Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America

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by Mariano Fressoli, Instituto de Estudios sobre la Ciencia y la Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Argentina.

STEPS Centre seminar, 17 June 2010, at IDS.



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Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America

  1. 1. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America<br />Steps Centre Seminar 17th june – 2010 <br />University of Sussex <br />Instituto de Estudios sobre la Ciencia y la Tecnología<br />Universidad Nacional de Quilmes - ARG<br />Hernán Thomas – Director<br />Mariano Fressoli<br />Alberto Lalouf<br />Santiago Garrido<br />Guillermo Santos<br />Paula Juarez<br />Facundo Picabea<br />Sebastian Montaña<br />
  2. 2. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America<br />Green Technologies<br />Small is beautifull<br />Social Technologies<br />Appropiate Technologies<br />Intermediate technologies<br />Alternative technologies<br />Social innovations <br />
  3. 3. It is possible to define Social Technology as a way of developing and implementing technology aimed to generate social and economic dynamics of social inclusion and sustainable development. <br /> Social Technology extends to a wide spectrum of production: food, housing, energy, drinkable water, transport, and communication, etc. <br /> The main actors involved in the development processes of Social Technology in Latin America are: social movements, popular cooperatives, NGOs, public R&D centres, governmental departments and decentralized institutions, government business enterprises (and, to a lesser extent, private enterprises).<br />Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America<br />
  4. 4. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America<br /> What are the capacities available in the region in order to develop Social Technology?<br />How to conceive plans of social and economical development based on the production and implementation of Social Technology?<br />How to integrate ultimate user-beneficiaries (social movements, NGOs, grassroots cooperatives, etc.) in the processes of design and implementation of Social Technology?<br />How to integrate highly quality Science and Technology human resources available in the region to the design and implementation of Social Technology?<br />How to manage and evaluate Social Technology programmes?<br />
  5. 5. Objectives: <br />To study and develop a theoretical and methodological framework tailored for research on Social Technology. <br /> Challenge: adapting existing tools and building up new concepts<br />To survey and map institutional experiences and capacities of development of Social Technology in Argentina, Brasil, Uruguay, Chile and Peru<br />Challenge: heterogeneous actors (governmental, nongovernmental, from R&D public institutes, from popular cooperatives, international agencies and enterprises)<br /> Lack of interaction between experiences<br />To create capacities in governmental and nongovernmental organizations for the developing of Social Technologies<br /> Challenge: to articulate networks between different actors / to challenge old –stagnated trajectories <br />Technologies for Social Inclusion & Public Policies in Latin America<br />
  6. 6. Technologies for Social Inclusion & Public Policies in Latin America<br />Theoretical Framework <br />Social-technical analysis: Social Construction of Technology (Pinch & Bijker) and Actor-Network Theory (Latour, Callon, & Law)<br />Economics of innovation and technological change (Learning concepts) <br />Building up new concepts: socio-technical alliance / multiple workings of technology<br />
  7. 7. Key Issue: To learn from the experiences in order to propose new policies in science and technology for developing countries<br />Research focus<br />Successful experiences / Failed experiences <br />Small scale / scaling up?<br />Fluid Technologies / can they support stable and lasting alliances? <br />Beyond Technologies for the poor / Technological solutions for everyone<br />Technologies for Social Inclusion & Public Policies in Latin America<br />
  8. 8. Mist water collectors (atrapanieblas) in Chile<br />(Nylon and Iron structures with a storage and distribution system) <br />Chungungo, finales de la década del ’80<br />Original objetive of theproject:toobtainwaterforforesting and humansupply in smallcommunities<br />Thesystemwas “easytobuild and operate”, itrequiredlowknowhow and was simple tounderstandforuserswith no technological training. <br />Capacitytocollect 237 litres per day<br />Fundedby IDRC and developedbyresearchersfrom Universidad Católica de Chile and Corporación Nacional Forestal (CONAF)<br />
  9. 9. Diditwork?<br />With a stronginstitutional and financialsupport, betweenthe late `80s and 1996, 92 watercollectorswereinstalled. <br />In 2001, only 12 werestillworking, buttheywereused as secondarysourcecomplementingotherwatersupplysystems<br />Whenthe original projectsupportwasdiscontinued, themistcollectorswereabandoned<br />Problems: Implementation and management<br />Design<br />Theoreticalconception<br />
  10. 10. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America<br />Sectors: energy, food, health & housing<br />Selected Countries: <br />Argentina<br />Brasil<br />Uruguay<br />Chile<br />Peru<br />
  11. 11. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America<br /> Sectors: Energy, Food, Health & Housing <br />First Phase: year 2010<br />Argentina & Brazil<br />GAPI – DPCT UNICAMP<br />Innovation policies analisys Group / S&T Policy Department<br />IEC-UNQ<br />Institute for S&T Studies<br />National University of Quilmes<br />Exploratory Survey<br />Case studies<br />
  12. 12. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy<br /> Sectors: Energy, Food, Health & Housing <br />Second Phase: 2011 / 2012<br />Uruguay, Chile & Peru<br />Exploratory Survey<br />Case studies<br />
