The green and gold roads to open access
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The green and gold roads to open access

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  • To maximise research access, supplement the existing system: Do as before, but also: Self-archive the preprint in your university’s Eprint Archive, so every would-be user can access it. Self-archive the postprint in your university’s Eprint Archive, so every would-be user can access it. Research access is maximized and so research impact is maximized.
  • The OA average percentage is calculated in the previous slide, by simply averaging all the fields, in other words, by weighting them all as equally important. However, the average across fields needs to be weighted by the number of papers published annually in each field, and a SCOPUS-weighted analysis (where fields are weighted by their number of documents published in 2007) is a more accurate estimate. As shown in this figure, that puts the current cross-field average for 1998-2006 at about 13% rather than 20%. And the current OA rate is probably about 15%.
  • Multiple regression analysis. Here four metrics are tested against citation counts as the criterion.
  • In order to explore the evolution of OA advantage over time and by field, we plot the average cumulative number of citations per article as a function of article age, by field, for articles published in 2000. These figures show for each field, the average cumulative number of citations per article for OA and non-OA articles. For fields, as an article gets older, and its cumulative citations grow, its OA advantage grows too. However, this advantage differ in magnitude depending on the field; it is relatively high for Chemistery, Clininical Medecine, Physics and Biomedical Research and is relatively weak in Mathematics, Biology, Social Science and Health.
  • - In order to display the OA advantage in a different way and show more graphically how it is distributed across the citation ranges, we calculated the proportions of OA articles at each citation count and compared them to those for NOA articles. - This Figure shows that as the citation count increases, the fraction of the total OA articles at each citation count overtakes the corresponding fraction of the total NOA articles.

The green and gold roads to open access The green and gold roads to open access Presentation Transcript

