Mine Haul Road Upgrade Project OZ Minerals Prominent Hill South Australia

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An all weather Haul Road Upgrade Project was implemented at the OZ Minerals Prominent Hill site in March 2012. The primary objective was to introduce a "traffic light" system identifying the various levels of remediation required and types of depths and material to be utilised. Once designed crossfalls and appropriate drainage were established in conjunction with sub-base, base and wearing course materials the mining haul roads were capable of sustaining traffic during light rain events; thus increasing productivity and vehicle integrity and longevity for sustained periods. The project provided appropriate road systems both in pit and on surface routes to the waste dumps and ROM Pad during rain events. Some $4M per year in recovered productivity has been anticipated by the implementation of this successful project initiative.

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Mine Haul Road Upgrade Project OZ Minerals Prominent Hill South Australia

  1. 1. Haul Road Upgrade ProjectENTREPRENEURSHIP, COMMERCIALISATION & INNOVATION CENTRE TECHCOMM5012 APPLIED PROJECT MANAGEMENT HAUL ROAD UPGRADE PROJECT Stephen James McKnight 26, May 2012 1|Page
  2. 2. Haul Road Upgrade Project ENTREPRENEURSHIP, COMMERCIALISATION & INNOVATION CENTRE TECHCOMM5012 HAUL ROAD UPGRADE PROJECT CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY………………………………………………………………………………10INTEGRATION………………………………………………………………………………………...11SCOPE………………………………………………………………………………………………...12TIME…………………………………………………………………………………………………..16COST…………………………………………………………………………………………………..18QUALITY………………………………………………………………………………………………20RISK……………………………………………………………………………………………………22HUMAN RESOURCES…………………………………………………………………………………24COMMUNICATIONS………………………………………………………………………………….26PROCUREMENT……………………………………………………………………………………….28 APPENDIXAppendix.1 THE MINE MANGEMENT PLAN…………………………………………………………50 • AFE Authorisation For Expenditure Request, OZ Minerals Business Case Submission • Thiess Contract Quote & Rates for requested equipment & resources • Wet Weather delays business case & supporting evidence presentation • LEAN SIX SIGMA DMAIC Business case presentation • Business Improvement Posters & Monthly data progress presentations • Thiess Road Design & Standards Criteria Document REFERENCESReferences………………………………………….………………………….……………………..103 2|Page
  3. 3. Haul Road Upgrade Project The University of Adelaide - TECHCOMM5021 Course Lecturer: John Sing Major Project: HAUL ROAD UPGRADE PROJECT Executive Summary• Up to 10 words description of what the project is. • Upgrade mine roads to an all-weather haul road system• Where is the Project Located? • OZ Minerals, Prominent Hill, South Australia• Who is the Owner and Sponsor• The owner is Dave Way (Deputy Operations Manager, OZ Minerals)• The sponsor is Robert Boyd (Open Pit Manager, OZ Minerals )• The Key Stakeholders are OZ Minerals & Thiess• The name of the Project Manager• Stephen McKnight & also the Expert Road Consultant• Your picture, vision or dream of the projects outcome• A total of 20% of all excavators’ downtime is attributed to wet weather rainfall events and subsequent delays. The “vision or dream” is to minimise this figure by some 25%-50%.• To put this loss into perspective on average each excavator loses some 370 operating hours per year per digger to wet weather events and subsequent delays, which is equivalent to 480,000 BCM’s per excavator per year in lost productivity at $43.00 per BCM, which is some $20,000,000.00 multiplied by 5 excavators giving $100,000,000.00 in total potential saving costs on notional EBIDTA values (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes and Amortization).• This project will potentially save $25,000,000.00 up to $50,000,000.00 depending on the successful implementation of the key deliverables outlined in the Project Management Plan.• Historically, over the last 4 years the Mine has had on average 4 times the predicted annual rainfall, which has produced a loss of 920 hours of production per year per digger. These rainfall events typically occur during the months of November to April. Therefore, it is critical to complete the project before November 2012• The ultimate target is to achieve a minim of 6000 hours production per year per digger. The Haul Road Upgrade Project will go some way to achieving this target (20%) in conjunction with other site based initiatives including: a LOM dewatering strategy, blasting increases in pattern size/drill 3|Page
  4. 4. Haul Road Upgrade Project bit size and a 10% increase in powder factors and “hot seat” changes in all production equipment, with staggered fly-in-out days for maximum coverage and finally vertical advance heights of flitch/bench versus digger movement along wider and deeper benches• The Phase of the project• Due to the fluid and nonlinear nature of such a project we have been pushing every phase possible at once because of the tight deadline involved, i.e. this project needs to be completed by the next significant rain events predicted from November 2012 until April 2013.