MRS Fall Meeting: Symposium


 Multilayer Ceramic Microsystems:
applications in wireless, energy and
            life scie...
OUTLINE
• MST definitions and technologies
• Ceramic “MEMS” technology
• Ceramic “MEMS” applications
   – Integration of R...
MicroSystem Technology (MST)*
                  Lab-on-       System in/on a
                   Chip         Package (SIP)...
Definition of MST

Any device or unit made up of a number of micro-
engineered components/devices.


An intelligent miniat...
Microsystems Technology Driving
             Forces
• Integration and Miniaturization of
  Multifunctional Appliances
• En...
Important Microsystem Integration
              Technologies
• Ceramic - MEMS
• Si – MEMS
• Other Glass and Plastic (PCB) ...
Ceramic MEMS: Technologies & Applications
                 Methanol Reformer
                                             ...
Processing of Ceramic MEMS Microsystems


                                 Integrated active                Integrated
   ...
MLC Feature Forming Technologies

                             green sheet thickness
                                  50-...
Microfluidic Structures Requiring Support
AdvancedCMEMS Tape Texturing Technologies
        Microchannel Forming Technologies

    Embossing         Cast-on-Photore...
Applications of the Ceramic MEMS
• Integration of RF-Wireless Functions (SIP)
• Miniaturization of Fuel Cell Systems
  – D...
Conceptual Diagram for Wireless Communication
                   Device




            RF Frontend      IF &
            ...
RF Device Elemental Structures


                                                 ANT

                                   ...
Conceptual MCIC Structure
MCIC Integration Efforts

                              IRIDIUM:
                              LNA AND SWITCH
       ANT

...
Example of RF Front-End Functional Integration



                                                                     •
 ...
Synthesis Strategy of T2000 Dielectric*

                                      Ceramic Filler        Tf
        Glass: K2O...
Formation of High Q Dielectric

    10.0                                                         1200


                  ...
Compensation of Tf in T2000 Dielectric
                       1.006

                                                     ...
Tf Impact on Embedded Filter Performance

                 Example of Tf Influence on Filter
                 Performance
...
Applications of the Ceramic MEMS

• Integration of RF-Wireless Functions
• Miniaturization of Fuel Cell Systems
  – Direct...
MicroSystem Fuel Cell & Applications
                     A Fuel Cell is a System
                         Fuel Delivery S...
Methanol Fuel Cells
                                                              Direct Methanol Fuel cell
Two Approaches...
Direct Methanol Fuel Cell System

                                CO2 Separation
                                  & Venti...
DMFC Fuel Cell Assembly
                  Gold                              Concept for Fuel Cell with integrated
        ...
Reformed Hydrogen Fuel Cell System

                          Temperature &             Control
                          ...
Reformed Hydrogen Fuel Cell System
        Fuel Reformer
                                                   Miniature Fuel...
RHFC Fuel Processor

 Miniature Steam Reformer To Produce                               Reformer Test Data
Hydrogen Gas fr...
Applications of Ceramic MEMS

• Integration of RF-Wireless Functions
• Miniaturization of Fuel Cell Systems
  – Direct Met...
Piezo-driven LTCC Micropump
• Multilayer ceramic design
• Cofired ball check valves
• Piezoelectrically driven, PZT unimor...
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Pumping
                                                                                        ...
DNA amplification

                       CONTINUOUS FLOW POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)

                       DESIGN  ...
DNA hybridization & detection
                                                        FABRICATED DEVICES
         MODELING...
Model Validation of Thermal Profile
                                                Experimental Details
                 ...
Ceramic Micro Hollow Cathode Discharge

                                                                      Integrated U...
CMEMS Enabled Devices and Functions
      Capacitive sensing of fluids                                               Capac...
MST Integrated Bio-Analysis Appliance
                                                                         ELECTRONIC
...
Summary
• A Microsystems Technology is Emerging
   – Enabling integration/miniaturization of bench top appliances
   – Ena...
Summary
CMEMS Applications will accelerate with:
•Advances in simulation and modeling tools
•Advances in materials integra...
Material and Process Challenges

