Lars Frederiksen Innovation & Entrepreneurship Group Roundtable for  UK-China Innovation for Sustainability and Equitable ...
Overview <ul><li>Introduction: Meso-level innovation policy? </li></ul><ul><li>Ecocit: A UK-China research program </li></...
Meso-level innovation policy <ul><li>Complementary initiatives to national or regional level innovation policy?  </li></ul...
英国工程和自然科学研究委员会   (EPSRC) 可持续生态城市研究网 Ecoregion Research Networks 生态城市建设提供了实践研究的背景,激发了创新和全球的行业互动。 EPSRC 研究网为这一成果创造条件。 Eco-ci...
CHAMSPAM Network: 城市历史和多尺度总体规划 City history & multi-scale master planning ECOCIT Network: 城市外围地区经济和生态模式 Peripheral urban u...
可持续的经济发展 Sustainable economic development & 可持续的生态目标 Sustainable ecological objectives  此类大城市外围区的要求是什么? What are the requ...
可持续的经济发展 Sustainable economic development & 可持续的生态目标 Sustainable ecological objectives  此类大城市外围区的要求是什么? What are the requ...
Ecocit - part of a larger plan <ul><li>The Ecoregion Research Networks:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funded by the UK Engineerin...
Ecocit: Outcomes so far <ul><li>A community of interdisciplinary researchers (China, UK, Spain, US) focused on sustainabil...
An example: The Dongtan ecocity case study <ul><li>Focus on the business side of creating integrated sustainable urban des...
Research motivation: managing innovation <ul><li>New performance requirements for cities: zero-carbon and sustainability o...
‘ Dongtan is the next Sidney Opera house for Arup in terms of importance’ B. Morera, Urban designer, Arup, 2008 ‘ Normally...
Challenge – Rapid Chinese urbanisation  <ul><li>2050 </li></ul><ul><li>China’s urban population is expected to reach 1.12b...
Challenge: Climate Change and Chinese cities <ul><ul><li>“ China is searching for novel ways to expand urban areas while c...
One response to these challenges: Ecocities <ul><ul><li>Ecocity - radically new form of urban design </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Dongtan –  Designing a vision of the urban low carbon future &quot;Dongtan was a rare chance to demonstrate that growth co...
Dongtan ecocity – key objectives and features <ul><li>Client:  Shanghai Industrial Investment Corporation (SIIC) </li></ul...
New road & rail link connection 2009
Dongtan – planned in phases <ul><li>First phase to b e developed by 2020 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three villages </li></ul></...
© Imperial College Business School
Dongtan ecocity design – key project milestones 2007 June-Oct Phase 1 Feasibility Report – Testing Phase 1 objectives & de...
Outcome of Arup’s design project <ul><li>Project delivered three months early </li></ul><ul><li>Met client’s request’s for...
Wetland, Dongtan, Oct 2007
Research aims and objectives <ul><li>How did Arup develop the knowledge required to deliver the innovative design for Dong...
Three generations of systems integration <ul><li>1 st  Generation  – ‘technical system’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design & int...
Ecocity design & systems integration <ul><li>Masterplanning – the creation of the ecocity design is first phase of systems...
Arup’s new approach: ‘Integrated Urbanism’: a systemic approach to innovation Source: ‘Making Places in the Ecological Age...
New tools developed for sustainable integrated urban design
Dynamic capabilities in project-based industries <ul><li>Dynamic capabilities: ‘the firm’s ability to integrate, build and...
Phases of capability development <ul><li>Examine the birth and evolution of Arup’s design capabilities in three overlappin...
1. Renewal phase: the Dongtan project team <ul><li>The project was risky for Arup  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign architect...
1. Renewal phase: innovation in urban design <ul><li>Dongtan project was a ‘skunkworks’ organisation within Arup </li></ul...
2. Replication phase: codification, routines and tools <ul><li>Partnership with SIIC on 4 ecocity projects in China – clie...
3. Reinforcement phase: institutional legitimacy <ul><li>Led by charismatic project members: Peter Head, Alejandro Guiterr...
Dynamic capabilities: Arups Integrated Urbanism  <ul><li>Renewal phase  Dongtan project </li></ul><ul><li>Breakthrough pro...
<ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Questions and comments are welcome </li></ul>
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Lars Frederiksen: Ecocit: Research on innovation and sustainability in urban design

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Prof Lars Fredriksen, Imperial College Business School.

