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Environmental Change and Maize
          Innovation in Kenya:
 Exploring pathways in and out of maize
Findings from a Mult...
Multicriteria Mapping (MCM) Overview
• What we did
  – 23 interviews conducted in November 2009
  – Some individual, Some ...
MCM Overview

       1. Discuss                    2. Develop a
        pathways                     set of criteria




 ...
Multicriteria Mapping (MCM) Overview
• What we did
  – 23 interviews conducted in November 2009
  – Some individual, Some ...
Multicriteria Mapping (MCM) Overview
•   What we did
     – 23 interviews conducted in November 2009
     – Some individua...
Groups of informants
1. Sakai Farmers (11 interviews)
  a) Gender
  b) Income level
2. Nairobi-based Informants (12 interv...
Sets of criteria: Macro and Micro Issues

• Economic and Market Issues                     71 criteria
   – Resource costs...
Evaluating pathway ‘performance rankings’

• Performance rankings are literal ‘maps’ of pathway scores
• Averaged across g...
Qualitative analysis of the pathway evaluations

• Used to identify groups of stakeholders
  with shared points of view
• ...
Pathways out of maize: Orphans or siblings?
 Performance rankings for low and high income Sakai farmers against a set of e...
Pathways out of maize: Orphans or siblings?
       Performance rankings for different groups of stakeholders shows a surpr...
Getting the value without the high risk?
               Performance rankings (female), Sakai farmers (male), Sakai farmers...
Pathways out of maize: Getting the value without the high risk?
                  Performance rankings (low and high incom...
Pathways out of maize: Getting the value without the high risk?
                     Performance Rankings for Sakai farmer...
Pathways in maize: Living in parallel worlds?
          Performance rankings for low and high income farmers shows differe...
Pathways in maize: Living in parallel worlds?
             Performance rankings for different groups of Nairobi-based info...
Pathways in maize:
              Performance rankings for groupsCommercially oriented and Biotechnology-focussed perspecti...
Pathways in maize:
               Sakai farmerPerformance Rankings for Sakai Farmers (all) Sakai Farmers (Low Income) and ...
Pathways in maize: Maize Security ≠ Food Security
          Performance rankingsforshow that Economiclocal maize pathways ...
Pathways in maize: Maize Security ≠ Food Security
   Performance rankings for groups of Nairobi-based informants against a...
What does this mean for policy and
             practice?
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Maize Pathways workshop presentation 2: MCM findings

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Presentation from a national dissemination workshop in Nairobi on 22 March 2010, for the STEPS Centre's project on environmental change and maize innovation in Kenya.

To find out more about our maize work, visit www.steps-centre.org/ourresearch/crops,% 20kenya.html

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Transcript of "Maize Pathways workshop presentation 2: MCM findings"

