Chapter 1: Foundation ofHuman CommunicationHuman Communication
Chapter 1: Foundation of HumanCommunicationOverview The ability to communicate well is important to personaland professional success. The course module preparesstudents to be effective communicators of the future bygiving them an understanding of the principles and theprocess of communication, combined with theacquisition of practical knowledge through self-tests andgroup projects. Overall, this module prepares students for careers in thecommunications field including Advertising, PublicRelations, Corporate Communication and Marketing
overview• Human Communication - field of study• Focus on understanding how peoplecommunicate in various ways
overviewCommunication skill is needed in everything… Asking for direction Discussing a movie with a friend Interviewing for a job Surfing the net Ordering food
The Purpose of humancommunication To help To discover To relate To persuade To play
Chapter 1: Foundation of HumanCommunication Areas of Communication Components of Communications The Purpose of Communication
Areas of Communication Communication is essential We have to communicate Communicate as speaker/listener aware of thevaried elements in the communication act
Communication Context Social Psychological Context Physical Context Cultural Context Temporal Context
Social Psychological Context i) Socio-psychological context includes the relationshipsamong participants, the roles that people play. It alsoincludes the friendliness or unfriendliness, formality orinformality, seriousness or humorousness of thesituation. The communication among students in a graduate partywhen you talk about your future or how you are going toenjoy yourself by taking a holiday may not beappropriate in a hospital. If a patient is dying the lastthing he wants to know is your holiday plan.
Physical Context ii) Physical context is the concrete environment in whichcommunication takes place – the room or hallway or park. The physical context exerts some influence on the contentof your message (what you say) as well as the form (howyou say it) In a large hall like this with more than 150 studentspresent, the communication is mainly one way from thelecturer to students whereas in a tutorial with 15 people,the communication will be more interactive and moreconversational in style. Restaurant – fast food versus fine dining.
Cultural Context iii) Cultural context has to do with your culture and thatof others – the beliefs, values and ways of behaving thatare shared by a group of people and passed down fromgeneration to the next. In China, the Chinese believe that it is good luck towear new clothes in red colour during the Chinese NewYear. Black is considered a bad luck colour during thistime so it would be considered “rude” if you visit aChinese home during this time wearing black.
Cultural Context Consider this:Acceptable in Asian countries An insult in United Kingdom!
Temporal Context iv) Temporal (or time) context includes the time of dayas well as the time in history in which the communicationtakes place. For many people, morning is not a good time forcommunication. They are still sleepy. They haven’t hadtheir coffee and they are not in a mood to discussanything (communicate) with you. For others, morning isthe ideal time because they feel they are at the peak ofalertness to listen to you.
Temporal Context For many people, morning is not a good time for communication.They are still sleepy. They haven’t had their coffee and they are notin a mood to discuss anything (communicate) with you. For others,morning is the ideal time because they feel they are at the peak ofalertness to listen to you.
Temporal Context Historical context is also important becausethe appropriateness and the impact of themessage depend on the time in which it wasuttered
Components of CommunicationsIntrapersonal communicationTalking with one’s self to better learn and judge selfInterpersonal communication Interactions with a person with whom you have arelationship Learn and reveal about others and selfSmall group communication In small groups, you work with others to solve problems,develop new ideas, and share knowledge and experiences
Communication ModelsLinear Model ofCommunicationSpeaker Receiver
Communication ModelsInteractional View ofCommunicatinSpeakerListenerListenerSpeaker
Communication ModelsTransactional View ofCommunicationTransactional View ofCommunicationSpeaker/ListenerSpeaker/Listener
The Components of HumanCommunicationMessages/ChannelsFeedbackFeedforwardMessages/ChannelsSource/ReceiverSource/ReceiverNoise
The Components of HumanCommunication Source-Receiver:Two way role that interchanges actively in aconversation.Source:Encode messagesSpeaks, write, gestureReceiver:Decode messagesLISTEN, read, respond
The Components of HumanCommunication Message:Words, text, literature, body language, interpretivedance, etc.VARIOUS FORMS.Metamessage:Message in a message. Example: Mum orders to throwaway rubbish, reluctantly said “YES MUM” but bodylanguage shows another message.
The Components of HumanCommunication Feedback & Feedforward message:Response and preparation.Feedback – from listener to speaker.Feedforward – a pretext to the context.“I’m sorry to say but…”“You’re really beautiful and nice, but…”“What you did was correct, however…”
The Components of HumanCommunication Channel:Vocal channel – Spoken wordsVisual channel – Hand gestures, body language…Olfactory channel – Odors, smell…Tactile channel – Touch
The Components of HumanCommunication Noise:Physical Noise: Noise from car, train, bad handwriting,misspelled wordsPhysiological Noise: Hearing loss, memory loss…Psychological Noise: Impressions, perceptions,prejudice…Semantic Noise: Jargons, specific terms.Games, doctor-patient, mechanic-customer…
The Components of HumanCommunication Effects:Intellectual/Cognitive: Changes in your thinking andmind – knowledge adding.Affective: Behavioral change. Exp: Horror Stories.Psychomotor: Physical behavioral change. Exp:Learning the guitar.
EXERCISE Identify the type of noise and effects:1) Talking in Block A with a friend – conveyingthe message of how to do course selection2) SMS a friend regarding your dead cat, butyou typed ‘car’ instead.3) Learning from a YouTube video on how tobeatbox in your room ALONE.