The Tsunami Online Portal Blueprint is the final project report for the course "Designing New Learning Environments" from Stanford University, thaught by Prof. Dr. Paul Kim.
The TOP Blueprints have been updated (2013/04/17).
0Stanford UniversityDesigning a New Learning EnvironmentFinal Team Project (November/December 2012)(latest update 2013/04/20)TOP Tsunami Online PortalBlueprints establishing a Tsunami Online Portal for global tsunami awareness and protectionTeam membersLeon GeschwindMaryBeth MatthewsCarsten Weerth
1DedicationThis Tsunami Online Portal Blueprint has been created on top of the shoulders of giants.It aims at pooling available information on tsunamis and tsunami education. Furthermore itcontains advice on best practices for implementing education and hazard warning systemsfor coastal communities.We are strongly depending on the fabulous material either for tsunami teaching or tsunamihazard prevention which has been developed before.Most notably the Hawaii Blueprints: “Tsunami Education: Blueprints for CoastalCommunities” by Kylie Alexandra, Genevieve Cain and Patsy Iwasaki (2009) and the UNESCOPapers- UNESCO (2007a): Natural Disaster Preparedness and Education for Sustainable Develop-ment. URL: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001504/150454e.pdf,- UNESCO (2007b): Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation, UNESCO’s Role. URL: http://unes-doc.unesco.org/images/0015/001504/150435e.pdf and- UNESCO (2008): Tsunami – Great Waves. URL: http://www.pdc.org/TAK/General/Charac-teristics/Great_Waves_2008_edition.pdf.We are indebted to Prof. Paul Kim for sharing his Teaching on the Development of NewLearning Environments in particular in underserved regions of the world and to StanfordUniversity for enabling a wider range of students and scholars to participate in theexperience of further education by collaboration by help of inventive learning environmentssuch as URL: http://www.venture-lab.org.For the DNLE website see URL: http://dnle.stanford.edu/.
2Abstract of the TOP Team ProjectSeacoast and island communities vulnerable to tsunamis must have a means to educatetheir local residents and visitors on tsunami awareness. They must also have a local portal ofresources that can used before, during, and after a tsunami event. The purpose of thesepublic educational resources are twofold:(1) to teach background information on tsunamis in order to educate through history; and(2) to present current information, tools, and educational resources which the local resi-dents of and visitors to a tsunami-prone area can use to plan for a tsunami and to useduring and after a tsunami.The resources should be current and available in online and offline (print) mediums andmust be made known and accessible to all residents or visitors, regardless of educationalbackground or access to the Internet. The resources should also be culturally sensitive to theparticular community and available in an adequate language. The local community has tobecome stakeholders in the development and sustainability of this local resource.The TOP Team Project presents a blueprint to build such an educational and sustainableplatform, one that collects current resources and is locally designed to meet the needs andresources of each community, including recognition of the surrounding culture. It presentsresearch from which these sites could be built. The TOP Blueprint is flexible: it could bemodified if online tools change or are developed, such as the recent influence of apps onmobile devices. The future holds many unforeseen technological changes, and the TOPBlueprint can adapt to meet and utilize changes in communication and technology while stillproviding critical educational resources.An abstract of this TOP Blueprint Paper has been published online under URL:https://venture-lab.org/education/blog_posts/6466?data_type=post.The Online version of this Blueprints Paper is available under URL:http://tsunamionlineportal.weebly.com/This TOP Tsunami Online Portal Blueprints Paper is available under URL:de.slideshare.net/Sternaugen/top-tsunami-online-portal-paper-blueprint
3Table of ContentsDedicationAbstractProject SummaryA. Project OutlineI. SettingII. Project PlanIII. FundingIV. Local Volunteer TeamV. Maintaining ResourcesB. IntroductionI. History and Danger ZonesII. Early Warning SystemsIII. Tsunami PreparednessIV. TsunamiReady Campaign of the National Weather ServiceV. Warning Signs for TsunamisC. Hawaii Paper: Blueprints for Education on TsunamisI. The Hawaii Tsunami 1 April 1946II. Following Hawaii Tsunamis at Hilo, Tsunami Warning System, Painful Lessons LearnedIII. Hawaii Blueprint Tips on TsunamisIV. Hawaii Blueprints Key QuestionsV. TOPs Own Tips
4D. Tsunami Awareness for ChildrenI. Teaching ConceptsII. Helpful Resources for Tsunami Awareness and Classroom Education and Excursionsa. Suitable Resources for Teachers, Adults and Familiesb. Suitable Resources for Classroom Education of Children/Pupilsc. Tsunami Education LinksE. Emergency Preparedness KitF. Tsunami PreparednessI. Basic Things to DoII. PrecautionsIII. Other CredentialsG. Advice for a Local ApproachH. ConclusionTsunami ResourcesBooks for AdultsYoung Children, JuvenilesScientific Publications & Technical ReportsTsunami Hazard Prevention Materials/BrochuresMultimediaInternet Videos (Youtube.com, etc.)MapsGeneral References/LinksTsunami Education LinksFree Emergency Preparedness Mobile Apps
5Project SummaryThe Tsunami Online Project aims at developing a framework for a tsunami preparednessonline community. Key components would include content background (i.e. online tsunamievacuation zone maps), shared online community resources (i.e. component could includemapping out tsunami evacuation routes), lessons learned (i.e. historical and current tsunamiinterviews), etc. a lifelong learning environment.Hawaii stands for a blueprint since this is a well-served area with a long standing history oftsunami preparedness. It also aims at creating blueprints for tsunami prone regions whichare less well served in the indo-pacific area. We thereby suggest a Tsunami Online Portal forGlobal awareness for tsunamis and emergency help in case of tsunamis.We are not inventing everything new. We are standing on the shoulders of giants andbuilding on top of their outstanding work and performance. We are trying to pool importantand useful data so that it is easily available and usable for coastal communities.