  1. 1. Environmental Change and Maize Innovation in Kenya: Exploring pathways in and out of maize Findings from a Multicriteria Mapping Study Presentation 2 of 3 National Dissemination Workshop Hilton Hotel, Nairobi – 22 March 2010 STEPS Kenya Partners: ACTS – African Centre for Technology Studies CABE – Centre for African Bio-Entrepreneurship Tegemeo Institute, Egerton University IDS – Institute of Development Studies, UK SPRU – Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, UK
  2. 2. Multicriteria Mapping (MCM) Overview • What we did – 23 interviews conducted in November 2009 – Some individual, Some in groups – Nairobi-based informants and Sakai Farmers
  3. 3. MCM Overview 1. Discuss 2. Develop a pathways set of criteria 3. Score pathways under each 5. Reflect on criterion; optimistic outcome & pessimistic scores to reflect uncertainty 4. Assign weight to each criterion
  4. 4. Multicriteria Mapping (MCM) Overview • What we did – 23 interviews conducted in November 2009 – Some individual, Some in groups – Nairobi-based informants and Sakai Farmers • Conducting the MCM interviews – Nine pathways evaluated discussing agricultural pathways ‘in and out of maize’ – 147 different and unique criteria defined by informants to evaluate the pathways • Analysing the MCM data – Identify groups of informants – Identify groups of criteria – Evaluate pathway performance rankings – Analyse the qualitative information provided in the assessments
  5. 5. Multicriteria Mapping (MCM) Overview • What we did – 23 interviews conducted in November 2009 – Some individual, Some in groups – Nairobi-based informants and Sakai Farmers • Conducting the MCM interviews – Nine pathways evaluated discussing agricultural pathways ‘in and out of maize’ – 147 different and unique criteria defined by informants to evaluate the pathways • Analysing the MCM data – Identify groups of informants – Identify sets of criteria – Evaluate pathway performance rankings – Analyse the qualitative information provided in the assessments
  6. 6. Groups of informants 1. Sakai Farmers (11 interviews) a) Gender b) Income level 2. Nairobi-based Informants (12 interviews) a) Public sector officials b) Commercially oriented c) Science and technology institutes d) Biotechnology focus
  7. 7. Sets of criteria: Macro and Micro Issues • Economic and Market Issues 71 criteria – Resource costs 23 criteria – Availability and access to resources 30 criteria – Market aspects 18 criteria • Stress Tolerance Issues 43 criteria – Water use 17 criteria – Pests and disease resistance 14 criteria – Suitability of crop to agro-ecological conditions 12 criteria • Social, Political & Cultural Issues 33 criteria – Knowledge and skills 14 criteria – Social and cultural 9 criteria – Food security 10 criteria
  8. 8. Evaluating pathway ‘performance rankings’ • Performance rankings are literal ‘maps’ of pathway scores • Averaged across groups of stakeholder & sets of criteria (issues) • High end of range indicates average optimistic scores • Low end of range indicates average pessimistic scores • Length of range (or bar) indicates uncertainty & ambiguity expressed – Uncertainty is expressed by individuals in a stakeholder group – Ambiguity is the result of disagreement between stakeholders
  9. 9. Qualitative analysis of the pathway evaluations • Used to identify groups of stakeholders with shared points of view • Used to group criteria according to shared themes • Clarifies the reasons for convergence and divergence in the pathways performance rankings
  10. 10. Pathways out of maize: Orphans or siblings? Performance rankings for low and high income Sakai farmers against a set of economic Performance Rankings for Low income and High income Sakai Farmers under Economic and Market Issues and market criteria show different perceptions of barriers based on income level Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Low income Sakai farmers Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) (3 interview s) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Economic & Individual high-value crop commercialization market issues (12 criteria) Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) High income Sakai Assisted seed multiplication (maize) farmers Individual high-value crop commercialization (8 interview s) Economic & Group-based high-value crop commercialization market issues (28 Commercial delivery of new maize varieties criteria) Public delivery of new maize varieties 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Performance Rankings
  11. 11. Pathways out of maize: Orphans or siblings? Performance rankings for different groups of stakeholders shows a surprising amount of optimism about alternative Focused, and Public Sector Seed Perspectives under Stress Tolerance Issues a set of Performance Rankings for Sakai Farmers, Biotechnology dryland staple crops, especially under stress tolerance criteria Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Sakai Farmers Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) (11 interviews) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Stress Tolerance Individual high-value crop commercialization issues (22 criteria) Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Biotech Focus Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) (5 interviews) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Stress tolerance Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization issues (9 criteria) Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Public sector Local improvement of local maize seed (3 interviews) Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Stress tolerance Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization issues (8 Group-based high-value crop commercialization criteria) Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Performance Rankings
  12. 12. Getting the value without the high risk? Performance rankings (female), Sakai farmers (male), Sakai farmers (low income) and Sakai farmers (high income) Performance Rankings for Sakai farmers show preference for group-based approaches and some variation in performance based on income level Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Female Sakai Individual high-value crop commercialization farmers Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties (5 interview s) Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Male Sakai Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization farmers Group-based high-value crop commercialization (6 interview s) Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Low income Local improvement of local maize seed Sakai farmers Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) (3 interview s) Individual high-value crop commercialization l = 25 Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence High income Alternative staples for market Sakai farmers Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) (8 interview s) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization l=4 Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Performance Rankings
  13. 13. Pathways out of maize: Getting the value without the high risk? Performance rankings (low and high income) under 'availability & access toeconomic and market Performance Rankings for Sakai farmers show perceptions of resources' and 'resource costs' issues barriers differ based on income level Alternative staples for subsistence Low income Sakai farmers Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed (2 interview s) Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Availability and access to Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization resources issues Commercial delivery of new maize varieties (5 criteria) Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence High income Sakai farmers Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed (6 interview s) Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Availability and access to Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization resources issues Commercial delivery of new maize varieties (16 criteria) Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Low income Sakai farmers Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) (3 interview s) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization Resource costs issues Group-based high-value crop commercialization (4 criteria) Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence High income Sakai farmers Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed (8 interview s) Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Resource costs issues Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization (10 criteria) Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Performance Rankings