Presentation to the UK-China Innovation Workshop for Sustainable and Equitable Development, Tsinghua University, 19 March 2010, co-organised by China Institute for Science and Technology Policy (CISTP) at Tsinghua University and the STEPS Centre.

http://anewmanifesto.org/news/china-workshop-presentationschina-workshop-presentations/

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  • I am presenting a meso-level policy activity in the field of innovation ,science and tech as well as outline the initial findings of an outcome from ecocit activities
  • Picture: BedZed UK
  • Picture: BedZed UK
  • Arup is a UK engineering and design consultancy, 9,000 employees in 86 offices in 30 countries, including 1,500 in China. From iconic buildings to infrastructure and systems of systems – ecocity development Breakthrough projects are strategic experiments!
  • New opportunities in the global economy is being shaped by challenges such as CC but it is not only a story of single technologies: photo voltaic, wind turbines, fuel cells, etc. more systemic innovation is called for …ie. prototypes
  • A demonstrator ‘ source code for an urban operating system’ Focused not on form, but ‘performance of the form’ Demonstrate that growth can be green New initiative and opportunity to get involved early in planning of eco-cities
  • What has happened so far …: 100.000 tourists a month from Shanghai now to visit the Chongming island many of them head for the Dongtan wetland area… Main project stalled! Key project champignon the Shanghai major jailed for corruption
  • Inductive, adapted grounded theory (Strauss and Cobin 1990, Suddaby 2006) From events to outcomes Identify X: crucial decisions, central subjects, activities, incidents and changes from planned behaviour (the sources of change Describe and understand the sequence of X over time Accuracy, generality and simplicity (Weick 1989)
  • Multi-disciplinary teams led by architects Designed from the start to reduce energy waste, congestion, pollution, and economic inequality Pull expertise from anywhere within Arup
  • DC is a process (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2007)
  • Lars Frederiksen: Ecocit: Research on innovation and sustainability in urban design

    1. 1. Lars Frederiksen Innovation & Entrepreneurship Group Roundtable for UK-China Innovation for Sustainability and Equitable Development 19 th March 2010 Ecocit: Research on innovation and sustainability in urban design
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction: Meso-level innovation policy? </li></ul><ul><li>Ecocit: A UK-China research program </li></ul><ul><li>An example of Ecocit research: Innovation in sustainable integrated urban design </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research motivation and context </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research method </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Findings and analysis I: systems integration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Findings and analysis II: capability building </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Meso-level innovation policy <ul><li>Complementary initiatives to national or regional level innovation policy? </li></ul><ul><li>Involving universities and industry partners from the outset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A more agency-based bottom-up approach to changing the innovation system? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joint research activities (UK-China): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge creation and transfer at university/individual level </li></ul></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    4. 4. 英国工程和自然科学研究委员会 (EPSRC) 可持续生态城市研究网 Ecoregion Research Networks 生态城市建设提供了实践研究的背景,激发了创新和全球的行业互动。 EPSRC 研究网为这一成果创造条件。 Eco-cities provide a context for practical research, the stimulation of innovation and interaction with industry globally. The EPSRC networks are an enabler for this outcome. Visualisation by ARUP
    5. 5. CHAMSPAM Network: 城市历史和多尺度总体规划 City history & multi-scale master planning ECOCIT Network: 城市外围地区经济和生态模式 Peripheral urban units, socio-economic models SUSTAIN Network: 可实现的可持续的城市系统的建设 Achievable implementation of sustainable urban systems 协调框架 Co-ordination Framework - 广泛的网络活动 - - Pan network activities - 联系 一体化 宣传 link integrate promote www.eco-networks.org 确定资助来源:欧盟、 EPSRC 、英国工业贸易部… Identify funding streams: EU, EPSRC, DTI … 提升形象,研究网络: 2010 世博会… Raise profile, research networks: World Expo 2010 … 国际研究:访问培训、考察奖学金… International research: training visits, travel fellowships … 管理、文化和风险 Governance, culture & risk 经济、环境和区域背景 Economics, environment and regional context 可持续的基础设施和行为适应 Sustainable infrastructure and behaviour adaptation
    6. 6. 可持续的经济发展 Sustainable economic development & 可持续的生态目标 Sustainable ecological objectives  此类大城市外围区的要求是什么? What are the requirements for such urban units on periphery of mega cities? <ul><li>涉及的内容: </li></ul><ul><li>生态城与周边城市相比,在能源、污染等方面有更严格的要求 - 商业竞争力 ?大城市影响下的小城市 - 如何 吸引和保留技术基地 ? </li></ul><ul><li>生态城市可持续发展实践 - 城市 运营管理模式至关重要 </li></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>New management paradigms & business models to design, build & operate eco-cities </li></ul><ul><li>Planning & policy to promote sustainable economic & ecological development, inward investment, and harmonise employment opportunities & human capital </li></ul><ul><li>Learning & transferring innovation and best practices to other eco-city projects on a worldwide basis </li></ul>ECOCIT   研究网 城市外围功能区可持续的经济和生态模式 ECOCIT Research Network : Sustainable Economic and Ecological Models for Peripheral Urban Functional Units 经济、环境和区域背景 Economics, environment and regional context <ul><li>研究网将致力于规划和政策手段,目的是: </li></ul><ul><li>为生态城市吸引外国投资吸 </li></ul><ul><li>引和保留公司 </li></ul><ul><li>使就业机会和人力资本和谐 </li></ul>Network will address planning and policy actions to promote sustainable economic development, while achieving ecological goals in urban units on the periphery of a mega-city