6A. Project OutlineI. SettingThe local council of the coastal community of the seacoast, [e.g. Australia, Bangladesh,Canada, Fiji, Indonesia, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Oceania, Philippines,Thailand, USA] is concerned their residents do not have enough training, education, orresources to prepare for a tsunami and its aftermath, especially in light of the 2004 tsunamiin the Indo-Pacific Region and the recent devastation on the East Coast caused by HurricaneSandy.II. Project PlanThe local council wants to implement an online portal of informational and educationalresources to provide the following to all of their residents, regardless of age or education:1. A collection of informational resources residents can access at any time. Theseresources would include websites of already existing sites, such as NOAA,http://www.noaawatch.gov/themes/tsunami.php and http://ptwc.weather.gov/, thePacific Disaster Center, http://www.pdc.org/iweb/pdchome.html, and Wikipedia.org,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunami which offer frequently updated information;information on how to prepare for a tsunami and its aftermath; maps of evacuationroutes.2. An interactive training scenario to educate residents (adults and children) on howto make correct decisions during the time of an imminent tsunami or in its aftermath.These can range in scenarios for target age groups. The training will be a 5-dayasynchronous training for adults. Once a resident completes the training, he or shewill receive a certificate. The training with children will be held by schools and also inkinder gardens.3. A social network tool, such as Google Person Finder, URL: http://google.org/-personfinder/global/home.html, accessible through mobile devices and computerswhere residents can re-connect in the aftermath; this component assumes, ofcourse, that there is power available and they have working devices.4. A Twitter account that can be used for daily notices, updates, and managedthrough a social media dashboard, like Hootsuite, http://hootsuite.com/. However,the purpose of the feed can switch to sending emergency messages when a tsunamiwarning goes into effect. In the recent aftermath of Hurricane Sandy on the EastCoast of the United States, the Twitter accounts of state and local officials andemergency teams became an invaluable resource of communication.5. In the event that not all residents have access to or a computer, they plan todesign and distribution of print materials containing pertinent information onpreparing for and recovering from a tsunami.
7III. FundingTo fund the site, the council has a minimal budget and plans to research grants for additionalfunding. They are also looking for a server (and back-ups) outside of their area. The councilalso intends to promote the project through a marketing campaign making the residentsaware of the site.IV. Local volunteer teamA local volunteer team under their current webmaster (who manages the council’s website)will maintain the site; the volunteer team will need training materials.V. Maintaining resourcesThe resources would have to be monitored to maintain the most current informationavailable, so a plan of sustainability of the portal would also have to be developed. Howeverrelying on official sites and Wikipedia is a sustainable approach which ensures up-to-dateinformation.
8B. IntroductionTsunamis are monster waves or harbor waves that can occur in all bodies of water,preferable in oceans. All coastal communities of the world are in danger of such waves but inparticular communities in regions with a high geological activity or with ice masses nearby.Earthquakes, icebergs, landslides and seaslides etc. can trigger the fast removal of the waterbody that results in a wave. The waves build up higher when approaching the coast. Thewater retreats from the shore (a warning sign for immediate impact). The only escape isclimbing to higher ground. And finally the wave or many waves are hitting ground at thecoast.I. History and Danger ZonesThe word tsunami is a Japanese expression for harbor wave. It is obvious that a tsunami is acommon natural phenomenon in the pacific area. Early historic accounts of tsunamis havebeen made by Greece and Roman historians for the Mediterranean Sea and scientificevidence has proven tsunamis in Norway’s fjords caused by landfalls.A tsunami hit Alexandria/Egypt in year 365 AD and Lisbon in 1755 AD.Warning SignsTypical warning signs for tsunamis in coastal areas are earthquakes, smaller waves that arespilling over the coastline , thundering noises from the sea or – most dramatically – stronglyreceding water masses in coastal areas (the water is withdrawn in order to build a hugewave)…Do not go after the receding water. Start for the inner regions of the land, for higher ground.Animals start to panic and react strange…II. Early Warning SystemsEarly Warning Systems (EWS) are in place in many well served regions (e.g. Japan, Hawaii,Canada, USA), but not in all regions of the Indo-Pacific area.Tsunami Escape RoutesTherefore official warnings are to be taken seriously.Buoys and satellite data are trying to forecast tsunami waves.The only escape route is to go inland (away from the coastline) and preferably to gain higherground.For Hawaii there are tsunami escape routes mapped in the old way on Tsunami escape mapsas well as modern tsunami escape maps in the internet.
9Figure: Tsunami waves are growing higher when hitting the coastSource: www.wikipedia.org/wiki/tsunami (animated), detail: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/-File:Propagation_du_tsunami_en_profondeur_variable.gifIII. Tsunami PreparednessTakahashi et. al. have shown in their 2008 paper that tsunami preparedness is of paramountimportance: this includes knowledge of tsunamis, awareness of tsunami danger and tsunamiemergency and evacuation plans.However it is also stressed that in some underserved communities the tsunami emergencyand evacuation plans should not only rely on modern, internet-based technology but shouldbe adapted to the needs and opportunities of the coastal community in question. They sug-gest using the small Japanese town of Nishiki as blueprint example (Takahashi et. al., 2008,p. 1).IV. TsunamiReady Campaign of the National Weather ServiceThe US National Weather Service has started a campaign to make coastal communitiesTsunami ready. A hazard zone and an evacuation plan must be implemented and certaincriteria for information knowledge management and distribution (e.g. local radio, etc.) mustbe ensured.Communities or counties that are tsunami ready can apply for acknowledgement and afterevaluation gain the label ”TsunamiReady”.Signs of Tsunami readiness can be placed at the shore to warn for tsunamis and display theescape routes.More information under URL:http://www.tsunamiready.noaa.gov/Sign of the TsunamiReady Campaign
10V. Warning Signs for TsunamisGeneral International Tsunami Warning SignSigns combining Tsunami warnings with advice for evacuation:Signs combining Tsunami warnings with advice for evacuation