• Therefore, the phase progressions are as follows; a. Define, identify a problem or opportunity, which has been completed b. Measure the baseline of the process has been implemented and started January 2012 c. Analyse, identify and validate root causes. A “fishbone” analysis has been completed, problem analysis “brainstorming” completed, root cause prioritisation implemented, 5W root cause analysis completed, root cause validation established by RTS Friction test carried out on site to find “baseline”, a Traffic Light Friction Risk model has been implemented and various other Project Management Tools have also been implemented, which will be outlined in the body of this presentation. d. Improve, find and evaluate best improvements. The best solution was to adopt the use of a traffic light system for remediation of mine haul roads with some 25 interrelated criteria across the 3 lights. However, the primary criteria is outlined below; i. Red light = high priority site requiring immediate remediation with associated plan and methodology ii. Amber Light = less intense remediation but significant nonetheless and finally iii. Green Light = a 200mm wearing course needs to be established to make the road compliant with the all-weather upgrade specifications iv. Red Light requires sub-base of up to 1000mm v. Amber Light requires base of 600mm vi. Green Light Running surface 200mm vii. Crossfall of 2% on in pit and mine haul roads viii. Centre camber with 2% crossfall on dump ramps and roads ix. Establish significant drainage and run-off sumps e. Control, execute and maintain improvement. i. Cost ii. Schedule iii. Process Control iv. SOPS v. Training vi. Communications• The project is now in the execution phase a. All equipment for the project will be on-site by the end of April 2012 b. The T8 supervisors from Thiess have been executing the plan with limited equipment, resources and material c. The project is 38% complete to this date regardless the above constraints• Who is the client Representative? 4|Page
  5. 5. Haul Road Upgrade Project• Leidy Alvarado, OZ Minerals Mine Improvement Project Engineer• Who are the Stakeholders?• OZ Minerals Senior Management Team• OZ Minerals Open Cut Management Team• MIT OZ Minerals Project Team• Thiess earth moving contractors• Independent Road Expert Consultant• Purpose of the Project: • Site Description  OZ Minerals operates both an open cut and underground copper/gold mine and processing plant at the Prominent Hill Mine site. Prominent Hill is a remote site with a FIFO and limited DIDO out workforce supporting the mining, production and exploration activities. A permanent accommodation village located 3 km’s from the mining operations supports some 1500 workers. Processing of ore commenced in February 2009. Ore averaging 1.5% Cu and 0.5g/t Au is processed at a nominal rate of 8Mt per annum to produce copper concentrate via both Darwin and Port Adelaide by both rail and road • Site Location and Access  The mine site is located 650km north-west of Adelaide, South Australia, some 100km south –east of Coober Pedy and 150km north-west of Roxby Downs. The site is accessible via an unsealed road off the Stuart Highway 100km south of Copper Pedy. Daily charter flights from Adelaide, Melbourne and Port Augusta service the FIFO workers • Site Observations  The access ramps are generally in poor condition at higher elevations recommended by geological element profiles. The majority of access ramps do not indicate any crossfall. No drainage or facility for run-off from the haul roads seems to be in place, except for water running along the full length of access ramps from higher levels to lower levels. This is one of the major causes of uncontrolled water runoff during major rainfall events. The majority of access ramps are graded and compacted. The use of inappropriate material selection on some ramps. There are many cases of wheel rutting on ramp corners due to poor material selection. Gradients on most active in-pit ramps are between 8%-10%. Waste dump ramps vary from 5%, 8% and 10% depending on dumping criteria and poor design. Steely Haematite, Andesite and Dolomite are the best material to source for the remediation project. Large oversized material has been deposited on windrows  The existing access ramps make up 3.5km of the total 10km mine haul road system. The width of ramps are currently 23m being used for 48 haul road trucks, CAT 793D. Other equipment on-site is made up of some 5 graders CAT 24H, another 6 Dozers D10T and 4 Liebher 996 excavators with numerous other ancillary equipment  Some recommendations based on the observations are; 5|Page
  6. 6. Haul Road Upgrade Project  Create a dedicated road maintenance project team • 1 x Project Manager • 1 x Project Engineer • 4 x Various Independent Consultants required during execution phase and peer review (Expert Road Engineer, Geotechnical Engineer, Friction Loss Engineer, Surveyor and Peer Review Engineer) • 2 x Supervisors (T8) • 10 x Operators  Source appropriate equipment • 1 x Wheel Loader CAT 992D • 2 x Komatsu 785 dump trucks • 1 x Grader CAT24H • 1 x Komatsu 300 Digger (Contract digger to supplement fleet) • 1 x CAT 777 Water Truck • 1 x CAT D10 Dozer • And other ancillary equipment as required; Compactors or Impactors  Source appropriate material • Steely Haematite • Haematite • Andesite • Dolomite • Greywacke • Granitites  Engage a dedicated survey team to control and monitor the daily works supervised by the T8 Thiess operator in charge of implementing the traffic light system management plan  Purchase the friction testing unit to verify when roads are safe to be driven on after all rain events  Follow the rain event flow diagram to minimise downtime• The Objectives: • Scope  To address the issue of unsealed roads and the downtime associated with them during and after rainfall events. This includes, road surfaces, remediation configurations, floodway’s, cuts, fills, drainage and mine haul road design, the identification of unsealed roads and suitable material selection for remediation including in-pit material and engineered commercially produced material. This remediation program will include the determination of sub base, base and wearing course thickness, drainage and erosion protection, environmental considerations, performance expectations, including surface condition assessment. • Time 6|Page
