odd  – Practice later evenPaired Questions  – Do 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, 33, ...
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NWTC General Chemistry Ch 03

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NWTC General Chemistry Ch 03 by Steve Sinclair

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  • Figure 3.1 The surface of a penny is made up of tiny identical copper atoms packed tightly together.
  • Table 3.3 Symbols of the most common elements
  • Table 3.4 Symbols of the elements derived from early names
  • Table 3.5 The Periodic Table
  • Figure 3.7 A representation of the decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen molecules.
  • Figure 3.9 b Explanation of the formula of H2SO4
  • Figure 3.9 c Explanation of the formula of Ca(NO3)2
  • NWTC General Chemistry Ch 03

    1. 1. Chapter 3 Elements and CompoundsThisrecliningBuddha inthe GrandPalace inBangkok, Thailand, ismade ofgold. Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry 10e John Wiley & Sons, Inc Morris Hein, Scott Pattison, and Susan Arena
    2. 2. Chapter Outline3.1 Elements 3.6 Elements in Their Natural3.2 Distribution of Elements States3.3 Names of Elements 3.7 Elements That Exist as3.4 Symbols of the Elements Diatomic Molecules3.5 Introduction to the Periodic 3.8 CompoundsTable 3.9 Chemical Formulas Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    3. 3. ElementsAn element is …An atom is … Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    4. 4. ElementsAn element is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means to simpler substances.There are 118 known elements.All but 4 of the first 92 elements occur in nature.All elements beyond 92 except for plutonium (94) are man made. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    5. 5. ElementsAn atom is the smallest particle of an element that can exist. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    6. 6. Distribution of Elements Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    7. 7. Your Turn!The most abundant element in the earth’s crust, oceans, and atmosphere is A. Water B. Hydrogen C. Iron D. Oxygen Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    8. 8. Distribution of Elements Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    9. 9. Names of the ElementsThe names of the elements are derived from a variety of sources:• Iodine comes from Greek iodes, which means violetlike.• Bismuth comes from the German weisse masse, which means white mass.• Germanium was named for Germany, where it was discovered. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    10. 10. Symbols of the ElementsRules for symbols of elements1. Symbols have either one, two or three letters.2. If one letter is used, it is capitalized.3. If two or three letters are used, only the first is capitalized. N nitrogen I iodine Ni nickel C carbon O oxygen Co cobalt Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    11. 11. Symbols of Common Elements Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    12. 12. Symbols of ElementsDerived from Early Names Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    13. 13. Introduction to the Periodic TableElements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.Elements within a group have similar properties.The representative elements are groups IA-VIIA and the noble gases. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    14. 14. Periodic Table
    15. 15. Your Turn!The element potassium is in the first group on the Periodic Table (group IA). Potassium isa. an alkali metalb. an alkaline earth metalc. a transition elementd. a halogen Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    16. 16. Your Turn!The elements on the periodic table are placed in order of increasinga. Densityb. Atomic numberc. Boiling pointd. Atomic mass Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    17. 17. Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    18. 18. Classifying Elements: MetalsSome properties of metals:• Lustrous• Malleable• Conduct heat and electricity• Ductile• High density• High melting point Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    19. 19. Classifying Elements: NonmetalsSome properties of nonmetals:• Dull (if solid)• Brittle (if solid)• Poor conductors of heat and electricity• Non-Ductile Iodine crystals• Low density• Low melting point Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    20. 20. Classifying Elements: MetalloidsMetalloids have properties that are intermediate between those of metals and those of nonmetals.Some are used to make the semiconductors we need for computer chips. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    21. 21. Your Turn!A solid sample of an unknown element is dull and brittle and does not conduct heat or electricity. How should the element be classified?a. Metalb. Nonmetalc. Metalloidd. Transition element Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    22. 22. Your Turn!The majority of the elements area. Metalsb. Gasesc. Nonmetalsd. Metalloids Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    23. 