11A Special Sign for TsunamiTeachers in the USAA Sign that incorporates three ways of approaching Tsunami Hazards
12C. Hawaii Paper: Blueprints for Education on TsunamisMany lessons can be learned from the Hawaii tsunami blueprint paper (pages from theBlueprint are indicated):TSUNAMI Education: Blueprint for Coastal Communities, Alexandra, Cain, Iwasaki, 2009I. The Hawaii Tsunami 1 April 1946 (pp. 3):“The people of this thriving, vibrant town of Hilo were caught completely by surprise by atsunami generated by a magnitude 7.8 undersea earthquake in the Aleutian Islands on April1, 1946. Massive tsunami waves, one believed to be 100 feet high completely destroyedScotch Cap Lighthouse Station on Unimak Island, Alaska, which was the nearest land to theepicenter. Traveling at approximately 500 miles per hour, the deep sea waves reached theisland of Hawai‘i just before 7 a.m. A series of waves crashed over the Hilo coastline; thethird wave was the largest, recorded at 26 feet above the normal water line on CoconutIsland. Since this was April Fool’s Day, many thought that the initial warnings and concernsof residents were jokes.Police officer Bob “Steamy” Chow was leaving his home in Wainaku when a neighbor toldhim that a tsunami had hit Hilo. “Oh yes, April Fool’s,” he responded with a smile. However,when he drove towards Downtown Hilo, he saw that one third of the railroad trestlespanning the Wailuku River had washed up-river and been deposited on the rock Maui’sCanoe. Mr. Chow quickly realized that this was no April Fool’s joke.He spent the next 18 hours directing traffic and people away from the danger zone and overthe following days had to assist with identifying the victims. The tsunami had claimed 96lives in Hilo and 25 lives in the coastal town of Laupāhoehoe. Five hundred homes andbusinesses were destroyed at a cost of $26 million.“II. Following Hawaii Tsunamis at Hilo (pp. 4), Tsunami Warning System, Painful LessonsLearned“Following the tsunami, the people of Hilo rebuilt their town, recreating many of the denselypopulated areas as before.No one imagined another devastating tsunami would arrive in the near future.With a functioning Tsunami Warning System (TWS) established soon after the 1946 event,Hilo experienced two more tsunamis, in 1952 and 1957. On November 5, 1952 Hilo receiveda surge 12 feet high, however, there were no casualties or fatalities and damage wasestimated to be less than $800,000. On March 9, 1957 a tsunami generated in the AleutianIslands hit north Kaua‘i communities hard. Ha‘ena received waves 32 feet above normal sealevel. Despite large wave heights and damage to property, thanks to the TWS not a single lifewas lost in either event. On May 22, 1960 a colossal magnitude 9.5 earthquake rocked theSouth American country of Chile and a destructive tsunami was generated. Witnesses at IslaChiloé, the largest island of the Chiloé archipelago, saw the water receding, exposing 1,500
13feet of sea floor and then an enormous wave 50 to 65 feet high forming offshore thatwashed over the island coastline. The death toll from the earthquake and tsunami wouldeventually reach 1,000 and the damage would amount to $417 million.Scientists predicted that it would take 15 hours for the waves to travel the 6,600 miles toHilo and would arrive just before midnight. At 8:30 p.m. sirens sounded in Hilo, but peopledidn’t really understand the warning because the siren system had changed just a fewmonths before and there was confusion as to what the siren meant.Under the old system, there were three separate soundings: the first siren indicated that atsunami warning was in effect; the second meant that it was time to evacuate; and the thirdwas set to go off just prior to the arrival of the waves. Under the new system, there was onlyone siren – and it meant “evacuate immediately.”Hilo residents reacted to the tsunami warning in different ways. Some remembered vividlythe destruction of the 1946 tsunami and did not want to take any chances. They packed upand evacuated their homes close to the shoreline. Even though they had lived through thetsunami, many could not believe that it would happen again. The two tsunamis in 1952 and1957 had not been destructive, lulling many people into a false sense of security. There werealso quite a few people who had evacuated earlier in the evening, but went back to theirhomes in the evacuation zone when nothing seemed to happen.After midnight, reports from a Honolulu radio station said that the estimated time of arrivalhad been set back by 30 minutes. Yet geologists in Hilo had already recorded the arrival ofthe first wave, which was a small, but noticeable 4 feet high. The radio report meant thatcommunication between the warning system and the news media had broken down and thismisinformation increased the danger to the public (Dudley & Lee, 1998).At 12:46 a.m. the second wave arrived in Hilo 9 feet above normal sea level. Just as in the1946 tsunami, the third wave was the most destructive. With a deafening roar, the 20-footnearly vertical wall of water crashed over Downtown Hilo and Waiākea Town at 1:04 a.m.After the tsunami waves reached the Hawai‘i Electric Light Company power plant, the entirecity was in darkness.In Hilo, 61 people died and several hundred people were treated for tsunami related injuries.The tsunami caused damage to 229 dwellings and 508 businesses and public buildings, thedamage totaled $50 million. For many, the loss of life was even harder to accept andcomprehend because it was so easily avoidable. The tsunami of 1960 highlighted the needfor not only education about the nature of the tsunami hazard but also the need foreducation on the procedures put in place to warn and evacuate public safely.“
1410 Important Facts about Tsunamis (p. 72)“1. Tsunamis have killed more people in the state of Hawai‘i than all other natural disasterscombined.2. Tsunamis can be generated by earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions.3. The natural warning signs of a tsunami are an earthquake, water receding (or an exposedsea floor or reef), water surging inland or quickly rising above normal sea level, a strangesound out to sea or extremely unusual behavior of animals . If you experience any of these,move to high ground immediately.4. A tsunami may come ashore as a series of waves; the first wave may not be the largest.5. Tsunamis can travel across oceans at 450 miles per hour.6. A tsunami generated in Chile can arrive here in 13 hours; a tsunami from Alaska can arrivehere in 5 hours. A tsunami generated just off our coast can arrive in minutes.7. Tsunami sirens are tested on the first working day of each month in Hawai‘i, when youhear sirens you should always turn on your radio, even if you think it is a test.8. Locally-generated tsunamis have little or no warning. There most likely will not be time tosound the sirens. If you feel an earthquake move to high ground.9. Tsunamis can occur at anytime day or night. There is no tsunami season.10. When it comes to tsunamis, it is not a case of ‘if’ but ‘when’.Take care of yourself - take care of others.”