  7. 7. Haul Road Upgrade Project  The estimated scheduler for this project is 12 months starting January 2012 until January 2013  The schedule is broken up into phases which will be elaborated on at a future date and location in this document • Cost  The estimated cost will be divided between OP EX and CAP EX the expenditure is in the vicinity of $1.3M CAP EX and $4M OP EX, giving a total of some $5.3M spend  OP EX will pay for the machine, operator utilisation and some occasional “day work” nominated activities  CAP EX will pay for material, Consultants and other yet to be identified costs • Requirements to be satisfied: • With the new contract model the Company has accepted the responsibility to upgrade the haul roads in the open pit to a standard to assist in decreasing the operational delays and risk involved in friction loss, with respect to the deterioration of the haul roads, evident during wet weather.Situation: The mine operates 24/7 365 days per annum. Excavator productivity is now seriously limited by the fact that the pit is closed off when it starts raining, and then it takes a long time to reopen the pit after the rain. This is because mine operations wait for roads to be dry again, to avoid possibility of track slides. Overall wet weather causes circa 370 hours of downtime per excavator per annum. The mining contract currently states that the contractor is accountable to maintain ‘all-weather roads’.Complication: The mining contractor is not confident that an ‘all-weather pit’ is possible at Prominent Hill, claiming that the quality of the material available on site for road-sheeting. The is no clarity also on the type of materials to be used, size of materials, current quality of design, use of reagents, maintenance practices, etc. The road maintenance practices for managing haul roads before, during and after wet weather events are also not clear and codified (e.g. scarifying, sheeting, grading, etc.)Resolution: OZ Minerals is willing to engage an experienced contractor on road design and maintenance to perform a review of the current haul roads. This will include: design, road sampling, wet weather performance, dust suppression, material quality & sizes, maintenance practices. The scope of the report though should primarily be focused on providing OZ Minerals with a recommendation on how to keep the mining operations running as long as possible during and after wet weather events. To achieve this scope we would engage a contractor that has previous experience in such projects and issues, especially in ‘all weather mines’ or in mines in tropical areas.The Roles & Responsibilities • The roles Identified for the project are  Project Manager (Stephen McKnight)  Project Engineer ( Leidy Alvarado) 7|Page
  8. 8. Haul Road Upgrade Project  Road Maintenance Supervisors ( David Kurtzer & Chris Carroll)  2 x 992 Loader Operator  2 x 24H Grader Operators  4 x 785 Truck Operators  2 x 773 Water Cart Operators  1 x Ancillary Operator from independent contractor• The Benefits • What are we trying to achieve  To reduce the wet weather delays associated with Excavator utilisation by at least 25% representing 370 hours per year for each excavator • Why we should implement the project  This 25% reduction in lost excavator hours represents a potential minimum $25,000,000.00 EBITA saving to the company annually• The value proposition for the sponsor • At least a 25% EBITA saving per annum representing some $25,000,000.00 saving from a capital outlay of $5,3000,000.00• Constraints and assumptions • Equipment availability  It has been identified that there is a lack of suitable and available equipment to implement the project • Material availability  It has been identified that there is not enough suitable or available appropriate material crushed or screened or stockpiled for the project • Resource availability  Ramping up to the 16 people required for the continuous implementation of the six month execution phase • Scope, Time & Cost  Even though the project was identified some 1.5 years ago there was no “political” will to implement the project due to a lack of consistent direction, scope, funds and a dedicated champion to drive the project forward.• The implementation strategy including Critical Success Factors (Targets, KPI’s and Tolerances) • The project requires completion before the next expected rainfall events, which are usually expected in November 2012 until April 2013. • Implementation occurred on the 5/12/2011 when the road expert was engaged in anticipation for the contract change reflecting the haul road upgrade project as a key strategy for increased productivity of a potential 20% of total Excavator increased utilisation. • From implementation key actions were identified and progressively introduce; ancillary equipment, appropriate material, scientific measurement of friction loss and finally execution of appropriate design criteria for successful completion of the projects targets mentioned in previous sections of the executive summary.• Risk and treatment 8|Page
