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  • 1. RHETORIC BHMS 2214 Week 2 (Lecture & Tutorial): Key to Rhetorical Analysis: Understanding The Audience Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 2. “The consumer isn’t a moron, she is your wife” - David Ogilvy Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 3. What do you do with your partner/spouse? Love them? Pamper them? Shower them with gifts? Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 4. The actual meaning of the quote UNDERSTAND YOUR AUDIENCE, because no one else should understand your audience better than YOU. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 5. Plato’s perception of ‘rhetoric’ = a form of flattery and cookery. To flatter someone, you need to know HIS/HER qualities/ attributes. Similarly, to produce/critic a food item, you need to know what are the components or the recipe. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 6. HOW IS THIS IMPORTANT? To generate a rhetorical perspective of the text - the rhetor needs to know the intended meaning of the text, be it figuratively or literally. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 7. HOW IS THIS IMPORTANT? A simple yet profound truth: What does it mean when men say: Fine - we mean ‘fine’ What does it mean when women say: Fine - ‘NO’ What does it mean when men say: Nothing - we mean ‘nothing’ What does it mean when women say: Nothing - ‘OMG THERE IS OBVIOUSLY SOMETHING BUT I’M NOT TELLING YOU UNLESS YOU BEG ME FOR IT!’ Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 8. HOW IS THIS IMPORTANT? Facial expression can also be a key attribute to a rhetorical analysis. Understand body language and expressions is a key component to a rhetor’s operational platform. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 9. HOW IS THIS IMPORTANT? http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/ei_quiz/ Try and see if you can read people well enough. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 10. THE ART OF RHETORIC Remember? Rhetorical analysis is - C . A. P. E. D 2 3 Communication - context - argument - persuasion - exchanges - debate/discussion/discourse. “One man’s meat is another man’s poison” Therefore, as a rhetor, YOU need to know what is being communicated from the text. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 11. THE ART OF RHETORIC The Rhetor Triangle: Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 12. THE ART OF RHETORIC Optical Illusions - are you seeing what you’re supposed to see? Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 13. THE ART OF RHETORIC Rhetoric is FORMLESS, therefore applicable to MOST, if not ALL available texts. However, there are various ways to study a rhetorical perspective, some of which include: a. Understanding the Audience b. Rhetoric’s Triangle c. Five Persuasive Canons d. Toulmin’s Argument Theory e. Other analytical tools - Word Cloud, etc. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 14. UNDERSTANDING YOU Understanding your audience - How to debunk the ‘audience’ question? Two perspectives: NATURE & NURTURE - is CULTURE a big part of who we are? Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 15. UNDERSTANDING YOU Enculturation - Acculturation perspective. A strong indication of how the audience will react to a particular context is on their default culture and if they are open or closed to other cultures. This will determine the high and low levels of CULTURAL DENOMINATIONS/ DIFFERENCES: a. Individual or Collective b. High or Low Power Structure c. Masculine or Feminine Culture d. High or Low Ambiguity e. Long or Short Term Orientation Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 16. INDIVIDUAL & COLLECTIVE a. Individual orientation – emphasizes internal beliefs and qualities such as power, status, achievements etc Certain countries practice a high value of protecting their interest and status; individualistic orientation. Countries such as Sweden, Denmark, UK, America, Japan. b. Collective orientation – emphasizes on shared and communal values such as upkeeping tradition, benevolence, etc. Certain countries believe that the value of everyone is more important; Collectivist orientation. Countries in South East Asia. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 17. POWER STRUCTURE Countries or communities with different distance in power result in different practice of culture. High-Power-Distance: Those who have a big difference between the authority and public. Low-Power-Distance: Those who have a small difference between the authority and public. Example: Students in classrooms of different countries act differently – highpower-distance have more freedom and able to express freely. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 18. MASCULINE & FEMININE Masculine and feminine traits – not sexual orientation. Masculine traits – aggressiveness, success, strength, power… Feminine traits – modesty, kindness… ‘Masculine’ countries – Italy, South Korea, Singapore ‘Feminine’ countries – Thailand, Netherlands, Malaysia(?) Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 19. AMBIGUITY This means the standard or level of preparedness and tolerance to changes and structures for societies around the world. High Ambiguity – culture that adapts to changes and open-mindedness very quickly; basically means no structure and ready for uncertainties. Low Ambiguity – culture that prefers a strict routine and difficult to adapt to changes; basically means heavily structured situations and unprepared for uncertainties. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 20. LONG OR SHORT TERM Cultures that promotes long-term oriented goals (getting a good career, marriage, family) and short-term oriented goals (spend what you earn, do it now and worry about tomorrow later) will produce different sets of cultural diversities. Countries with long-term orientation: Singapore, Malaysia, China, Germany Countries with short-term orientation: Egypt, Iran, England (some parts) Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 21. THE ART OF RHETORIC Apart from understanding the demographics of your audience (which is important as it provides a VISUAL REPRESENTATION), it is important for the rhetor to understand the cultural implications of their audiences. For instance (not stereotyping - just an exercise): a. Would a Malaysian seek power, authority and dominion over everyone? b. Would a Japanese be open to spending all their money in temporary measures? c. Would an English/Japanese be open to changes in their everyday lifestyle? d. Would a Singaporean defend their cultural beliefs? Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 22. THE ART OF RHETORIC Similarly, VALS (Values, Attitudes, Lifestyles) is also a system used to study consumers and separate them into each category. a. Innovators b. Thinkers c. Believers d. Achievers e. Strivers f. Experiencers g. Makers h. Survivors Sunday, January 5, 14 Motivated by: a. Ideals b. Achievements c. Self-Expression High/Low Resources
  • 23. THE ART OF RHETORIC A sample of VALS survey questions: I am often interested in theories. I like outrageous people and things. I like a lot of variety in my life. I love to make things I can use every day. I follow the latest trends and fashions. Just as the Bible says, the world literally was created in six days. I like being in charge of a group. I like to learn about art, culture, and history. I often crave excitement. I am really interested in only a few things. I would rather make something than buy it. I dress more fashionably than most people. The federal government should encourage prayers in public schools. I have more ability than most people. I consider myself an intellectual. I must admit that I like to show off. I like trying new things. I am very interested in how mechanical things, such as engines, work. I like to dress in the latest fashions. There is too much sex on television today. I like to lead others. I would like to spend a year or more in a foreign country. I like a lot of excitement in my life. I must admit that my interests are somewhat narrow and limited. I like making things of wood, metal, or other such material. I want to be considered fashionable. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 24. THE ART OF RHETORIC Motivated by: a. Ideals - people motivated by ideals are into gaining knowledge, developing principles, ideas, etc. aka The ‘Debaters‘ b. Achievements - people motivated by achievements often look into materials and possessions to supplement their lifestyles aka The ‘Materialists’ c. Self-Expression - people motivated by self-expression often need social engagements and opinions of others to empower themselves. aka The ‘Socialists’ Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 25. THE ART OF RHETORIC a. Innovators People who achieve things with the resources around them - high independency and highly innovative. b. Thinkers People who love a good debate or discussion - generally interested in gaining more knowledge/understanding/perspective. c. Believers People who have firm principles but are modest to one another - generally more structured and less liberal. d. Achievers People who needs to be recognized for their achievements be it at work, social groups or in their lifestyle. e. Strivers People who wants more focus on living with one another, at the same time gaining social approval or recognition from their peers/groups. f. Experiencers People who wants to live with the social bubble/circles - ‘experiencing‘ the atmosphere, surroundings, etc. g. Makers People who requires the ‘hands-on‘ experience - making and building things rather than absorbing it. Cares about the ‘process‘ of things. h. Survivors People who requires little motivation, little resources and little innovation but yet able to survive with very little. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 26. FIT IN THE CULTURAL DIFF. a. Innovators People who achieve things with the resources around them - high independency and highly innovative. b. Thinkers People who love a good debate or discussion - generally interested in gaining more knowledge/understanding/perspective. c. Believers People who have firm principles but are modest to one another - generally more structured and less liberal. d. Achievers People who needs to be recognized for their achievements be it at work, social groups or in their lifestyle. e. Strivers People who wants more focus on living with one another, at the same time gaining social approval or recognition from their peers/groups. f. Experiencers People who wants to live with the social bubble/circles - ‘experiencing‘ the atmosphere, surroundings, etc. g. Makers People who requires the ‘hands-on‘ experience - making and building things rather than absorbing it. Cares about the ‘process‘ of things. h. Survivors People who requires little motivation, little resources and little innovation but yet able to survive with very little. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 27. THE ART OF RHETORIC Let’s try something that has a very clear audience in mind: Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 28. THE ART OF RHETORIC a. Multicultural background - promotes friendliness, unity b. Visual: Colors - engaging actively with kids’ attention span c. Audio: Songs and Accents d. Family - Big Bird: Leader of family; Elmo: Small sibling; Cookie Monster: Big sibling/Male presence e. Different class in society: Oscar the Grouch: Lives in the trashcan. f. Humanistic interactions: People with different values expressing and living their lives and views. Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 29. THE ART OF RHETORIC a. Individualist or Collectivist? b. High or Low Power Structure? c. Masculine or Feminine Traits? d. High or Low Ambiguity? e. Long or Short Term Orientation? Sunday, January 5, 14
  • 30. LIFE LESSON NUMBER 1 “When life gives you lemons, you make lemonade out of it” Sunday, January 5, 14