15III. Hawaii Blueprint Tips on Tsunamis“TIPS: (p. 4)Talk with friends and family about their perceptions, knowledge or recollections of pasttsunami events.Speak with public safety organizations (i.e. Civil Defense) about the current tsunami risk inyour community.Seek out individuals and organizations in your community eager to improve tsunamiresilience.TIPS: (p. 8)Research what other communities have done to better prepare for tsunamis and dialoguewith the key people involved.Research your culture or host culture and use the local wisdom as a “roadmap” for futuretsunami education programs.TIPS: (p. 19)Collaboration is the key to achieving successful outcomes that can be sustained.Customize education to the needs of the community in question.Identify ways or elements of a program that will encourage interest, engagement andmotivation of your community to learn about and prepare for the next tsunami.TIPS: (p. 27)A survey is a good way to gauge community knowledge and levels of preparedness. In doinga survey, you may meet others that would like to collaborate with you on tsunami educationprograms.Learning through stories is an excellent way to get the community to identify with thedangers of tsunami hazards and their relevance to the present.[The fair logo was designed by Connections Public Charter School students, April 2008.](p. 37)
16TIPS: (p. 37)An event or competition is an excellent way to engage a community as a whole.Collaborate with a school or community organization to host an event.Do not be afraid to think outside the box!At an event, always honor the host culture.[T-Shirts designed by Connections’ students were worn by Partners and volunteers at thefair](p. 37)TIPS: (p. 45)It is realistic to expect that any successful tsunami educational program will be achievedthrough trial and error.It is realistic to expect and understand that it takes time and ongoing effort for youreducational program to really have an impact on your community.IV. Hawaii Blueprints Key QuestionsKey Questions (p. 5)What impacts have past tsunamis had on your community?How do people in your community perceive the tsunami hazard?
17Key Question (p. 13)How can existing educational materials or projects be adapted to your community andimplemented effectively with the resources you have at hand?Key Questions (p. 28)How prepared is my community for the next tsunami?How can I engage the community to prepare for the next tsunami event?Key Question (p. 38)How can each individual in this community and this community as a whole be selfsufficient before, during and after a tsunami?Key Question (p. 46)How can each individual in your community be safe and self sufficient before, during andafter a tsunami?”V. TOPs Own TipsTOPs Own Tips:Be prepared.Make your community aware of the risks of tsunamis.Make schoolchildren your tsunami agents/explorers/messengers.In case of emergency take your mobile with you.Make sure to have independent power recharging sources such as solar panels for yourmobile. Mobile communication will possibly be the only communication after the disaster.Prepare a disaster preparation kit.Listen to warning messages and alerts.Listen to your community leaders and emergency warnings.Take warnings seriously.
18D. Tsunami Awareness for ChildrenTsunami awareness for children is an important point that should be addressed in school andkinder gardens.The concept of a tsunami and warning signs (retreating water) should be explained.Children could also be asked to paint and draw this situation.I. Teaching ConceptsMany tsunami teaching concepts for children have been developed already and presentedpublicly: http://nthmp.tsunami.gov/documents/CompendiumTsunamiEd.pdfII. Helpful Resources for Tsunami Awareness and Classroom Education and Excursionsa. Suitable Resources for Teachers, Adults and FamiliesTsunami Brochure from the NOAA, URL:http://www.stormready.noaa.gov/tsunamiready/resources/Tsmi_Brochure10.pdfWebsite of the National Weather Service on Tsunamis, URL:http://www.tsunamiready.noaa.gov/The National Weather Service West Coast Warning Center (with up-to-date warning map),URL: http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/The International Tsunami Information Center in Honolulu/Hawaii Brochure, URL:http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/itic_brochure_oct041.pdfThe Hawaii Tsunami Hazard Information Centre in Honolulu/Hawaii Brochure, URL:http://www.csc.noaa.gov/psc/pubs/Tsunami%20Service%20Brochure.pdfNational Weather Services Brochure: Tsunami, the great waves, URL:http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/tsunami.htmNational Weather Service, JetStream, Online School for Weather, Tsunamis, URL:http://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream/tsunami/tsunami_intro.htmBureau of Metrology, Australia, Tsunami Awareness Brochure, URL:http://www.em.gov.au/Documents/Tsunami%20Awareness%20Brochure%20%20-%20PDF%20spread%20-%20FINAL.PDFQueensland Government (Australia): Tsunami, URL:http://www.emergency.qld.gov.au/emq/css/tsunami.aspThe Tsunami Project, URL: http://pages.vassar.edu/tsunamiproject/
19b. Suitable Resources for Classroom Education of Children/PupilsWorksheets from the Californian Geological Survey: URL:http://www.consrv.ca.gov/cgs/geologic_hazards/Tsunami/Documents/CA_Tsun_CGS_lesson.pdf,http://www.consrv.ca.gov/cgs/geologic_hazards/Tsunami/Documents/CA_Tsun_CalEMA_lesson.pdfand in particular the website on “my hazards”Classroom Exercise in Math on Tsunamis, URL:http://www.geo.utep.edu/pub/bkonter/education/Lab9_Tsunami_Classroom_Exercise.pdfNOAA Education Resources on Tsunamis, URL:http://www.education.noaa.gov/Ocean_and_Coasts/Tsunami.htmlNOAA, Book chapter on Tsunamis (Authors unknown), URL:http://www.oesd.noaa.gov/TERK/tsunami_ready_educationcd/emedia_chap4.pdfAustralia’s Department of Education’s Website on Tsunamis (with many helpful links), URL:http://www.det.wa.edu.au/education/cmis/eval/curriculum/pathfinders/disasters/tsunamis/Virginia Institute of Marine Science: Tsunami, Wave of Destruction, URL:http://www2.vims.edu/bridge/DATA.cfm?Bridge_Location=archive0105.htmlAlaska Tsunami Education Program, suitable for different ages/grades: URL:http://www.aktsunami.org/lessons/k4.htmlhttp://www.aktsunami.org/lessons/58.htmlhttp://www.aktsunami.org/lessons/912.htmlLesson Plan by Rachel Klein: LESSON PLAN: THE SCIENCE OF TSUNAMIS: SEEKINGUNDERSTANDING IN THE WAKE OF TRAGEDY, URL:http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/teachers/lessonplans/science/tsunamis.htmlThe JASON-Project on Tsunami Wave Formation, URL:http://www.jason.org/digital_library/6345/tsunami-wave-formationLesson Plan Tsunamis (Grade 6-8), URL:http://www.discoveryeducation.com/teachers/free-lesson-plans/tsunami.cfmTsunami Strike!, Module form the University Corporation on Atmospheric Research, URL:https://www.meted.ucar.edu/training_module.php?id=813 (registration mandatory)International Tsunami Information Center/UNESCO, TsunamiTeacher (International), URL:http://itic.ioc-unesco.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1441&Itemid=-1075&lang=enThe Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA): Teaching Resources onTsunamis including a Teacher Handbook, a Student Workbook, a Teacher PowerpointPresentation, etc., URL: http://weready.org/tsunami/index.php?option=com_content&-view=article&id=11&Itemid=23
20c. Tsunami Education LinksAustralian Government: URL:http://beachsafe.org.au/tsunami/Alaska Tsunami Education Program, URL:http://www.aktsunami.com/Disastereducation.org, URL:http://www.disastereducation.org/library/public_2004/Tsunamis.pdfHawaii Tsunami Education, URL:http://discovertsunamis.org/NOAA Tsunami Education, URL:http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/education.htmlNelson, S. A.: Tulane University: Tsunamis, URL:http://earthsci.org/education/teacher/basicgeol/tsumami/tsunami.htmlAll links were checked in November 2012.