23. Your Turn!Which is not a metalloid?a. Boron (B)b. Silicon (Si)c. Germanium (Ge)d. Aluminum (Al) Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    24. 24. Elements in Their Natural StatesMost elements are found as compounds in nature because they are very reactive.The noble metals (gold, silver and platinum) are nonreactive and are found as elements in nature.The noble gases are the least reactive elements and are found in uncombined form. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    25. 25. Physical States of the Elements• Most are solids at room temperature.• Some are gases (the noble gases, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine and chlorine).• Two are liquids (mercury and bromine). Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    26. 26. ElementsCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    27. 27. Elements That Exist as Diatomic Molecules• Diatomic molecules each contain exactly two atoms.• There are 7 diatomic elements. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    28. 28. Your Turn!Which of the following is not a diatomic element?a. Fluorineb. Oxygenc. Nitrogend. Carbon Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    29. 29. Your Turn!Which of the following metals is not a solid at room temperature?a. Ironb. Aluminumc. Chromiumd. Calciume. Mercury Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    30. 30. Your Turn!Which of the following nonmetals is not reactive?a. Heliumb. Fluorinec. Oxygend. Carbon Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    31. 31. CompoundsCompounds are composed of two or more elements combined in a definite proportion by mass.• Elements are always combined in whole number ratios. Al2O3 KNO3 CaCl2• Can be decomposed chemically into simpler substances.• Each compound has unique properties that are different from the elements that make it up. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    32. 32. CompoundsCopyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    33. 33. Molecules• A molecule is the smallest uncharged individual unit of a compound.• Usually composed of two or more nonmetals.• Can be solids, liquids or gases.• Do not conduct electricity. H2O H2O2 PCl5 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    34. 34. Water• Water molecules can be decomposed into oxygen molecules and hydrogen molecules.• The properties of water are very different from the properties of oxygen gas and hydrogen gas. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    35. 35. Your Turn!Which of the following is not likely to be a molecule?a. CaCl2b. NH3c. CO2d. SF6 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    36. 36. Ionic Compounds• Contain ions (charged particles).• Compounds are held together by the attractive forces between the cations (positive ions) and the anions (negative ions).• Formulas are the simplest whole number ratio of each element. NaCl• Solids at room temperature.• Conduct electricity when molten. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    37. 37. Sodium ChlorideThe properties of sodium chloride are very differentfrom the properties of sodium metal and chlorine gas. 2NaCl(s) 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) Figure 3.8 When sodium chloride (a) is decomposed, it forms sodium metal (b) and chlorine gas (c). Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    38. 38. Your Turn!Which of the following is true?a. Metals form anions with negative charges.b. Metals form anions with positive charges.c. Metals form cations with positive charges.d. Metals form cations with negative charges. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    39. 39. Chemical FormulasSpecifies the number of atoms of each element in the compound. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    40. 40. Chemical FormulasWhen the formula contains more than one of a group of atoms that occurs as a unit, parentheses are placed around the group and a subscript is placed to the right of the group. Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    41. 41. Your Turn!The formula for table sugar is C12H22O11. How many oxygen atoms are found in a molecule of sugar?a. 1b. 12c. 22d. 11 Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    42. 42. Your Turn!Aluminum sulfate is a compound that is often found in baking powder. How many sulfur atoms are found in Al2(SO4)3?a. 4 2 Alb. 12 3*1=3Sc. 3d. 7 3 * 4 = 12 O Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    43. 43. Your Turn!How many hydrogen atoms are found in Al(C2H3O2)3?a. 1b. 9 1 Alc. 6 3*2=6Cd. 7 3*3=9H 3*2=6O Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    44. 44. Your Turn!The formula for ethyl alcohol is CH3CH2OH. How many H atoms are found in a molecule of ethyl alcohol?a. 6 1+1=2Cb. 3 3+2+1=6Hc. 5d. 1 1O Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc
    45. 45. QuestionsReview Questions (pg 58) – Do odd – Practice later evenPaired Questions – Do 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21, 25, 29, 33, 37, 41 – Practice later every other even (2, 6, etc) Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc 1-45

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