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Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America
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Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America

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by Mariano Fressoli, Instituto de Estudios sobre la Ciencia y la Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Argentina. …

by Mariano Fressoli, Instituto de Estudios sobre la Ciencia y la Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Argentina.

STEPS Centre seminar, 17 June 2010, at IDS.



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  • 1. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America<br />Steps Centre Seminar 17th june – 2010 <br />University of Sussex <br />Instituto de Estudios sobre la Ciencia y la Tecnología<br />Universidad Nacional de Quilmes - ARG<br />Hernán Thomas – Director<br />Mariano Fressoli<br />Alberto Lalouf<br />Santiago Garrido<br />Guillermo Santos<br />Paula Juarez<br />Facundo Picabea<br />Sebastian Montaña<br />
  • 2. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America<br />Green Technologies<br />Small is beautifull<br />Social Technologies<br />Appropiate Technologies<br />Intermediate technologies<br />Alternative technologies<br />Social innovations <br />
  • 3. It is possible to define Social Technology as a way of developing and implementing technology aimed to generate social and economic dynamics of social inclusion and sustainable development. <br /> Social Technology extends to a wide spectrum of production: food, housing, energy, drinkable water, transport, and communication, etc. <br /> The main actors involved in the development processes of Social Technology in Latin America are: social movements, popular cooperatives, NGOs, public R&D centres, governmental departments and decentralized institutions, government business enterprises (and, to a lesser extent, private enterprises).<br />Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America<br />
  • 4. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy in Latin America<br /> What are the capacities available in the region in order to develop Social Technology?<br />How to conceive plans of social and economical development based on the production and implementation of Social Technology?<br />How to integrate ultimate user-beneficiaries (social movements, NGOs, grassroots cooperatives, etc.) in the processes of design and implementation of Social Technology?<br />How to integrate highly quality Science and Technology human resources available in the region to the design and implementation of Social Technology?<br />How to manage and evaluate Social Technology programmes?<br />
  • 5. Objectives: <br />To study and develop a theoretical and methodological framework tailored for research on Social Technology. <br /> Challenge: adapting existing tools and building up new concepts<br />To survey and map institutional experiences and capacities of development of Social Technology in Argentina, Brasil, Uruguay, Chile and Peru<br />Challenge: heterogeneous actors (governmental, nongovernmental, from R&D public institutes, from popular cooperatives, international agencies and enterprises)<br /> Lack of interaction between experiences<br />To create capacities in governmental and nongovernmental organizations for the developing of Social Technologies<br /> Challenge: to articulate networks between different actors / to challenge old –stagnated trajectories <br />Technologies for Social Inclusion & Public Policies in Latin America<br />
  • 6. Technologies for Social Inclusion & Public Policies in Latin America<br />Theoretical Framework <br />Social-technical analysis: Social Construction of Technology (Pinch & Bijker) and Actor-Network Theory (Latour, Callon, & Law)<br />Economics of innovation and technological change (Learning concepts) <br />Building up new concepts: socio-technical alliance / multiple workings of technology<br />
  • 7. Key Issue: To learn from the experiences in order to propose new policies in science and technology for developing countries<br />Research focus<br />Successful experiences / Failed experiences <br />Small scale / scaling up?<br />Fluid Technologies / can they support stable and lasting alliances? <br />Beyond Technologies for the poor / Technological solutions for everyone<br />Technologies for Social Inclusion & Public Policies in Latin America<br />
  • 8. Mist water collectors (atrapanieblas) in Chile<br />(Nylon and Iron structures with a storage and distribution system) <br />Chungungo, finales de la década del ’80<br />Original objetive of theproject:toobtainwaterforforesting and humansupply in smallcommunities<br />Thesystemwas “easytobuild and operate”, itrequiredlowknowhow and was simple tounderstandforuserswith no technological training. <br />Capacitytocollect 237 litres per day<br />Fundedby IDRC and developedbyresearchersfrom Universidad Católica de Chile and Corporación Nacional Forestal (CONAF)<br />
  • 9. Diditwork?<br />With a stronginstitutional and financialsupport, betweenthe late `80s and 1996, 92 watercollectorswereinstalled. <br />In 2001, only 12 werestillworking, buttheywereused as secondarysourcecomplementingotherwatersupplysystems<br />Whenthe original projectsupportwasdiscontinued, themistcollectorswereabandoned<br />Problems: Implementation and management<br />Design<br />Theoreticalconception<br />
  • 10. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America<br />Sectors: energy, food, health & housing<br />Selected Countries: <br />Argentina<br />Brasil<br />Uruguay<br />Chile<br />Peru<br />
  • 11. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America<br /> Sectors: Energy, Food, Health & Housing <br />First Phase: year 2010<br />Argentina & Brazil<br />GAPI – DPCT UNICAMP<br />Innovation policies analisys Group / S&T Policy Department<br />IEC-UNQ<br />Institute for S&T Studies<br />National University of Quilmes<br />Exploratory Survey<br />Case studies<br />