21E. Emergency Preparedness Kit“Recommendations For Disaster Preparedness KitWhen preparing a disaster preparedness kit, first plan for the essentials for survival. Thinkpractical first, and think comfortable second. All essential needs should be able to fit in a 5gallon bucket. Absolute necessities include food, water, and warmth.FoodFoodstuffs should be high energy non-perishables and kept in sealed air-tight containers.Made-ready meals and canned goods are excellent choices for emergency food sources. It issafe to ration, the body can be maintained on half of your average caloric intake during anemergency. Provisions should include enough food supplies to last five to seven days foreach family member.WaterWater stored for drinking purposes should also be a supply sufficient to last three days foreach family member. Electrolyte-enhanced water and vitamins help to replace electrolytesand the fluids lost, in order to prevent dehydration and seizures. Consider having an equalamount of water handy on the side for sanitation purposes. Stored food and water shouldbe cycled out every six months.WarmthThe body can only subsist in a short range of temperatures. Keep warm in cold temperaturesto prevent illness and hypothermia. Critical areas to keep dry and warm are the head, neck,chest, feet, and groin. Athletic clothing offers moderate environmental insulation withoutgiving up the benefits of being easily attainable, affordable, lightweight, portable, andbreathable. Mylar is an excellent lightweight and portable material that offers betterthermal and environmental protection, but is not breathable and recommended for limiteduse only.Other NeedsAfter considering your most basic needs, consider additional necessities to include in youremergency preparedness kit. When making additions to your family emergency kit, keep inmind that it should be easily transportable, accessible, and close to an exit of the building.Mobile emergency kits should be smaller, more personalized, and should be no bigger than abackpack or fanny pack. While you can never be too ready or too prepared, you do not wantto over burden yourself when you need to be on the move. Consult with the checklists fromthe FEMA Ready.gov and American Red Cross websites provided below to determine yourplanning needs.“URL: http://www.scd.hawaii.gov/dp_kit.htmlFurther Resources:- Red Cross Emergency Kit, URL: http://www.scd.hawaii.gov/documents/red_cross_kit_-checklist.pdf- Ready.gov Emergency Checklist, URL: http://www.scd.hawaii.gov/documents/ready_-checklist.pdf
22F. Tsunami PreparednessI. Basic Things to Doo “Listen to local radio stations for official Civil Defense announcements and instructions.o Evacuate if advised or ordered to do so.o Listen for the "all clear" announcement before returning to the coastline.o Leave telephone and communications lines open for emergencies.o Stay away from the beach and the coastline.II. Precautionso Find out if you live, work, or go to school in an tsunami inundation zone.o Know your elevation above sea level, as evacuation orders maybe based on thesenumbers.o Be familiar with tsunami warning signs (earthquakes and landslides).o Have a chosen meeting location that is inland and elevated.o Have an evacuation and disaster kit ready that includes a radio and batteries.“URL: http://www.pdc.org/iweb/tsunami_preparedness.jsp?subg=1Useful link:Pacific Disaster Center, URL: http://www.pdc.orgEducators and Leaders may use the Tsunami Awareness Kit (TAK), see URL:http://www.pdc.org/iweb/tsunami_kit.jsp?subg=1
23III. Other CredentialsSmall outlines help to sketch the main points:Edu4hazards.org. How to survive a tsunami, URL: http://www.edu4hazards.org/tsuna-mi.html.
24G. Advice for a Local ApproachSet up a local process that is suitable, sustainable and tailored to the needs, demands andresources of the coastal community in question:Setting up a local TOP, based on the Hawaii Blueprint paper.Performing a local approach:Survey the areaPreassessmentResearch what warning system is already in place. Factor that into the TOP resources anddevelopment.Find out what the citizens already know. How do they communicate? What is the best wayto get information out in the area, i.e. advertising? Radio? Television? Pamphlets?Identify key community leaders (from all different areas, such as political office holders,church leaders, other social leaders, etc.). Who are willig to work on the project and whowould know of funding, issues of sustainability, power sources, what already has been done.Identify the schools and interview the key principal stakeholders in the school, such as theprincipal, teachers, parents, etc. Who would be involved with the children?Identify the mobile and energy sources available, especially emergency resources for afterthe tsunami. Make sure to have sustainable energy sources available such as solar power orwind power.
25H. ConclusionMake sure your community, your people and their children are aware of:- Tsunami escape routes (care for maps either on paper or online),- Tsunami alert messages over the radio,- Tsunami alert messages send by twitter,- Prepare sustainable power sources for your mobile devices,- The tsunami history of your region should be researched and considered,- Tsunami alerts issued by reliable sources such as NOAA (US) or JMA (JP).- Make school children tsunami experts, explorers and messengers;About the usage of theses Global Tsunami Blueprints:- Make this information available to your community. Either directly in English, or translateit when adequate.- Knowledge on tsunamis and their warning signs are rescuing lives during the next tsunamievents.- Make the danger of tsunamis a common knowledge to your community – in schools butalso in everyday live.- Make your community tsunami emergency and escape plans publicly available and known.- Make emergency trainings with your community and schools.- Create tsunami emergency and escape routes on traditional maps or in the internet.- Knowledge on tsunamis and their warning signs are rescuing lives during the next tsunamievents.- Rely on tsunami warnings from serious agencies such as JMA (Japanese MetrologicalAgency).- Build tsunami shelters where appropriate.- Make school children tsunami awareness mangers, tsunami explorers and tsunamimessengers.