    7. 7. 可持续的经济发展 Sustainable economic development & 可持续的生态目标 Sustainable ecological objectives  此类大城市外围区的要求是什么? What are the requirements for such urban units on periphery of mega cities? ECOCIT 研究网: 城市外围功能区可持续的经济和生态模式 ECOCIT Research Network : Sustainable Economic and Ecological Models for Peripheral Urban Functional Units 经济、环境和区域背景 Economics, environment and regional context 活动: 网络:学术、产业和政府网络, 实际上的通过环境技术和工程关注商业的中心 研讨会:公共论坛、讲座和系列讨论会 文本工作:大城市 战略 、经济与生态平衡模型 组织部: 决策工具 和进程推动 Activities: NETWORK: Build an academic, industry & government network to develop key areas of research OUTCOMES: Joint workshops (face-to-face and virtual meetings) to produce targeted research Portal with information resources, forums, decision-making tools and process aids
    8. 8. Ecocit - part of a larger plan <ul><li>The Ecoregion Research Networks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funded by the UK Engineering and physical sciences research council (EPSRC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Launched 2007 – running until Summer 2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by University College London, Southampton University and Imperial College London </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public/private initiative for urban sustainability: Collaboration involving UK-based global engineering consultants: Arup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less focus on stand-alone technological opportunities – more concerned with systemic/market-facing end of solutions for low-carbon future (i.e. local authorities and firms) </li></ul></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    9. 9. Ecocit: Outcomes so far <ul><li>A community of interdisciplinary researchers (China, UK, Spain, US) focused on sustainability, planning, innovation and business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual seminars, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three major research proposals submitted including both UK and Chinese researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New management paradigms and business models required to support the design of ecocity developments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urban entrepreneurship: Planning and policy actions required to drive inward investment, attract and retain firms, and harmonise local employment opportunities and human capital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning from Dongtan, focusing on the exploitation of innovation and the transfer of best practices from this leadership project to other ecocity projects on a worldwide basis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two research grant won (EPSRC): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dongtan ecocity: Integrated sustainable urban design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy service business models in Kenya, India and China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Organised three large workshops in UK (2) and China </li></ul><ul><li>Shanghai Expo event </li></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    10. 10. An example: The Dongtan ecocity case study <ul><li>Focus on the business side of creating integrated sustainable urban design solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the role played by the engineering and design consultancy Arup in capability development and replication </li></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    11. 11. Research motivation: managing innovation <ul><li>New performance requirements for cities: zero-carbon and sustainability objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Initiated by breakthrough projects in design, build or operations </li></ul><ul><li>How is knowledge created and combined in a breakthrough project in a new market? </li></ul><ul><li>How is knowledge transferred from a breakthrough project to the next project? </li></ul>© Imperial College Business School Market base new new existing Technology base <ul><li>Business as usual </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional capabilities </li></ul>New projects New projects New projects
    12. 12. ‘ Dongtan is the next Sidney Opera house for Arup in terms of importance’ B. Morera, Urban designer, Arup, 2008 ‘ Normally we would never do a project like Dongtan – it is too risky and too big. However, this was a rare opportunity for us to show leadership and learn…. Taking on large projects is the way we learn in this business of projects’ John Miles, Arup Board, 2009 Breakthrough projects for Arup
    13. 13. Challenge – Rapid Chinese urbanisation <ul><li>2050 </li></ul><ul><li>China’s urban population is expected to reach 1.12bn people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>600m people are expected move from rural to urban areas </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Challenge: Climate Change and Chinese cities <ul><ul><li>“ China is searching for novel ways to expand urban areas while conserving natural resources”, Science, 2008 </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. One response to these challenges: Ecocities <ul><ul><li>Ecocity - radically new form of urban design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New build and new build/retrofit projects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote sustainable living and low carbon society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less use of non-renewable resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt to climate change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A systemic and integrated approach including socio-economic issues as taxation, local level service delivery (schools, hospitals), business development, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneering examples (demonstrators – closed systems to monitor performance): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dongtan in China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masdar in Abu Dhabi </li></ul></ul></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    16. 16. Dongtan – Designing a vision of the urban low carbon future &quot;Dongtan was a rare chance to demonstrate that growth could happen a different way.” Lead planner Alejandro Gutierrez, Arup, Wired 2007 “ This city will become a showpiece for the rest of the world. With London set to grow so much, the methods we use in Dongtan will become extremely relevant to London.” Peter Head, Dongtan Project Director, Arup 2007