 Material challenges:
   • Dielectrics
        • Ceramics (e.g., high K dielectrics)
    ...
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Ceramic Microsystems

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A look at mltilayer ceramic enabled microsystems

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Ceramic Microsystems

  1. 1. MRS Fall Meeting: Symposium Multilayer Ceramic Microsystems: applications in wireless, energy and life sciences Micro-Technologies Research Lab Solid State Research Center Motorola Labs Tempe, Arizona
  2. 2. OUTLINE • MST definitions and technologies • Ceramic “MEMS” technology • Ceramic “MEMS” applications – Integration of RF-Wireless Functions – Miniaturization of Fuel Cell Systems • Direct Methanol • Reformed Hydrogen – Life Science Devices/Appliances • MHD pumping • DNA Amplification • DNA Hybridization & Detection • UV Light Source • Conceptual Life Science Integrated Appliance
  3. 3. MicroSystem Technology (MST)* Lab-on- System in/on a Chip Package (SIP) MOEMS Packaging Modular MEMS MicroSystem Technologies System Miniaturization and Integration of Device Functions Based on: Mechatronics Electronics Photonics MicroFluidics Thermonics Microgrippers Microsensors/detectors Micropumps Microreactors Microactuators Microplasma Microvalves Microheaters Micromirrors Microswitches Micropneumatics Micromixers Enabled By 3D Multilayer Integration/Fabrication Technologies: Ceramic, Glass, Plastic, Si *Source: M. Riester and D.L. Wilcox
  4. 4. Definition of MST Any device or unit made up of a number of micro- engineered components/devices. An intelligent miniaturized monolithic and/or hybrid integrated system comprising sensing, processing and/or actuating devices utilizing two or more of the following technologies: electronic, mechatronic, microfluidic, thermonic, and photonic.
  5. 5. Microsystems Technology Driving Forces • Integration and Miniaturization of Multifunctional Appliances • Enabled by Integration of fluidics, electronics, photonics, and “thermonics” • Market Opportunities: – Wireless – multiband and multimode phones requiring more components – Micro-scale energy sources for portable appliances – Emerging life science fluidic based devices – “Lab on a chip”; Micro-reactor; etc.
  6. 6. Important Microsystem Integration Technologies • Ceramic - MEMS • Si – MEMS • Other Glass and Plastic (PCB) Technologies • Electronic Packaging and Interconnect Technologies • Materials, Process and Device Modeling and System Architecture/Partitioning and Technology Selection Protocols • Tools for managing cross-discipline, cross- function teams!
  7. 7. Ceramic MEMS: Technologies & Applications Methanol Reformer Cell Phone Receiver 15 mm fuel integrated ENERGY reformers modules 5 mm MICROSYSTEM WIRELESS Direct FUNCTIONS on-chip Methanol power COMMUNICATIONS Fuel Cell ICs amplifiers sensors fuel NEW Micro Hollow Cathode cells MATERIALS & filters 8 mm Discharge (MHCD) PROCESSES light pumps UV light source sources 8.5 mm Power Amplifier temperature chemical reactors PCR E-chip control Pumping/ Mixing V cell sorting Integrated BioChip LIFE DNA Technology SCIENCES amplification