  • The Green and the Gold Roads to Open Access Stevan Harnad Canada Research Chair in Cognitive Sciences Université du Québec à Montréal & University of Southampton UK IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Open Access is:
    • Free,
    • Immediate
    • Permanent
    • Full-Text
    • On-Line
    • Access
    IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Open Access to What?
    • ~2.5 million articles yearly
    • ~25,000 peer-reviewed journals
    • Books
    • Textbooks
    • Magazine articles
    • Newspaper articles
    • Music
    • Video
    • Software
    • “ Knowledge”
    • Data
    • Theses
    • Unrefereed Preprints
    • Courseware
    IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
    • There are two ways to provide OA:
    • Green OA Self-Archiving:
    • Authors self-archive the articles they publish in the 25,000 peer-reviewed journals
    • Gold OA Publishing:
    • Authors publish in one of the c. 7000 OA journals (some still recovering costs through institutional subscriptions, others through author/institutional publication charges ) http://www.doaj.org/
    IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Refereed “Post-Print” Accepted, Certified, Published by Journal Impact cycle begins: Research is done Researchers write pre-refereeing “ Pre-Print” Submitted to Journal Pre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts – “Peer-Review” Pre-Print revised by article’s Authors Researchers can access the Post-Print if their university has a subscription to the Journal 12-18 Months IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011 New impact cycles: New research builds on existing research
  • New impact cycles: New research builds on existing research Researchers can access the Post-Print if their university has a subscription to the Journal Refereed “Post-Print” Accepted, Certified, Published by Journal Impact cycle begins: Research is done Researchers write pre-refereeing “ Pre-Print” Submitted to Journal Pre-Print reviewed by Peer Experts – “Peer-Review” Pre-Print revised by article’s Authors 12-18 Months IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011 More impact cycles:
  • There are plenty of repositories IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Percentage of OA articles by year weighted by their number of documents published in 2007
  • IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Author Surveys (Alma Swan) IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • But almost all of them are almost-empty of OA’s target content (5-25%) IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Open Access: How? IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Optimal OA Mandate
    • ID/OA: The Immediate Deposit, Optional Access-setting (ID/OA) Mandate  
    •   
    • ID/IA: The Immediate Deposit/Immediate Access Mandate (too strong)
    • ID/DA: The Immediate Deposit/Delayed Access Mandate  (too vague)
    • DD/DA: Delayed Deposit/Delayed Access Mandate  (too weak)
    • Author Licensing Mandate ("author addendum") (too strong and too vague)
    IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Optimal OA Mandate
    • “ I wish to remind you that, as announced a year ago in March 2007, starting October 1st, 2009, only those references introduced in ORBi will be taken into consideration as the official list of publications accompanying any curriculum vitae for all evaluation procedures 'in house' (designations, promotions, grant applications, etc.). “
    • – Bernard Rentier, Recteur, Université de Liège
    IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Open Access: Why? IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • OA citation advantage for pre-refreeing pre-prints in physics arXiv IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Earlier download metrics correlated with later citation metrics Brody, T., Harnad, S. and Carr, L. (2006) Earlier Web Usage Statistics as Predictors of Later Citation Impact. Journal of the American Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST ) 57(8): 1060-1072. http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/10713/ Data from arXiv Downloads (“hits”) in the first 6 months correlate with citations 2 years later Most articles are not cited at all IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Average cumulative number of citations per article as a function of article age for articles published in 1998-2009
  • Average cumulative number of citations per article as a function of article age by field for articles published in 2000
  • Cumulative number of citations per article for Mandated and Self-Selected articles (articles published in 2002) OM N = 897 ØM N = 493 OS N = 1,098 ØS N = 3,269
  • Separate proportions for OA vs NOA articles at each citation count
  • Negative Binomial Regression Exp(B)-1 values of Negative Binomial Regression for the four institutions (with and without CERN/South) (* p>0.05)
  • Benefit/Cost comparisons for the UK (GBP millions over 20 years and benefit/cost ratio) Centre for Strategic Economic Studies Note: Compares Open Access alternatives against subscription publishing of national outputs , with costs, savings and increased returns expressed in Net Present Value over 20 years (GBP millions). Returns are to public sector and higher education R&D spending. HE = Higher Education. IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Leveraged Transition to Gold
    • Universal Green OA Mandates from universities and funders worldwide
    • Universal Green OA
    • Institutions cancel journal subscriptions
    • Journals cut costs, drop print and online edition and provide peer review service only – convert to Gold OA
    • Institutions pay peer review costs out of fraction of windfall cancelation savings
    IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
  • Optimal OA Mandate
    • ID/OA: The Immediate Deposit, Optional Access-setting (ID/OA) Mandate  
    •   
    • ID/IA: The Immediate Deposit/Immediate Access Mandate (too strong)
    • ID/DA: The Immediate Deposit/Delayed Access Mandate  (too vague)
    • DD/DA: Delayed Deposit/Delayed Access Mandate  (too weak)
    • Author Licensing Mandate ("author addendum") (too strong and too vague)
    IATUL Warsaw 30 May 2011
    • Author’s URLs (UQAM & Southampton):
    • http://users.ecs.soton.ac.uk/harnad /
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY ON OA IMPACT ADVANTAGE http ://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html
    • BOAI Self-Archiving FAQ: http://www.eprints.org/self-faq/
    • CITEBASE (scientometric engine): http://citebase.eprints.org/
    • EPRINTS: http://www.eprints.org/
    • OA ARCHIVANGELISM: http://openaccess.eprints.org/
    • ROAR (Registry of OA Repositories): http://roar.eprints.org/
    • ROARMAP (Registry of OA Repository Mandates):
    • http://www.eprints.org/openaccess/policysignup/
    • ROMEO/EPRINTS
    • ( Directory of Journal Policies on author OA Self-Archiving): http://romeo.eprints.org /
    • EnablingOpenScholarship (EOS) http://www.openscholarship.org
  • Copenhagen Sep 3 http://www.openscholarship.org