  • 12. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy<br /> Sectors: Energy, Food, Health & Housing <br />Second Phase: 2011 / 2012<br />Uruguay, Chile & Peru<br />Exploratory Survey<br />Case studies<br />
  • 13. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy<br /> Sectors: Energy, Food, Healthcare & Housing <br />Extended Research Network<br />Social Movements<br />Water&Youth Movement<br />(NGO)<br />RTS (Brazil)<br />Social Technology Network<br />INTI<br />National Institute<br />for Industrial Technology<br />CEVE-CONICET<br />Experimental Centre for Affordable Housing<br />National Council for S&T Research<br />IEC-UNQ<br />Institute for S&T Studies<br />National University of Quilmes<br />R&D Institutions<br />R&D Institutions<br />INTA<br />National Institute for<br />Agricultural Technology<br />Fac. de Cs. Agrarias-UNMdP<br />Faculty of Agricultural Sciences<br />National University of Mar del Plata<br />IPAF-INTA<br />Institute for Small-scale<br />Family Farming<br />PROHUERTA-INTA<br />Programme for Vegrtable<br />Gardens Development<br />PROCODAS-MINCyT<br />Council for Social Demands Programme<br />Ministry for S&T<br />Government Office<br />
  • 14. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policy<br /> Sectors: Energy, Food, Healthcare & Housing <br />Researchnetworkmeeting<br />30th April2010<br />University of Quilmes<br />
  • 15. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America<br /> Sectors: Energy, Food, Health & Housing <br />Ongoing research<br />Some preliminary results<br />
  • 16. Food and water<br />Institutions and NGOs that develop Social Technologies in Argentina<br />Aprox. 50 organizations developing and implementing Social Technologies <br />(including: NGOS, Universities and social cooperatives)<br />What kind of technologies?<br />Aprox. 20 kinds of organic production systems (familyvegetable gardens, retrieving and improvement of indigenous techniques, etc.), <br />Small development of low cost agricultural machinery (simple threshers, sugar milling machinery, etc.).<br />Incipient development of water collection and purification systems<br />Only 5 experiences have been identified involving intensive knowledge developments of food production (bio-technologies, cannedfood, etc.)<br />
  • 17. Programme PRO HUERTA (1990-2010)<br />National programme for vegetable garden by INTA (National Institute of Technological Agriculture) – ARG. <br />Based on distribution of seeds and learning materials for sowing<br />Reach almost 3 million people in Argentina (mainly poor people)<br />Attempts to build up cooperatives for commercialization<br />Some problems: <br />Low quality of seeds<br />Difficulties to scale up the experience<br />Lack of interaction with other agricultural sectors <br />
  • 18. Alternative energies in Argentina<br />WindEnergy<br />Biodiesel (recycledcookingoil)<br />INTI<br />INVAP (Río Negro)<br />GIACOBONE (Río Cuarto)<br />TEKNYCAMPO (Santa Fe)<br />ESCUELA AGROTÉCNICA Ramón Santamarina-Necochea)<br />EATA (Tres Arroyos)<br />BIOCOOP (Hurlingham)<br />MUNICIPALIDAD DE MALVINAS ARGENTINAS<br />BIOCOLÓN (Entre Ríos)<br />Solar Energy<br />INENCO (Salta)<br />LAVH-INCIHUSA (Mendoza)<br />GRUPO CLIOPE-UTN (Mendoza)<br />FUNDACIÓN ECOANDINA (Jujuy)<br />GENOC - INTEC (Santa Fe)<br />GER – UNNE (Corrientes)<br />GES – UNRC (Córdoba)<br />GITEA – UTN (Chaco)<br />IDEAHAB – UNLP (Buenos Aires)<br />IEDS – CNEA (Buenos Aires)<br />LEA – UNR (Rosario)<br />LES – UNSL (San Luis)<br />TEKNYCAMPO (Santa Fe)<br />INIBIOMA – UNCOMA (Río Negro)<br />Biogas (waste digester)<br />FUNDACIÓN PROTEGER<br />INTI<br />INTA<br />SECRETARÍA DE AMBIENTE PCIA. DE CORRIENTES<br />FUNDACIÓN UOCRA (Chubut)<br />
  • 19. Solar technologies in Mendoza (western Argentina)National Technological University - Mendoza<br /> Solar kitchens designed and adapted to local conditions<br /> There is some participation of users in the design and management of installed kitchens<br /> Problems of scaling up<br />
  • 20. Healthcare: Public production of drugs<br />37 public funded laboratories produce generic drugs<br />Aimed to satisfy basic health problems in poor populations<br />Industrial PharmaceuticalLaboratory of Santa Fe province (LIF) <br />2008 -2010 <br />10,5 millions doses of cefalexin 500 mg (antibiotic) for public distribution <br />10 millions doses of amoxicilin for public distribution<br />Problems: they do not produce endogenous innovations<br />R&D capabilities is lacking or dormant<br />
  • 21. Housing Technologies<br />Recycled Bricks from PET<br />(polietilen-tereftalato), <br />(http://www.ceve.org.ar/ttplasticos)<br />This design has received several awards<br />Evaluations based on technical characteristics: mechanical resistance, UV absorption, fire resistance, weight, porosity, etc.<br />Problems:<br />Low applications in housing<br />Lacks of socio-economical studies<br />There is no environmental study<br />
  • 22. Villa ParanacitoExperience<br />http://www.ceve.org.ar/sistemauma.html<br />Based on a self-construction technology named UMA.<br />The main point of Villa Paranacito Experience was to develop a new model of Management for self-construction with participation of local actors. It attempts to integrate in the same project production of materials and self-construction<br />20 housesbuilt up in Villa Paranacito, Entre Ríos (Argentina).<br />Problems: Small Scale<br />Thereis no link withwiderurbanplanningissues<br />
  • 23. Actual challenges:<br />Building visibility and forging links between social actors<br /> Co-organization of the 2nd Fair of Social and Sustainable Technologies (October 2010) <br />Along with Water & Youth Movement and PROCODAS - MINCYT<br /> Building up a blog on Social Technologies: <br />http://www.tecnologiassociales.blogspot.com/<br />To interact and collaborate with other researchers in Latin America and rest of the world<br />
  • 24. Many Thanks!!!<br />Mariano Fressoli <br />mfressoli@unq.edu.ar<br /> IEC – UNQ <br />

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