  8. 8. Processing of Ceramic MEMS Microsystems Integrated active Integrated component Sensor Passive component Electrical interconnect (Z) Electrical interconnect Or Fluidic Microchannels (Z) Fluidic microchannels( X,Y) ……….. ….. ……….. ……….. … … ……….. ……….. .. ……….. ……….. ……….. Inspection ……….. ……….. . . . .. . . .. . .. ….. . ….. . ….. ……….. . ….. . ….. ………... .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. Stacking . . . . ….. .. . . . . . . . . … . . . ….. . ….. ….. . . ….. ….. . . Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer n Attach Devices Singulation Sintering Lamination
  9. 9. MLC Feature Forming Technologies green sheet thickness 50-250 mm VIA mechanical punching laser drilling FORMATION  100 mm  50 mm stencil VIA  100 mm FILL LATERAL screen printing photo-defined FEATURES  50 mm  50 mm (interconnects, print thickness passives) 5-20 mm
  10. 10. Microfluidic Structures Requiring Support
  11. 11. AdvancedCMEMS Tape Texturing Technologies Microchannel Forming Technologies Embossing Cast-on-Photoresist Fugitive Paste Ceramic Sheet Ceramic Sheet 8 mm x 8 mm 10 mm channels heights channels for rapid diffusive mixing
  12. 12. Applications of the Ceramic MEMS • Integration of RF-Wireless Functions (SIP) • Miniaturization of Fuel Cell Systems – Direct Methanol – Reformed Hydrogen • Life Science Devices/Appliances – MHD pumping – DNA amplification – DNA hybridizatin and detection – UV light source – Conceptual integrated life science appliance
  13. 13. Conceptual Diagram for Wireless Communication Device RF Frontend IF & Baseband Auxiliary Mainly Analog Functions Circuit Mainly Digital Circuit • Low RF Signal Loss Critical • High Interconnect Density: • Need High Frequency Stability Fine Line, Pitch and Pad • High Functional Integration: • High Speed and Low Cross Medium K (7-200) Dielectric Talk: Low K ( < 4) Dielectric • Low L,C,R Values • High L,C,R Values
  14. 14. RF Device Elemental Structures ANT C7 C8 Z1 Multilayer Capacitor Z4 C1 Z2 D1 Z3 C4 TX RX Vertically Coiled C2 C3 D2 C5 Transmission Line BIAS C6 Metal Dielectric Metal Horizontally Coiled Substrate Transmission Line Capacitor
  15. 15. Conceptual MCIC Structure
  16. 16. MCIC Integration Efforts IRIDIUM: LNA AND SWITCH ANT ACC Rx / Tx - ANT / ACC RF SWITCH PCS / DCS MCIC FILTER GSM LEAP: TRI-BAND Rx VCO TUNABLE DUPLEXER GSM LEAP: TRI-BAND Tx VCO GSM KRAMER: DUAL BAND PA MATCH, HARMONIC FILTER, Power Amp COUPLER
  17. 17. Example of RF Front-End Functional Integration • ~ ~ • LNA Bypass Impedance Power and Bias Capacitors Bandpass Filter Matching Line To Bias Amplifier Circuit Trap From Filter Amplifier 1 cm X 1 cm Switch w/ Harmonic 41 components per sq. cm. Filter To Mixer Switch Image Reject Filter Transmit Antenna Bias
  18. 18. Synthesis Strategy of T2000 Dielectric* Ceramic Filler Tf Glass: K2O, B2O3, SiO2 Adjuster CaO, SrO, BaO Al2O3 TiO2 60 vol % 35 vol % 5 vol % Sintering 850~ 900 °C Glass Crystalline Phases Tita- K2O, B2O3 CaAl2Si2O8 (35 vol%) Al2O3 nates (SiO2) SrAl2Si2O8 (10 vol%) 25 vol % 5 vol % 20 vol % 50 vol% BaAl2Si2O8 (5 vol%) Near Zero Temp. Coef. of Resonator Frequency Low Dielectric Loss Tangent Lead (Pb) Free Formulation
  19. 19. Formation of High Q Dielectric 10.0 1200 1100 K 9.0 1000 900 K Q Q 8.0 800 700 7.0 600 800 825 850 875 900 925 950 975 Temperature (°C) • Sintering T > 850 °C is necessary for high Q • Self Limiting Crystallization - Wide Sintering Window