  13. 13. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy<br /> Sectors: Energy, Food, Healthcare & Housing <br />Extended Research Network<br />Social Movements<br />Water&Youth Movement<br />(NGO)<br />RTS (Brazil)<br />Social Technology Network<br />INTI<br />National Institute<br />for Industrial Technology<br />CEVE-CONICET<br />Experimental Centre for Affordable Housing<br />National Council for S&T Research<br />IEC-UNQ<br />Institute for S&T Studies<br />National University of Quilmes<br />R&D Institutions<br />R&D Institutions<br />INTA<br />National Institute for<br />Agricultural Technology<br />Fac. de Cs. Agrarias-UNMdP<br />Faculty of Agricultural Sciences<br />National University of Mar del Plata<br />IPAF-INTA<br />Institute for Small-scale<br />Family Farming<br />PROHUERTA-INTA<br />Programme for Vegrtable<br />Gardens Development<br />PROCODAS-MINCyT<br />Council for Social Demands Programme<br />Ministry for S&T<br />Government Office<br />
  14. 14. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy<br /> Sectors: Energy, Food, Healthcare & Housing <br />Researchnetworkmeeting<br />30th April2010<br />University of Quilmes<br />
  15. 15. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America<br /> Sectors: Energy, Food, Health & Housing <br />Ongoing research<br />Some preliminary results<br />
  16. 16. Food and water<br />Institutions and NGOs that develop Social Technologies in Argentina<br />Aprox. 50 organizations developing and implementing Social Technologies <br />(including: NGOS, Universities and social cooperatives)<br />What kind of technologies?<br />Aprox. 20 kinds of organic production systems (familyvegetable gardens, retrieving and improvement of indigenous techniques, etc.), <br />Small development of low cost agricultural machinery (simple threshers, sugar milling machinery, etc.).<br />Incipient development of water collection and purification systems<br />Only 5 experiences have been identified involving intensive knowledge developments of food production (bio-technologies, cannedfood, etc.)<br />
  17. 17. Programme PRO HUERTA (1990-2010)<br />National programme for vegetable garden by INTA (National Institute of Technological Agriculture) – ARG. <br />Based on distribution of seeds and learning materials for sowing<br />Reach almost 3 million people in Argentina (mainly poor people)<br />Attempts to build up cooperatives for commercialization<br />Some problems: <br />Low quality of seeds<br />Difficulties to scale up the experience<br />Lack of interaction with other agricultural sectors <br />
  18. 18. Alternative energies in Argentina<br />WindEnergy<br />Biodiesel (recycledcookingoil)<br />INTI<br />INVAP (Río Negro)<br />GIACOBONE (Río Cuarto)<br />TEKNYCAMPO (Santa Fe)<br />ESCUELA AGROTÉCNICA Ramón Santamarina-Necochea)<br />EATA (Tres Arroyos)<br />BIOCOOP (Hurlingham)<br />MUNICIPALIDAD DE MALVINAS ARGENTINAS<br />BIOCOLÓN (Entre Ríos)<br />Solar Energy<br />INENCO (Salta)<br />LAVH-INCIHUSA (Mendoza)<br />GRUPO CLIOPE-UTN (Mendoza)<br />FUNDACIÓN ECOANDINA (Jujuy)<br />GENOC - INTEC (Santa Fe)<br />GER – UNNE (Corrientes)<br />GES – UNRC (Córdoba)<br />GITEA – UTN (Chaco)<br />IDEAHAB – UNLP (Buenos Aires)<br />IEDS – CNEA (Buenos Aires)<br />LEA – UNR (Rosario)<br />LES – UNSL (San Luis)<br />TEKNYCAMPO (Santa Fe)<br />INIBIOMA – UNCOMA (Río Negro)<br />Biogas (waste digester)<br />FUNDACIÓN PROTEGER<br />INTI<br />INTA<br />SECRETARÍA DE AMBIENTE PCIA. DE CORRIENTES<br />FUNDACIÓN UOCRA (Chubut)<br />
  19. 19. Solar technologies in Mendoza (western Argentina)National Technological University - Mendoza<br /> Solar kitchens designed and adapted to local conditions<br /> There is some participation of users in the design and management of installed kitchens<br /> Problems of scaling up<br />
  20. 20. Healthcare: Public production of drugs<br />37 public funded laboratories produce generic drugs<br />Aimed to satisfy basic health problems in poor populations<br />Industrial PharmaceuticalLaboratory of Santa Fe province (LIF) <br />2008 -2010 <br />10,5 millions doses of cefalexin 500 mg (antibiotic) for public distribution <br />10 millions doses of amoxicilin for public distribution<br />Problems: they do not produce endogenous innovations<br />R&D capabilities is lacking or dormant<br />
  21. 21. Housing Technologies<br />Recycled Bricks from PET<br />(polietilen-tereftalato), <br />(http://www.ceve.org.ar/ttplasticos)<br />This design has received several awards<br />Evaluations based on technical characteristics: mechanical resistance, UV absorption, fire resistance, weight, porosity, etc.<br />Problems:<br />Low applications in housing<br />Lacks of socio-economical studies<br />There is no environmental study<br />
  22. 22. Villa ParanacitoExperience<br />http://www.ceve.org.ar/sistemauma.html<br />Based on a self-construction technology named UMA.<br />The main point of Villa Paranacito Experience was to develop a new model of Management for self-construction with participation of local actors. It attempts to integrate in the same project production of materials and self-construction<br />20 housesbuilt up in Villa Paranacito, Entre Ríos (Argentina).<br />Problems: Small Scale<br />Thereis no link withwiderurbanplanningissues<br />
  23. 23. Actual challenges:<br />Building visibility and forging links between social actors<br /> Co-organization of the 2nd Fair of Social and Sustainable Technologies (October 2010) <br />Along with Water & Youth Movement and PROCODAS - MINCYT<br /> Building up a blog on Social Technologies: <br />http://www.tecnologiassociales.blogspot.com/<br />To interact and collaborate with other researchers in Latin America and rest of the world<br />
  24. 24. Many Thanks!!!<br />Mariano Fressoli <br />mfressoli@unq.edu.ar<br /> IEC – UNQ <br />

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