26Tsunami ReferencesBooks for AdultsAyre, Robert S., Dennis S. Mileti, and Patricia B. Trainer. 1975. Dimensions of the TsunamiHazard in the United States, in Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards in the United States: AResearch Assessment, Monograph No. NSF-RA-E-75-005, University of Colorado, Boulder, p.93-150.Bernard, Eddie N. 1991. Tsunami hazard: A practical guide for tsunami hazard reduction.Selected papers from the 14th International Tsunami Symposium. Kluwer Academic, Boston.326 pp.Bernard, Eddie N. 1984. Proceedings, Tsunami Symposium, Hamburg, General Republic ofGermany. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Seattle. 273 pp.Center for Oral History, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 2000. TSUNAMIS REMEMBERED:Oral Histories of Survivors and Observers in Hawaii. Social Science Research Institute,Honolulu. Vol 1, 494 pp.Center for Oral History, University of Hawaii at Manoa. 2000. TSUNAMIS REMEMBERED:Oral Histories of Survivors and Observers in Hawaii. Social Science Research Institute,Honolulu. Vol 2, 495-980 pp.Cox, Doak C. 1987. Tsunami Casualties and Mortality in Hawaii, Joint Institute for MarineAtmospheric Research, University of Hawaii, Honolulu. 120 pp.Dall, W. H. 1870. United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Pacific Coast Pilot, Part I. p. 202-204.De Rycke, Richard J. 1985. Tsunamis in United States Earthquakes,Carl Stover, editor, UnitedStates Geological Survey Bulletin 1655, 141 pp.Dudley, Walter C. and Min Lee. 1998. Tsunami! [Second Edition]. University of Hawaii Press,Honolulu. 362 pp.Dudley, Walter C. and Scott C. Stone. 2000. The Tsunami of 1946 and 1960 and theDevastation of Hilo Town. Donning Company Publisher, VA. 64 pp.Fradin, Judith B. and Brindell, Dennis . 2008. Witness to Disaster: Tsunamis. Witness toDisaster. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.Hebenstreit, G.T. and R.O. Reid. 1980. Tsunami Response of the Hawaiian Islands, Reference80-2-T, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 289 pp.Iida, Kumizi, Doak C. Cox, and George Pararas-Carayannis. 1967. Preliminary catalog oftsunamis occurring in the Pacific Ocean. University of Hawaii., Honolulu. 274 pp.
27Kono, Juliet S. 1995. Tsunami Years. Bamboo Ridge Press, Honolulu. 173 pp.Lander, James F. 1989. United States Tsunamis. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Boulder. 265 pp.Myles, Douglas. 1985. The Great Waves. McGraw-Hill, New York. 206 pp.Pararas-Carayannis, George. 1969. Catalog of Tsunamis in the Hawaiian Islands. World DataCenter A. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey., 94 pp.Preisendorfer, Rudolph W. 1971. Recent Tsunami theory. HIG-71-15. Hawaii Institute ofGeophysics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, 55 pp.Roberts, Elliot B. 1961. History of Tsunamis in Smithsonian Report for 1960, Publication4442, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., p. 327-340.Robinson , Andrew. 1993. Earth shock: Hurricanes, Volcanoes, Earthquakes, Tornadoes andOther Forces of Nature. Thames and Hudson, New York. 304 pp.Soloviev, S. L., and Ch. N. Go. 1974. A Catalogue of Tsunamis on the Western Shore of thePacific Ocean (173-1968). Nauka Publishing House, Moscow, USSR. 310 pp.Soloviev, S. L., and Ch. N. Go. 1975. A Catalogue of Tsunamis on the Eastern Shore of thePacific Ocean (1513-1968). Nauka Publishing House, Moscow, USSR. 204 pp.Tinti, Stefano. 1993. Tsunamis in the World, Fifteenth International Tsunami Symposium,1991. Kluwer Academic, Boston. 228 pp.Walker, Daniel A. 1994. Tsunami Facts. School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology,University of Hawaii, Honolulu. 93 pp.Young Children, JuvenilesBonar, Samantha. 2002. Tsunamis- Natural Disaster Series. Capstone Press, Mankato. 48pp.Buck, Pearl S. 1976. The Big Wave. HarperCollins Publishers, New York. 57 pp.Drohan, Michele Ingber. 1999. Tsunamis: Killer Waves. Natural Disasters. PowerKids Press,New York.Edu4hazards.org. unknown. How to survive a tsunami,URL: http://www.edu4hazards.org/tsunami.html.Fredericks, Anthony. 2002. Tsunami Man - Learning about Killer Waves with WalterDudley. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. 79 pp.Salisbury, Graham. 2007. Night of the Howling Dogs Wendy Lamb Books, New York. 191 pp.