  20. 20. Compensation of Tf in T2000 Dielectric 1.006 Tf Measurement Compensation of Tf: 1.004 TiO2: TK =-750 ppm/°C CaTiO3: TK =-1850 ppm/°C SrTiO3: TK =-3000 ppm/°C Normalized Frequency 1.002 1.000 Tf Measurement 1.248 1.246 TiO2 added Hz) 0.998 T2000: 0.6 ppm/C No TiO 9 2 FerroA6: -48 ppm/C 1.244 DuPont 943: -58 ppm/C 0.996 DuPont 951: -69 ppm/C 1.242 Resonant frequency (10 Hereaus: -76 ppm/C 1.24 0.994 -50 -30 -10 10 30 50 70 90 1.238 Temperature (C) Tf =4.2 ppm/°C 1.236 • Tf of T2000 is ~ 80 ppm/°C 1.234 Tf =-78.5 ppm/°C without compensation 1.232 • Can be continuously tuned -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 Temperature (°C) to ~ 0 ppm/°C
  21. 21. Tf Impact on Embedded Filter Performance Example of Tf Influence on Filter Performance 0 10 Stop Band Pass Band 20 Attn. Filter 30 response at room Tf = - 60, Q=1000 40 temperature Tf = 0 , Q=1000 50 850 900 MHz 950 Tf = -(1/2)Tk -  Tk: T coefficient of dielectric constant : linear CTE, 3~15 ppm/°C
  22. 22. Applications of the Ceramic MEMS • Integration of RF-Wireless Functions • Miniaturization of Fuel Cell Systems – Direct Methanol – Reformed Hydrogen • Life Science Appliances – MHD pumping – DNA amplification – DNA hybridizatin and detection – Photonic light source – Conceptual integrated life science appliance
  23. 23. MicroSystem Fuel Cell & Applications A Fuel Cell is a System Fuel Delivery System Fuel Processing/Reforming Stack Fuel Supply Small Portable Large Applications Applications LOCAL Central Mobile FIXED Utilities Power MOBILE Distributed Luggable Utilities Power DISTRIBUTED
  24. 24. Methanol Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel cell Two Approaches Proton Conducting _ Pt-Ru Catalyst Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) + Membrane CH3OH Air (O2) - Low Power Density 6H+ Electrode - Room Temperature Operation Pt Catalyst CO2 - Liquid handling e- Load - Initial Product Target: CH3OH + H2O CO2 + 3H2O 100 mw system for Portables Hydrogen Fuel cell Proton Conducting Reformed Hydrogen (Methanol H2) Fuel Cells (RHFC) Pt Catalyst _ + Membrane - High Power Density H2 Air (O2) 2H+ Electrode - Reformer Operating Temp ~200ºC Pt Catalyst - Gas handling e- Load - Initial Focus on miniature reformer 2H2 + O2 2H2O Higher wattage systems
  25. 25. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell System CO2 Separation & Venting Water Recovery Water & Recirculation Cartridge DC-DC Control Converter Mixing Fuel circuitry Cell Chamber Stack Fuel (Methanol) MEMS Pumps Sensors Rechargeable Cell Cartridge Battery Phone Methanol Concentration Temperature Flow
  26. 26. DMFC Fuel Cell Assembly Gold Concept for Fuel Cell with integrated Current pumping and control Flow Field Collector Air Holes (anode side) (cathode side) MEA Gaskets Working Fuel Cell Assembled Fuel Cell
  27. 27. Reformed Hydrogen Fuel Cell System Temperature & Control Po2 Sensors Circuitry Fuel Vaporizer (chemical heat) or Electric Heat Preferential Fuel (Methanol) Oxidation Cartridge DC-DC Reactor Converter Steam Reformer (CO cleanup) Fuel - Catalyst Cell Stack Water - Temperature 250C Rechargeable Cell Cartridge Battery Phone Heat Exchanger Capture waste heat from FC feed
  28. 28. Reformed Hydrogen Fuel Cell System Fuel Reformer Miniature Fuel Reformer with Integrated Chemical Combustor Using Ceramics MEMS CH3OH H2O Technology (Conceptual Design) Reformer Output to Fuel Cell and Gas Insulation analysis 250 °C Insulator Steam Reformer (Endothermic Reaction) Fuel Reformer H2 in CuO-ZnO Catalyst Chemical Combustor Air in CH3OH + H2O CO2 + H2 + CO (about 1%) Fuel Vaporizer/Heat Exchanger MeOH in Insulator Exhaust out CO Insulation Clean up CO + 1/2O2 CO2 Preferential Methanol/Water (1:1 mole ratio) Oxidation Liquid Feed Pump: 10- 25 uL/min Catalyst H2 gas to fuel cell