  9. 9. Haul Road Upgrade Project • The issue of wet weather delays is very complex and there are no one size fits all solutions in play. Regardless the fact that there are civil engineering solutions that can and will be applied; this site has specific requirements for the appropriate solution and outcomes desired • Lack of basement material or crushed/screened or stockpiled material available when required • Equipment availability from Thiess • HV & LV, HV & HV interactions during construction/execution phase of project • Resource availability from Thiess for HV requirements • Impact of road maintenance team during construction on production team • Natural disasters • Wet weather rainfall events• How phases can facilitate delivery of future phases (particular design or constructability) • Once the construction/execution phase of the project is completed there will be an emphasis on maintaining the newly constructed roads on a regular basis so that the current situation is not revisited during the remaining 6 years of the mines life • The implementation of a road maintenance team will facilitate the continuous upgrade and improvement of the haul road system without the re-introduction of a sustained initial haul road upgrade campaign, which is in progress at this time • From the RA all necessary steps have been implemented to negate and mitigate this phase occurring again in the LOM strategy, this phase is a once off action of the project leading to a continuous improvement phase• Work Breakdown Structure • Suffice to say that the 5 key areas of the WBS have been defined  Define the situation  Implement/Establish the action plan  Acquire the; • Resources • Material • Equipment  Execute the action plan  Close out the project• The impact of the project on stakeholders • OZ Minerals will have a significant increase in productivity  This will provide increases in share value for stakeholders  The increased productivity will impact the company’s bottom line  This will provide extra capital for future project development • Thiess will have multiple benefits  Increased productivity  Reduced wear & tear on equipment  Reduced soft tissue issues for operators  Maintain compliance with the LOM Contract introduced in January 2012 9|Page
  10. 10. Haul Road Upgrade Project• Milestone and an activity schedule • 5/12/2011 Independent Road Expert engaged to implement project • 5/1/2012 Project needs identified and implemented • 5/2/2012 Execution phase begun with limited; resources, equipment and material • 5/3/2012 Scientific validation of friction loss assessed and measured • 5/4/2012 Resources, Equipment and Material in place and beginning execution phase • 5/5/2012 Execution in full swing, all elements on-site and in play • 5/6/2012 to 5/11/2012 Haul Road Maintenance Plan following PMBOK project cycles until conclusion of project in November 2012• Budget • $5.3M have been committed to the Haul Road Upgrade Project • The $5.3M will be divided into CAPEX $1.3M, which includes payment of expert engineers and surveyors, material all in 75mm for wearing course, friction testing module, uplift of equipment and any other costs outside the committed OPEX money • OPEX is committed at $4M this pays for equipment hire for the six months of the execution phase of the project • There is a further contingency fund available, but to this point a final figure has not been negotiated with the OZ Minerals BI and financial Departments, suffice to say a top end figure of $1M extra funds could be available if required. However, the current budget is on track with no need for a contingency to be anticipated • The CAPEX is well within budget with only some $350,000.00 committed thus far, however the cost of the material (75mm all in) will eat into this fund significantly, some $1M over the 6 months • The OPEX has an anticipated “burn rate” of $550,000.00 per month for 6 months coming in at $3.3M, leaving a $700,000.00 contingency fund if required• Are there Enterprise Environmental Factors or Organisational Process Assets which can be used? • Refer to the body of this document with emphasis on the PMBOK processes • The Management structure of both OZ Minerals Thiess have been utilised in the initial stages of the projects development, until the project produced its own organisational chart and resources • All material has been sourced from the PIT • All resources and equipment have been sourced from Thiess • Road design criteria has been sourced from Thiess and previous champions of the project • Further development of the road design criteria have been introduced from the Expert Road Consultant working in concert with both site based knowledge groups and the adoption of industry “best practise” applications to the specific and unique site requirements 10 | P a g e
  11. 11. Haul Road Upgrade Project PMBOK MANAGEMENT PLANPlans for managing (planning, monitoring & controlling- If Areas not already covered) • Integration • Scope • Time • Cost • Quality • Risk • Human Resources • Communications • Procurement 11 | P a g e
  12. 12. Haul Road Upgrade Project INTEGRATION• Up to 10 words description of what the project is. • Upgrade mine roads to an all-weather haul road system• Where is the Project Located? • OZ Minerals, Prominent Hill, South Australia• Who is the Owner and Sponsor• The owner is Dave Way (Deputy Operations Manager, OZ Minerals)• The sponsor is Robert Boyd (Open Pit Manager, OZ Minerals )• The Key Stakeholders are OZ Minerals & Thiess• The name of the Project Manager• Stephen McKnight & also the Expert Road Consultant• Your picture, vision or dream of the projects outcome• A total of 20% of all excavators’ downtime is attributed to wet weather rainfall events and subsequent delays. The “vision or dream” is to minimise this figure by some 25%-50%.• To put this loss into perspective on average each excavator loses some 370 operating hours per year per digger to wet weather events and subsequent delays, which is equivalent to 480,000 BCM’s per excavator per year in lost productivity at $43.00 per BCM, which is some $20,000,000.00 multiplied by 5 excavators giving $100,000,000.00 in total potential saving costs on notional EBIDTA values (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes and Amortization).• This project will potentially save $25,000,000.00 up to $50,000,000.00 depending on the successful implementation of the key deliverables outlined in the Project Management Plan. 12 | P a g e