    17. 17. Dongtan ecocity – key objectives and features <ul><li>Client: Shanghai Industrial Investment Corporation (SIIC) </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant masterplanner : Arup (UK design consultancy) </li></ul>© Imperial College Business School <ul><li>Sustainable ‘demonstrator city’ – cutting carbon emissions shapes urban design </li></ul><ul><li>40 min travel time to central Shanghai </li></ul><ul><li>Population 500,000 in 2050 </li></ul><ul><li>Site: 84 square km </li></ul><ul><li>3 distinct towns amid parkland and canals </li></ul><ul><li>Population density similar to London </li></ul>
    18. 18. New road & rail link connection 2009
    19. 19. Dongtan – planned in phases <ul><li>First phase to b e developed by 2020 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three villages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>830 hectares </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Whole site developed by 2050 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8,400 hectares </li></ul></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    20. 20. © Imperial College Business School
    21. 21. Dongtan ecocity design – key project milestones 2007 June-Oct Phase 1 Feasibility Report – Testing Phase 1 objectives & deliverables for Shanghai Expo 2010 2006 December September Arup issues Sustainability Guidelines - Definition of specific objectives, indicators and requirements for buildings, infrastructure & public space Arup issues Control Plan for Start-Up area - Final Masterplan & Main Planning application document 2005 December Arup issues First Design Report for Start-Up area - Key sustainability strategies & urban vision for Dongtan Start-Up area 2004 August June Arup First Vision for Development – Document defines sustainable aspirations for Dongtan SIIC appoints Arup for developing the vision
    22. 22. Outcome of Arup’s design project <ul><li>Project delivered three months early </li></ul><ul><li>Met client’s request’s for close to 100% zero carbon solution </li></ul><ul><li>Uses proven technology to reduce risks </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation lies in the integration of technology and environment, cultural and social components </li></ul><ul><li>‘ But of course Dongtan is not a rigid blueprint for a city for the future’…other projects must be guided by unique local environment (Peter Head, Arup) </li></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    23. 23. Wetland, Dongtan, Oct 2007
    24. 24. Research aims and objectives <ul><li>How did Arup develop the knowledge required to deliver the innovative design for Dongtan? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recombine and create new capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with the client (SIIC) in developing capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Renewal’ strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How did Arup transfer capabilities from the Dongtan project and developing them on subsequent ecocity projects in China and elsewhere? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement of capabilities over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with the client to on subsequent projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Replication’ strategy </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Three generations of systems integration <ul><li>1 st Generation – ‘technical system’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design & integration of physical components into a functioning system (Saplosky, 1972) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driven by technical specification (e.g. US missile systems) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd Generation – socio-technical ‘integrated solutions’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design & integration of hardware, software, services and capabilities into ‘integrated solutions’ (Prencipe et al., 2003; Davies, 2004; Hobday et al., 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driven by output specification (performance targets) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 rd Generation – ‘eco-technical solutions’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural, social and technological components (Hughes, 2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Driven by ‘sustainability targets’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to change human behaviour (e.g. promote sustainable and healthy lifestyle; adapt and mitigate climate change) </li></ul></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    26. 26. Ecocity design & systems integration <ul><li>Masterplanning – the creation of the ecocity design is first phase of systems integration process </li></ul><ul><li>Requires innovation in organisation, tools and techniques to create sustainable outcomes as well as across multiple agents </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of focusing on one of the core systems (e.g. energy or waste) the city was designed using the concept of ‘integrated urbanism’ </li></ul><ul><li>Design in one component interacts with multiple components to change performance outcomes </li></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    27. 27. Arup’s new approach: ‘Integrated Urbanism’: a systemic approach to innovation Source: ‘Making Places in the Ecological Age’, Arup Urban Design