  14. 14. Pathways out of maize: Getting the value without the high risk? Performance Rankings for Sakai farmers (low and high income) under water and pest and disease resistance issues Performance rankings show the real deal-breaker might be water Alternative staples for subsistence Low income Sakai farmers Alternative staples for market (3 interviews) Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) l = 6.5 Water issues (3 criteria) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence High income Sakai farmers Alternative staples for market (7 interviews) Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Water issues (7 criteria) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties l=3 Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Low income Sakai farmers Alternative staples for market (3 interviews) Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Pest & disease resistance Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization issues (3 criteria) Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties High income Sakai farmers Alternative staples for subsistence (7 interviews) Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Pest & disease resistance Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) issues (7 criteria) Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Performance Rankings
  15. 15. Pathways in maize: Living in parallel worlds? Performance rankings for low and high income farmers shows different perceptions ofSakai farmers (low Income)based on (high income) Performance Rankings for uncertainty and Sakai farmers wealth Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market l = 42 Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization Low income Group-based high-value crop commercialization Sakai farmers Commercial delivery of new maize varieties (3 interviews) Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market l = 22 Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization High income Sakai farmers Group-based high-value crop commercialization (8 interviews) Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Performance Rankings
  16. 16. Pathways in maize: Living in parallel worlds? Performance rankings for different groups of Nairobi-based informants Performance Rankings for Science and Technology Institute Managers, Biotechnology Focused, and Commercially Oriented Perspectives show assisted seed pathways are ‘consistent’ performers Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market S&T Institutes Local improvement of local maize seed (5 interview s) Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Biotech Focus Alternative staples for market (5 interview s) Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization Commercially Group-based high-value crop commercialization Oriented Commercial delivery of new maize varieties (5 interview s) Public delivery of new maize varieties 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Performance Rankings
  17. 17. Pathways in maize: Performance rankings for groupsCommercially oriented and Biotechnology-focussed perspectives show a Performance Rankings for Public sector, S&T Institutes, of Nairobi-based informants variety of high performing pathways, but rarely high maize options Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization Public sector Commercial delivery of new maize varieties officials Public delivery of new maize varieties (3 interview s) Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed S&T Institutes Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) (5 interview s) Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Commercially Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Oriented Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization (5 interview s) Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Biotech Focus Alternative staples for subsistence (5 interview s) Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Performance Rankings
  18. 18. Pathways in maize: Sakai farmerPerformance Rankings for Sakai Farmers (all) Sakai Farmers (Low Income) and Sakai High Income Farmers local maize, performance rankings show a preference for not new maize Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization Sakai Farmers (all) Commercial delivery of new maize varieties 11 interview s Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Sakai Farmers Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization (low income) Commercial delivery of new maize varieties 3 interview s Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Sakai Farmers Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) (high income) Individual high-value crop commercialization 8 interview s Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Performance Rankings
  19. 19. Pathways in maize: Maize Security ≠ Food Security Performance rankingsforshow that Economiclocal maize pathways perform well under Performance Rankings Sakai Farmers under the and Market, Stress Tolerance and Social/Political/Cultural Issues economic and market criteria, but less well under sets of stress tolerance criteria Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization Sakai Farmers Commercial delivery of new maize varieties (11 interview s) Public delivery of new maize varieties Economic and market issues Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market (40 criteria) Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Sakai Farmers Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization (11 interview s) Group-based high-value crop commercialization Stress tolerance Commercial delivery of new maize varieties issues Public delivery of new maize varieties (22 criteria) Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Sakai Farmers Local improvement of local maize seed (11 interview s) Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Social/political/ Assisted seed multiplication (maize) Individual high-value crop commercialization cultural issues Group-based high-value crop commercialization (12 criteria) Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Performance Rankings
  20. 20. Pathways in maize: Maize Security ≠ Food Security Performance rankings for groups of Nairobi-based informants against a set of stress tolerance for Public sector, S&T Institutes, Commercially oriented and Biotechnology-focussed perspectivesnew maize varieties Performance Rankings criteria show a higher performance for under Stress tolerance issues Alternative staples for subsistence Public sector Alternative staples for market officials Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) (3 interview s) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) 8 criteria Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) S&T Institutes Individual high-value crop commercialization (5 interview s) Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties 9 criteria Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Commercially Alternative staples for market Local improvement of local maize seed Oriented Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) (5 interview s) Individual high-value crop commercialization 9 criteria Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties Alternative staples for subsistence Alternative staples for market Biotech Focus Local improvement of local maize seed (5 interview s) Assisted seed multiplication (alternative crops) Assisted seed multiplication (maize) 9 criteria Individual high-value crop commercialization Group-based high-value crop commercialization Commercial delivery of new maize varieties Public delivery of new maize varieties 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Performance Rankings
  21. 21. What does this mean for policy and practice?
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