28Sorenson, Margo. 1997. TSUNAMI! DEATH WAVE Perfection Learning, Iowa. 56pp.Thompson, Luke.. 2000. Tsunamis. Natural Disasters. Childrens Press, New York.Wade, Mary. 2002. TSUNAMI Monster Waves. Enslow Publishers, Inc., NJ. 48pp.Scientific Publications & Technical Reports(Science of Tsunami Hazards, the International Journal of the Tsunami Society, is publishedevery year by the Tsunami Society, Honolulu.)Abe K. 1995. Estimate of Tsunami Run-up Heights from Earthquake Magnitudes. ISBN 978-0-7923-3483-5Adams, William. 1970. Tsunamis of the Pacific, proceedings of the International Symposiumon Tsunamis and Tsunami Research 1969. East-West center Press, Honolulu. 513 pp.Alexandra, Kylie, Cain, Genevieve and Iwasaki, Patsy. 2009. Tsunami Education: A Blueprintfor Coastal Communites. Pacific Tsunami Museum, URL: http://tsunami.org/outreach1.html.Berg, Eduard. 1970. Field survey of the Tsunamis of 28 March 1964 in Alaska, andconclusions as to the origin of the major Tsunami. HIG-70-2, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics,University of Hawaii, Honolulu. 54 pp.Bormann, Peter (2008): Tsunami Information Sheet, Version 01/08,URL: http://www.gfz-potsdam.de/portal/gfz/Public+Relations/M30-Infomaterial/Druck-schriften/GFZ-PR-Infoblatt-Tsunami-en.pdfChanson, H. 2010. Tsunami Warning Signs on the Enshu Coast of Japan. Shore & Beach, Vol.78, No. 1, pp. 52–54. ISSN 4237 0037 4237Cox, Doak C. 1947. Variation of Intensity of the 1946 Tsunami on Hawaiian Shores, Proc.Hawaiian Acad. Sci., 22: 8.Cox, Doak C. 1961. Status of Tsunami Knowledge. Hawaii Institute of Geophysics.Contribution no. 46: 1-6.Cox, Doak C. 1964. Tsunami Research in Japan and the United States. Hawaii Institute ofGeophysics. Contribution no. 64: 403-412.Cox, Doak C. 1980. Source of the Tsunami associated with the Kalapana (Hawaii) Earthquakeof November 1975, HIG-80-8, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, 46 pp.Cox, Doak C. 1984. Probable Central Aleutian source of the Tsunami Observed in August1872 in Hawaii, Oregon, and California. Science of Tsunami Hazards, The InternationalJournal of the Tsunami Society, Honolulu, Hawaii. 2(2): 79-94.
29Cox, Doak C. 1991. Local tsunamis in Hawaii-implications for warning. Joint Institute ofMarine and Atmospheric Research, University of Hawaii, Honolulu. Contribution no. 91-237:17-18Cox, Doak C. and Joseph Morgan. 1977. Local Tsunamis and Possible Local Tsunamis inHawaii. HIG-77-14. Hawaii Institute of Geophysics. 118 pp.Cox, Doak C. and George Pararas-Carayannis. 1976. Catalog of Tsunamis in Alaska. SE-1. U.S.Dept of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 43 pp.Fraser, G.D., J.P. Eaton, and C.K. Wentworth. 1959. The Tsunami of March 9, 1957, on theIsland of Hawaii. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 49: 79-90.Green, C.K. 1946. Seismic Sea Wave of April 1, 1946, as Recorded on Tide Gages,Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 2: 1366-1368.Haugen K, Løvholt F, Harbitz C, K, Lovholt, F, Harbitz, C (2005). Fundamental mechanisms fortsunami generation by submarine mass flows in idealised geometries. Marine and PetroleumGeology 22 (1–2): 209–217. doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2004.10.016Heaton, Thomas H. and Parke D. Snavely, Jr. 1985. Possible Tsunami Along the NorthwesternCoast of the United States Inferred from Indian Traditions, Bulletin of the SeismologicalSociety of America, 75(5): 1455-1460.Hirst, Tony. 2013. Emergency news - A changing communications landscape. The OpenUniversity, URL: http://www.open.edu/openlearn/science-maths-technology/computing-and-ict/information-and-communication-technologies/emergency-news-changing-communications-landscapeIwan, W.D., (ed.). 2006, Summary report of the Great Sumatra Earthquakes and IndianOcean tsunamis of December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005: Earthquake EngineeringResearch Institute, EERI Publication #2006-06, 11 chapters, 100 page summary, plus CD-ROMwith complete text and supplementary photographs, EERI Report 2006-06. ISBN 1-932884-19-XJaggar, T.A. 1946. The Great Tidal Wave of 1946, Natural History, 55(6): 263-268.Keulegan, G. H. 1965. A Review of the Experimental Data Relative to the Pilot Model Studyfor the Design of Hilo Harbor Tsunami Model. U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station,Vicksberg. 33 pp.Keys, J.G. 1963. The Tsunami of 22 May 1960 in the Samoa and Cook Islands, Bulletin of theSeismological Society of America, 53(6): 221-227.Loomis, Harold G. 1975. The Tsunami of November 29, 1975 in Hawaii, HIG-72-21, HawaiiInstitute of Geophysics, 29 pp.
30Loomis, Harold G. 1976. Tsunami Wave Runup Heights in Hawaii, HIG-76-5, Hawaii Instituteof Geophysics, 95 pp.Macdonald, G.A., F.P. Shepard, and D.C. Cox. 1947. The Tsunami of April 1, 1946 in theHawaiian Islands, Pacific Science, 1: 21-37.Macdonald, G.A., and C.K. Wentworth. 1954. The Tsunami of November 4, 1952, on theIsland of Hawaii, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 44: 463-469.Margaritondo, G. 2005. Explaining the physics of tsunamis to undergraduate and non-physicsstudents. European Journal of Physics 26 (3).McFadgen, Bruce. 2007. Hostil Shores: Catastrophic Events in Prehistoric New Zealand andTheir Impact on Maori Coastal Communities, Auckland University Press, NZ, 298 pp.Miller, Don J. 1960. Giant Waves in Lituya Bay, Alaska, United States Geological SurveyProfessional Paper 354-C, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 83pp.Monserrat, S., Vilibíc I. and Rabinovich A.B, (2006). Meteotsunamis: atmospherically induceddestructive ocean waves in the tsunami frequency band. Natural Hazards and Earth SystemSciences 6 (6): 1035–1051. doi:10.5194/nhess-6-1035-2006Moore, J. G. and G. W. Moore. 1984. Deposit from a Giant Wave on the Island of Lanai,Hawaii. Science. 226: 1312-1315.Moore, Linda K. 2013. The First Responder Network and Next-Generation Communicationsfor Public Safety: Issues for Congress. US Congressional Research Service, URL:http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R42543.pdfOlsen, Kenneth H., John N. Stewart, James E. McNeil, and Martin Velousek. 1972. Long-Period Water-Wave Measurements for the Milrow and Cannikin Nuclear Explosions, Bulletinof the Seismological Society of America, 62(6): 1559-1578.Preston, Jennifer and Stelter, Brian. 2012. How Government Officials are using Twitter forHurricane Sandy. The New York Times. URL: http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/11/02/-how-government-officials-used-twitter-for-hurricane-sandy/Seismological Bulletin (U.S.C. & G.S.) 1957. March MSI-195: 2.Shepard, F.P., G.A. Macdonald ,and D.C. Cox. 1950. Tsunami of April 1, 1946, Bull. ScrippsInst. Oceanog., 5: 391-528.Symons, J.M. and B.D. Zetler. 1960. The Tsunami of May 22, 1960 as Recorded at TideStation, Preliminary Report, United States Department of Commerce, Coast and GeodeticSurvey, Washington D.C., 29 pp.