    28. 28. New tools developed for sustainable integrated urban design
    29. 29. Dynamic capabilities in project-based industries <ul><li>Dynamic capabilities: ‘the firm’s ability to integrate, build and reconfigure internal and external competencies to address rapidly changing environments’ Teece et al. (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic capabilities in project-based industries - Shamshie et al (2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewal strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replication strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We contribute to the dynamic capabilities literature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of transitioning from renewal to replication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reveals how firm’s develop the competencies to ‘shape’ the external environment – a process of reinforcement </li></ul></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    30. 30. Phases of capability development <ul><li>Examine the birth and evolution of Arup’s design capabilities in three overlapping phases </li></ul><ul><li>Renewal phase – capabilities developed during the Dongtan project </li></ul><ul><li>Replication phase – capabilities transferred and developed on subsequent ecocity projects </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement phase – capabilities to gain institutional support and legitimacy for the new market category: ecocity projects </li></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    31. 31. 1. Renewal phase: the Dongtan project team <ul><li>The project was risky for Arup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign architects can lose control of their Chinese projects when clients seek to cut costs and redesign using cheaper options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was the client really committed? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Origins LSE connection </li></ul><ul><li>Core team of 5 builds up to 150 specialists in less than one year (mainly in-house) </li></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    32. 32. 1. Renewal phase: innovation in urban design <ul><li>Dongtan project was a ‘skunkworks’ organisation within Arup </li></ul><ul><li>New concept of multi-functional project team called ‘total serial innovation’ (Peter Head, Arup) </li></ul><ul><li>Led by architects working in multi-functional teams </li></ul><ul><li>30 specialists each with a team of 3-4 members </li></ul><ul><li>Developed new tools on the project to support integrated urban design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Resource Model (IRM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SPEAR </li></ul></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    33. 33. 2. Replication phase: codification, routines and tools <ul><li>Partnership with SIIC on 4 ecocity projects in China – client wants to take one systems integrator role </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership with HSBC </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer knowledge and develop replicable capabilities on subsequent ecocity projects </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Integrated Urbanism unit in Arup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group ‘born out of Dongtan’ (Guiterrez, interview) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of core Dongtan project members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentoring on new projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refinement of project tools – IRM and SPEAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create new tool: Integrated Methodology – sequence of design processes </li></ul></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    34. 34. 3. Reinforcement phase: institutional legitimacy <ul><li>Led by charismatic project members: Peter Head, Alejandro Guiterrez and Malcolm Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the concept of ecocity in international conferences: Clinton C40 (Melbourne, Toronto, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Dongtan and iconic project members: the focus of more than 300 articles in major Chinese, UK and US newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Institutes for Sustainability – China and UK </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration with universities – e.g. EPSRC Dongtan Networks </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008: Business Week labeled the Dongtan ecocity as one of the ten wonders of China!  </li></ul>© Imperial College Business School
    35. 35. Dynamic capabilities: Arups Integrated Urbanism <ul><li>Renewal phase Dongtan project </li></ul><ul><li>Breakthrough project </li></ul><ul><li>Replication phase </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent ecocity projects </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Elsewhere in world </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement phase </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional legitimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Clinton C40 </li></ul><ul><li>Institute for Sustainability </li></ul>2004 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005
    36. 36. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Questions and comments are welcome </li></ul>
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