  29. 29. RHFC Fuel Processor Miniature Steam Reformer To Produce Reformer Test Data Hydrogen Gas from Liquid Methanol Fuel (MeOH/ Water :1/1.05, 5 ul/min inlet fuel) 100% MeOH CO2 CO2 Steam reformer 80% Gas Outlet CO catalyst Volume % (H2 , CO and CO2) CO2 60% 40% Fuel Inlet Fuel Vaporizer (Methanol + Water) H2 H2 H2 20% 0% 180 200 230 ~ 1 micro-liter/min total liquid in Temperature (C) produces ~ 1 milli-liter/min total gas out. >90% MeOH Conversion @ 200C • 50 ul/min fuel can produce sufficient H2 for a Fuel Cell to produce 3W power operating at 30% efficiency
  30. 30. Applications of Ceramic MEMS • Integration of RF-Wireless Functions • Miniaturization of Fuel Cell Systems – Direct Methanol – Reformed Hydrogen • Life Science Appliances – MHD pumping – DNA amplification – DNA hybridizatin and detection – Photonic light source – Conceptual integrated life science appliance
  31. 31. Piezo-driven LTCC Micropump • Multilayer ceramic design • Cofired ball check valves • Piezoelectrically driven, PZT unimorph 200 Flow Rate (micro litre/min) 10~30 Hz 150 5 Hz 100 50 Hz 50 1 Hz 0 0 10 20 30 40 Vp-p 200 Flow Rate (micro litre/min) Vp-p= 30 V 150 Vp-p=20 V 100 50 Vp-p=10 V 0 0 20 40 60 Frequecy (Hz) Cofired balls inside
  32. 32. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Pumping Initial Pump Design Basic MHD Theory First Generation MHD B View Channel 1 mm I v IBw 2 h v 8mL( w  h) 2 OUTLET Outlet Inlet Electrodes for E-field “channel for pumping” External mini-electromagnet INLET for B-field MHD Pumping Video MHD Experimental Data (100 mM NaCl solution) 3.5 2.0 3.0 1.5 Model Prediction Model Prediction 1.0 Measured Data Flow Rate (uL/min) 2.5 Measured Data Flow Rate (uL/min) 0.5 2.0 0.0 1.5 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 -0.5 1.0 -1.0 0.5 -1.5 0.0 -2.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Phase Angle (Degrees) Current (mA) Impact: No moving parts, bi-directional, non-pulsating flow
  33. 33. DNA amplification CONTINUOUS FLOW POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) DESIGN LTCC DEVICE THERMAL PROFILE Outlet 95 C 55 C 72 C AIR GAP CHANNEL 1 CHANNEL 2 CHANNEL 3 AIR GAP Generation 1 Model Predictions Experimental Validation Inlet AIR AIR GAP GAP DNA AMPLFICATION Generation 2 Second generation design completed with reduction in dead volume from 75% to 25% of the reactor
  34. 34. DNA hybridization & detection FABRICATED DEVICES MODELING OBJECTIVE: less than 1C temperature variation across the array Sensing Electrodes Heater: Ag-Pd strip of 80 squares Resistance: 30 mW/square x 80 squares = 2.4W Energy Input: 160 mW Heat loss: Natural Convection at device boundary Temperature Profile PCB-based array Schematic of E-chip across Sensor Pads Ag-Pd Heater Microwell Gold Pad & Via Sensor pads Temperature Heater Plane sensor Ceramic arrays
  35. 35. Model Validation of Thermal Profile Experimental Details Heater Resistance: 2.6 W Current: 250 mA Energy Input (expt.): 0.1625 W Energy Input (model): 0.16 W Temperature Profile along X-axis Temperature Profile along Y-axis Measured DT < 0.5 C DT ~ 0.5 C Predicted Column 3 Column 2 Column 1 Row 4 Row 2 Row 3 Row 1
  36. 36. Ceramic Micro Hollow Cathode Discharge Integrated UV Light Source 1000 800 XeI*B-X Intensity (a.u.) 253 nm 600 400 XeI*B-A 320 nm 200 Iodine I*2 206 nm 342 nm 0 200 250 300 350 400 Wavelength (nm) Dia. =250 mm Separation = 190 mm Gas: XeI V = 300 V I = 150 mA Collaboration with G. Eden, B. Vojak, Pressure = 20-60 Torr V Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois
  37. 37. CMEMS Enabled Devices and Functions Capacitive sensing of fluids Capacitor Capacitive sensing of fluids: Channel flow sensor plate -Channel flow sensor -Fluidic-well fill sensor Conductor -Precise metering of fluids trace -’Macro-to-micro’ fluid metering Fluidic well fill sensor 160 140 Fluid heating Temperature (deg C) Integrated coil heater 120 100 80 60 Temperature region 40 of interest for “PCR” 20 Electromagnetic-Coil Integration 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Heater-Coil Power (Watts) Electromagnetic coil 50 Magnetic Flux (Gauss) 0 -50 -100 Coil High-mu material -150 Integrated EM coils Enable: -200 Polymer “Mag-Spheres” -Magnetic microsphere manipulation attracted to embedded -250 -Magnetic-based stirring -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 electromagnetic coil -Magnetic pumping concepts Power (Watts)
  38. 38. MST Integrated Bio-Analysis Appliance ELECTRONIC MST-ENABLED 2-way Wireless Signaling & Networks (ANTENNA) FEATURES - uP & Memory - Thermal Cycles Ceramic-MEMS - Photon Sources - Photo Imager/Det - uFluidic Channels - uBio Chemistry - uPumping - Dense Packing MST-INTEGRATION - Low Cost TECHNOLOGIES examples: RFIC - Si-MEMS uPump uPump uC - Ceramic-MEMS - PCB/HDI/Plastics - Si ICs uC 3D LTCC Smart Substrate - RFIC neuRFon™ - LTCC 3D Interconnect Miniature Blood Analyser - Micro Displays - Wafer Scale Ass’y Input Blood Sample -- cell sort -- lysing -- DNA amplify -- DNA signal detection -- DNA analysis -- Transmission -- - Known Good Parts Medical Network Database -- Medical Network Response P. Roberts-SSRC
  39. 39. Summary • A Microsystems Technology is Emerging – Enabling integration/miniaturization of bench top appliances – Enabling devices that are multifunction integrating electronic, microfluidic, mechatronic, thermonic and photonic devices • These appliances will impact the electronic, energy, life science and micro-reactor related markets • A Ceramic – “MEMS” or MST technology is emerging as an important multifunction micro-systems 3D integration technology: • Building on the multilayer “packaging/interconnect” and capacitor technologies and infrastructure • A true 3D integration technology with a rich menu of integrateable materials for Device opportunities • Provides dimension gap system tradeoff: SOC vs SIP
  40. 40. Summary CMEMS Applications will accelerate with: •Advances in simulation and modeling tools •Advances in materials integration, and feature forming technologies •Expanded Research at Universities and National Labs • Establishment of CMEMS User Facilities • Establishing Standards for Materials and Processes • Emulating PCB and Silicon Foundry Infrastructure .. Cost, Cycle Times, Multiple Sources
  41. 41. Material and Process Challenges Material challenges: • Dielectrics • Ceramics (e.g., high K dielectrics) • Glass-ceramics (LTCC) • Glasses (encapsulation, sealing etc) • Conductors Au, Ag, Ag/Pd, Pt, Cu, base metals,… • Resistors (internal cofired, post fired, etc) • Magnetic Materials (ferrites, permanent magnets, etc) • Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Materials Process Challenges • Tape and Thick film processes • Thin film process • Interconnect technologies Looking for collaborations in the above fields!
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