  13. 13. Haul Road Upgrade Project• Historically, over the last 4 years the Mine has had on average 4 times the predicted annual rainfall, which has produced a loss of 920 hours of production per year per digger. These rainfall events typically occur during the months of November to April. Therefore, it is critical to complete the project before November 2012• The ultimate target is to achieve a minim of 6000 hours production per year per digger. The Haul Road Upgrade Project will go some way to achieving this target (20%) in conjunction with other site based initiatives including: a LOM dewatering strategy, blasting increases in pattern size/drill bit size and a 10% increase in powder factors and “hot seat” changes in all production equipment, with staggered fly-in-out days for maximum coverage and finally vertical advance heights of flitch/bench versus digger movement along wider and deeper benches • Site Description  OZ Minerals operates both an open cut and underground copper/gold mine and processing plant at the Prominent Hill Mine site. Prominent Hill is a remote site with a FIFO and limited DIDO out workforce supporting the mining, production and exploration activities. A permanent accommodation village located 3 km’s from the mining operations supports some 1500 workers. Processing of ore commenced in February 2009. Ore averaging 1.5% Cu and 0.5g/t Au is processed at a nominal rate of 8Mt per annum to produce copper concentrate via both Darwin and Port Adelaide by both rail and road • Site Location and Access  The mine site is located 650km north-west of Adelaide, South Australia, some 100km south –east of Coober Pedy and 150km north-west of Roxby Downs. The site is accessible via an unsealed road off the Stuart Highway 100km south of Copper Pedy. Daily charter flights from Adelaide, Melbourne and Port Augusta service the FIFO workers • Site Observations  The access ramps are generally in poor condition at higher elevations recommended by geological element profiles. The majority of access ramps do not indicate any crossfall. No drainage or facility for run-off from the haul roads seems to be in place, except for water running along the full length of access ramps from higher levels to lower levels. This is one of the major causes of uncontrolled water runoff during major rainfall events. The majority of access ramps are graded and compacted. The use of inappropriate material selection on some ramps. There are many cases of wheel rutting on ramp corners due to poor material selection. Gradients on most active in-pit ramps are between 8%-10%. Waste dump ramps vary from 5%, 8% and 10% depending on dumping criteria and poor design. Steely Haematite, Andesite and Dolomite are the best material to source for the remediation project. Large oversized material has been deposited on windrows  The existing access ramps make up 3.5km of the total 10km mine haul road system. The width of ramps are currently 23m being used for 48 haul road trucks, CAT 793D. Other equipment on-site is made up of some 5 graders CAT 24H, 13 | P a g e
  14. 14. Haul Road Upgrade Project another 6 Dozers D10T and 4 Liebher 996 excavators with numerous other ancillary equipment Some recommendations based on the observations are; Create a dedicated road maintenance project team • 1 x Project Manager • 1 x Project Engineer • 4 x Various Independent Consultants required during execution phase and peer review (Expert Road Engineer, Geotechnical Engineer, Friction Loss Engineer, Surveyor and Peer Review Engineer) • 2 x Supervisors (T8) • 10 x Operators Source appropriate equipment • 1 x Wheel Loader CAT 992D • 2 x Komatsu 785 dump trucks • 1 x Grader CAT24H • 1 x Komatsu 300 Digger (Contract digger to supplement fleet) • 1 x CAT 777 Water Truck • 1 x CAT D10 Dozer • And other ancillary equipment as required; Compactors or Impactors Source appropriate material • Steely Haematite • Haematite • Andesite • Dolomite • Greywacke • Granitites Engage a dedicated survey team to control and monitor the daily works supervised by the T8 Thiess operator in charge of implementing the traffic light system management plan Purchase the friction testing unit to verify when roads are safe to be driven on after all rain events Follow the rain event flow diagram to minimise downtime 14 | P a g e
  15. 15. Haul Road Upgrade Project SCOPETo sheet existing haul roads utilising the traffic light system for remediation. This concept has beenpreviously and briefly explained in both the Executive Summary and Project Management Plan. This formof remediation identifies 3 different remediation criteria once they are satisfied and competent material isplaced in-situ to design this will facilitate quicker resumption of heavy vehicle activity after wet weatherstoppages. Site based crushing/screened material will be utilised to provide the 3 necessary types ofengineered rock identified in the remediation process. This material will be sourced from in pit basementmaterial with properties consistent within optimum design tolerances. This material has been successfullyutilised on other in pit ramps (SO8, Beach Ramp, parts of the Western Ring Road, Upper Rom andSouthern Dump access) The new road design has performed better on these areas than