31Takahashi, Makoto, Tanaka, Shigeyoshi, Fumiaki, Kimata, Nakaseko, Tsugio and Suhirman.2008. Proposing the Community-Based Tsunami Warning System, International Conferenceon Tsunami Warning (ICTW) Bali, Indonesia, November 12-14, 2008.Tappin, D. 2001. Local tsunamis. Geoscientist. 11–8, 4–7.Telford, John/Cosgrave, John (2006): Joint Evaluation of the International Response to theIndian Ocean Tsunami. Synthesis Report. URL: http://www.sida.se/publications and URL:http://www.undp.org/content/dam/india/docs/joint_evaluation_of_the_international_response_to_the_indian_ocean_tsunami.pdfTelford, John/Cosgrave, John (2007): The international humanitarian system and the 2004Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamis. Disaster 2007, 31(1): 1−28. URL: http://online-library.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-7717.2007.00337.x/pdfTilling, R.I., R.Y. Koyanagi, P.W. Lipman, J.P. Lockwood, J.G. Moore, and D.A. Swanson. 1976.Earthquake and Related Catastrophic Events, Island of Hawaii, November 29, 1975: aPreliminary Report, United States Geological Survey Circular 740, 33 pp.-UNESCO (1999): Disaster Planning: prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, URL:http://webworld.unesco.org/safeguarding/en/pdf/txt_sini.pdfUNESCO (2007a): Natural Disaster Preparedness and Education for Sustainable Develop-ment. URL: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001504/150454e.pdfUNESCO (2007b): Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation, UNESCO’s Role. URL: http://unes-doc.unesco.org/images/0015/001504/150435e.pdfUNESCO (2008): Tsunami – Great Waves. URL: http://www.pdc.org/TAK/General/Character-istics/Great_Waves_2008_edition.pdfVoit, S.S (1987). Tsunamis. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 19 (1): 217–236. Bibcode1987AnRFM..19..217V. doi:10.1146/annurev.fl.19.010187.001245.Weller, J.M. 1972. Human Response to Tsunami Warnings, The Great Alaska Earthquake of1964, Human Ecology, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., p. 222-227.Zerbe, W.B. 1953. Tsunami of November 4, 1952, as Recorded at Tide Station, U.S.C. & G.S.Spec. Publ., 300: 1-62.Tsunami Hazard Prevention Materials/BrochuresStormready campaign of the NOAA, URL:http://www.stormready.noaa.gov/tsunamiready/resources/Tsmi_Brochure10.pdfNational Weather Service on Tsunamis, URL: http://www.tsunamiready.noaa.gov/
32The National Weather Service West Coast Warning Center (with up-to-date warning map),URL: http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/The International Tsunami Information Center in Honolulu/Hawaii Brochure, URL:http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/itic_brochure_oct041.pdfThe Hawaii Tsunami Hazard Information Centre in Honolulu/Hawaii Brochure, URL:http://www.csc.noaa.gov/psc/pubs/Tsunami%20Service%20Brochure.pdfNational Weather Services Brochure: Tsunami, the great waves, URL:http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/tsunami.htmNational Weather Service, JetStream, Online School for Weather, Tsunamis, URL:http://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream/tsunami/tsunami_intro.htmBureau of Metrology, Australia, Tsunami Awareness Brochure, URL:http://www.em.gov.au/Documents/Tsunami%20Awareness%20Brochure%20%20-%20PDF%20spread%20-%20FINAL.PDFQueensland Government (Australia): Tsunami, URL:http://www.emergency.qld.gov.au/emq/css/tsunami.aspNOAA Press Release as of 5-Apr-2012: New online portal, app provide information ontsunami zones in the Northwest. Potential lifesaving application. URL:http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-04/nh-nop040512.phpAll links were checked in November 2012.MultimediaA&E Television Networks. 1999. Wrath of God: Tsunami- Killer Wave [video]. 50 min.BBC, Horizon. 2000. Mega-Tsunami- Wave of Destruction [video].Discovery Channel, Pioneer Productions. 2000. StormForce: Series II TSUNAMI [video]. 50min.National Geographic. 1997. Killer Wave: Power of the Tsunami [video]. 60 min.NHK-Japan TV 1993. Sea of Japan tsunami [videorecording]; Hokkaido Nansei-OkiEarthquake and Tsunami. 102 min.Weather Channel, Towers Productions. 2001. Atmospheres 45: Weatherquest [video]. 60min.
33Internet videos (Youtube.com, etc.)National Geographic Society, Tsunami 101 URL:http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/environment/environment-natural-disasters/-tsunamis/tsunami-101/United States Geological Survey, 6 Videos on Tsunamis, URL:http://education.usgs.gov/videos.html#tsunamisKids Education – animated video on youtube about: Tsunamis: Know What To Do!, URL:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzR0Rt3i4kcMany more tsunami links on URL: http://www.youtube.com TsunamiAll links were checked in November 2012.MapsCurtis, George D. 1991. Hawaii Tsunami Inundation/Evacuation Map Project: Final Report.Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, UH-NOAA.Hawaii Institute of Geophysics 1963. Tsunami inundation and runup in Hilo, 1946-1960.Lockridge, Patricia A. Tsunamis in the Pacific Basin, 1900-1983. National Geophysics DataCenter.General References/Linkshttp://tsunami.orghttp://tsunami.org/references.htmlhttp://www.edu4hazards.org/tsunami.htmlhttp://www.noaawatch.gov/themes/tsunami.phphttp://ptwc.weather.gov/http://www.pdc.org/iweb/pdchome.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunamihttp://google.org/personfinder/global/home.htmlhttp://nthmp.tsunami.gov/documents/CompendiumTsunamiEd.pdfhttp://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/tsunami.htm