on areas yet toreceive the remediation such as ( NO7 ramp, Northern Dump ramp, NO3 running track and Eastern RingRoad.In some cases heavy vehicle operations will be able to continue in low level rain events; if the followingfactors have been considered and completed; new material in-situ, correct design parameters installed,such as 2% crossfall, sufficient wearing course, drains and drainage construction all under survey control.This design veracity will potentially provide in excess of a 25% improvement in digger availability andutilisation rates during wet weather events. The EDITA data has been outlined in both the ExecutiveSummary and Project Management Plan. This data will also be available in the cost section of thisdocument in the PMBOK knowledge area.In addition, the road maintenance crew lead by the Thiess T8 Supervisor will focus on the designmanagement with an embedded dedicated survey contractor employed expressly for the project. Theirremit, together is to focus on performance managing the wet weather aspect of the project and itsmitigation. The focus will change after the initial six month construction period to one of daily maintenanceas opposed to daily remediation tasks.The inclusion of a friction monitoring devise mounted in the T8’s vehicle will add some scientific veracity tothe experience based assessment currently being utilised by site personnel. This issue was highlighted inthe flow diagram exercise for determining the wet weather delay process assessment matrix. Thismonitoring devise helps to mitigate risk between the differing risk tolerances based on personnel levels ofexperience when determining return to work practises after rain eventsIn Scope: Priority and critical causes of wet weather delays: Poor surface material, insufficient roadmaintenance and no crossfall, no drainage.Project would be considered successful if 25% of delays have been decreased and Extra BCMs have beenproduced due to this improvement.Out of Scope: Other benefits will be achieved simultaneously such as productivity increase, tyresconservation, HV and machinery maintenance reduction, decrease of uncontrolled vehicles movements,safer work conditions environment and driver comfort. 15 | P a g e
  16. 16. Haul Road Upgrade Project SCR ANALYSISSITUATION: Some 20% of total excavator downtime is due to wet weather events. On average each excavator loses 370 operating hours per year due to wet weather, which is equivalent to 480,000 BCM per excavator.COMPLICATION: To sheet existing haul roads with competent material to enable quicker resumption of heavy vehicle activity after wet weather stoppages. In addition to sheeting crossfall and drainage also needs to be included in the remediation process to rain water from the newly constructed roads. To make this happen there are 3 necessary elements required; Equipment, Material & ResourcesRESOLUTION: Equipment has been ordered to create a dedicated ancillary road maintenance team. Appropriate material is being stockpiled and crushed and screened as required. The necessary road maintenance team has been formed to implement the already established Project Management Plan STAKEHOLDER COMMENTSStephen McKnight: Project Manager & Expert Road Design EngineerAfter some considerable background analysis of current designs, requisite rock types, equipmentrequirements, resource levels, civil engineered drawings, available material types and rock sizing required;the project is now at the stage of committing funds and progressing to execution phase. Engineereddrawings have been commissioned. Quotes have been sourced for equipment and material. Humanresourcing levels have been identified and committed to the daily execution of the project. Budgets arebeing evaluated and implemented as required. A comprehensive Project Management Plan has beenestablished and communicated to all the key stakeholders. The plan looks at people, culture, training,equipment, material and competency based evaluation for driving on remediated haul roads. A traffic lightremediation system that incorporates the necessary design criteria for the identification of the 3 roadmediation types is now in place. A friction analysis of the haul roads has been completed by RTS.Leidy Alvarado: Project Engineer BI TeamThe new approach to tackle Wet Weather Delays is realistic and achievable. The expected improvementwill be guaranteed by completing the 3 proposed project generations. (Road remediation, RoadMaintenance Plan and Rain Management). The project has been re-scoped in order to meet costs, timeand quality requirements of the project deliverables and the stakeholders. In addition, the new contracthas facilitated the communication within both parties and has also enhanced the interest and enthusiasmof Thiess and Oz projects team by their mutual cooperation. e.g. Quick fixes implemented so far such asS08 ramp correlates with new roads design and performance tolerances when rain event occur. 16 | P a g e
  17. 17. Haul Road Upgrade ProjectThe Project implementation stage will be managed by Contract Consultant Engineer (Stephen McKnight)until completion and it is estimated to be completed within 6 months. It is suggested also to have RoadMaintenance Supervisors (T8s) in order to work in conjunction with Oz Project Engineer. The Roadremediation and Maintenance Plan will be incorporated into 36hrs and Weekly Plan to make sure theproject progress is communicated to all required mine personnel and followed successfully on a daily basisincorporated into the production planning cycle.Mitigation steps of Risks identified (see tab 2.1 Risk Mgmt.) within the proposed approach such as Lack ofEquipment and Crushed material have been incorporated into the Implementation Plan. 17 | P a g e
  18. 18. Haul Road Upgrade Project TIME WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE  Define the situation  Implement/Establish the action plan  Acquire the; • Resources • Material • Equipment  Execute the action plan  Close out the project PROJECT MILESTONES • 5/12/2011 Independent Road Expert engaged to implement project • 5/1/2012 Project needs identified and implemented • 5/2/2012 Execution phase begun with limited; resources, equipment and material • 5/3/2012 Scientific validation of friction loss assessed and measured • 5/4/2012 Resources, Equipment and Material in place and beginning execution phase • 5/5/2012 Execution in full swing, all elements on-site and in play • 5/6/2012 to 5/11/2012 Haul Road Maintenance Plan following PMBOK project cycles until conclusion of project in November 2012 PROJECT SCHEDULE THE 75mm ALL IN SCHEDULEOZ MINERALSALL WEATHER HAUL ROAD UPGRADE PROJECTMATERIAL CRUSHING/SCREENING SCHEDULEMATERIAL SIZE TOTAL TONNAGE TOTAL VOLUME MONTHLY MATERIAL WEEKLY MATERIAL DAILY MATERIAL DESIRED MATERIAL TYPES TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM DEPTHSmm t m3 t t t Rock type Colour mm & m75mm 146,000 67,000 24333 6083 869 Haematite, Andesite, Skarn, Greywacke or Granitoid GREEN 200mm + 2% CROSSFALL150mm 240,000 109,000 40000 10000 1428 Andesite, Skarn, Greywacke,Sediments or Granitoid AMBER & RED up to 1.5m300mm 395,000 181,000 65833 16458 2351 Andesite, Skarn, Greywacke, sediments or Granitoid RED up to 2.0mTOTALS 781,000 357,000 130166 32541 4648These figures are based on a 6 month crushing/screening scheduleWe are assuming a start date of early March 2012 completing August 2012; giving a 2 month buffer before our next "wet weather" window begins from November 2012 to March 2013 18 | P a g e
  19. 19. Haul Road Upgrade Project COST 19 | P a g e
  20. 20. Haul Road Upgrade Project QUALITY Attached are the majority of QAQC documents associated with the project. There are a wide variety ofdocuments included in this section; ranging from the traffic light design criteria, the actual map of the sitesrequiring the traffic light system remediation, correspondence with the world leader in haul road design RJ Thompson on negative superelevation design, a working haul road assessment document, a flow diagramon how to mitigate delays in returning to work after wet weather rain events, etc. This section does not gointo the true depth of detail associated with the issues of maintaining quality, but gives a representation of the thought and knowledge being implied to make the haul road design as robust and relevant to the site.During the course of this project a number of specific haul road design documents, white papers and books have been consulted, which can be found in the reference section of this presentation. Suffice to say quality on this project was identified as one of the most contingent aspects of the projects potential for success, hence the amount of effort applied to achieve the quality required THE ALL-WEATHER HAUL ROAD UPGRADE PROJECT (AWHRUP) TRAFFIC LIGHT SYSTEM OZ MINERALS PROMINENT HILL JANUARY 2012 DESIGN CRITERIA GREEN AMBER RED 1. Road Design Types Design #1 Design #2 Design #3 200mm wearing 200mm wearing 200mm wearing course course course passing @ 75mm passing 75mm passing 75mm 400mm Base 600mm Base passing 150mm passing 150mm 500m Sub Base 1000mm Sub Base passing 300mm passing 300mm 2. Rock Type Steely Haematite Granitoids Mudstone Greywacke Andesite Silcrete Skarn Bulldog Shales Sedimentary Hornfels Fresh Weathered 3.MPa (UCS) >81 >47 <20 4. CBR% >80 >60 <15 5. Road Life Span 1 year + 6 months + less than 6 months 6. Rolling Resistance 1% 2% + 3% + 7. Friction >80% >50% <50% 8. Defect Score <64 65 to 139 >140 9. % of Project 50% 20% 30% 20 | P a g e
  21. 21. Haul Road Upgrade Project10. Definition Green Amber RED Road Condition Road Condition Road Condition VERY GOOD FAIR BAD DAILY INSPECTION WORK REQUIRED IMMEDIATE WORK DAILY INSPECTION REQUIRED DAILY INSPECTION11. Crossfall 2% 3% 4%12. Crown 2% 3% 4%13. Drainage .5m .3m >.3m14. Berms 1.8m 1.5m <1.5m15. Equipment 2x 992 Digger Anything less Nothing different 3 x 785 Trucks than the wish list than what is on-site 1x 24 Grader Now 1 x 16 Grader 1 x 777 Water Truck 1 x D9 Dozer 1 x 966 FEL 1 x WA900 FEL HPGPS LPGPS 1 x 25t Compactor16. Road Category Permanent Semi-Permanent Semi-Permanent High Volume Traffic Medium to High Medium to Low Operating Life 15 years Volume Traffic Volume Traffic Operating Life 10 Operating Life <2 Low Maintenance years years Maintenance over design life Regular Maintenance intensive Over design life Traffic volume exceeded17. Grade Breaks <10% 10% >10%18. Road widths >30m 30m <30m19. Tyre Pressure 800kPa >800Kpa >700Kpa20. Water TruckSpray 50m on 50m off <50m on 50m off >50m on 50m off21. Dust BlockAgents Tar/Bitumen Petrol/Polymer Wetting Agents22. Road ManagedMaintenance Maintenance Scheduled Blading Ad-hoc Blading 21 | P a g e
  22. 22. Haul Road Upgrade Project23. Design Approach Integrated Design Empirical Design Just build a Road24. Gradients 10% <12.5% >12.5% 22 | P a g e
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  32. 32. Haul Road Upgrade ProjectCorrespondence with Roger J Thompson regarding the issue of introducing negative superelevation to theroad design and QC of the project in relation to crossfall of the in pit haul road design. This situation cameabout due to the road design standards Thiess have in their coal operations and as such is in their workinghaul road design document, which needed to be addressed so the appropriate run off design could beimplemented in this site specific circumstance.Excellent Steve, an educational read too. Thank you RobFrom: Stephen McKnightSent: Wednesday, 4 January 2012 3:41 PMTo: Robert Boyd; Jarrad Dodson; Richard Turnbull; Leidy AlvaradoCc: David WaySubject: FW: HAUL ROAD DESIGNFYI GentsSteve McKnightContract Mining Engineer – Mine Improvement TeamOZ Prominent Hill | Respect Integrity Action ResultsGround Floor, 170 Greenhill RoadParkside, South Australia, 5063, AustraliaT 61 8 8672 8148 F 61 8 86728101 M 04 350 29 169Stephen.McKnight@ozminerals.com Please consider the environment before printing this e-mailFrom: Roger Thompson [mailto:R.Thompson@curtin.edu.au]Sent: Wednesday, 4 January 2012 3:02 PMTo: Stephen McKnightSubject: RE: HAUL ROAD DESIGNSteveSounds like a good approach – some changes or modifications to designs can have far reachingeffects on operation and maintenance – best to explore these before implementation. 32 | P a g e
  33. 33. Haul Road Upgrade ProjectHave worked with iron-ore discard roads wearing course material before at a few sites (overseas)and it tends to make an excellent wearing course if it does not slake (and obviously has no fibrousmaterial content). Only issue is sometimes too little fine fractions or binder. Bituminous emulsiontreatment also generally an excellent option with this material type, mixed-in if well compacted roadwith low void ratio, or spray on IF depth of penetration can be assured (last thing you want is a thin‘crust’ of treatment – bit like a sheet of glass on top of a sponge).Friction/skid resistance testing always good info – (Dave Tulloch – RTS? excellent for this evaluationwork) but I’d also suggest sampling and evaluating the wearing course material at the locations youdo these tests too – otherwise you don’t have such a good idea of what influence the wearing coursematerial (as opposed to moisture/rainfall) has on friction supply. Ditto any treatment youapply. Shave off top 10-20mm max of wearing course where you do the tests and evaluate followingAS1289.Would be happy to act as your third party peer review and quarterly inspection consultant (haulroaddesign aspects – safety audits best handled by Damir Vagaja of ARRB). I can run this work throughWASM Consulting who provide liability cover, Admin and invoicing etc. as part of their service. Asand when the work transpires, I can provide a Scope of Works Quote and take it from there.RegardsRogerFrom: Stephen McKnight [mailto:Stephen.McKnight@ozminerals.com]Sent: Tuesday, 3 January 2012 12:00 PMTo: Roger ThompsonSubject: RE: HAUL ROAD DESIGNHi Roger,First off really appreciate your prompt reply and considered responseOver the last month I have been reading everything you have published to get up to speed with thisprojectI am glad you agree with the negative crossfall of 2% with qualifications, of courseWe are working with Thiess our Open Pit Hauling ContractorThey have a high turn-over of staff so there are a significant number of “newbies” on-site at any onetime, hence our difficulties with the fleet working in wet weather, among other reasons 33 | P a g e
  34. 34. Haul Road Upgrade ProjectI take on board your central corridor berm idea and will pass it on to the team for discussionAnd yes we need to consider drainage in such casesWe are looking at introducing HPGPS & LPGPS systems on both graders and dozersWe are also looking at applying Dust Bloc as well to the wearing course; this is a bitumen typepalliativeThe wearing course will be made of steely haematite, MPa >150 passing through up to 75mm @200mm depth close to or above 80% CBAWith regards friction analysis we are bring in a team to do the whole mine on the 24-26 January, toestablish a “baseline”I fully appreciate the “negative” superelevation on the downward journey into the pit. This will beand has been discussed with the Thiess team, but will be further enforcedWe are constructing a simulation ramp at 10% to begin training the operatorsA constructed ramp with a crossfall of 2% appropriate wearing course and drainageWith another ramp with no controls in placeYes, I totally agree with the civil/geotech analysis and intend to follow your specifications to theletterRoger would you consider being our third party peer review and quarterly inspection consultant?I’m not sure if you would be available, but your experience and technical background are second tonone in this fieldIt would be a privilege and a pleasure if you were interested in assisting our team over the course ofthis projectCheers,Steve McKnightContract Mining Engineer – Mine Improvement TeamOZ Prominent Hill | Respect Integrity Action ResultsGround Floor, 170 Greenhill RoadParkside, South Australia, 5063, Australia 34 | P a g e
  35. 35. Haul Road Upgrade ProjectT 61 8 8672 8148 F 61 8 86728101 M 04 350 29 169Stephen.McKnight@ozminerals.com Please consider the environment before printing this e-mailFrom: Roger Thompson [mailto:R.Thompson@curtin.edu.au]Sent: Tuesday, 3 January 2012 2:03 PMTo: Stephen McKnightSubject: RE: HAUL ROAD DESIGNSteveIn principal, a construction width of 35m for a 30m running surface (4x6.64m body width of 793C)appears fine. The cross-fall of 2% also typical – but would depend on the type of wearing course(surfacing) material you have too. The only recurrent problem with a constant crossfall is thepotential of trucks to wander across lanes into the direction of on-coming traffic. If you haveoperating experience and safety/accident data, it may be worth looking at the type ofaccidents/near-misses at the site to see if truck misalignment/skidding, etc. is an issue for whateverreason. Centre berms have been used in some operations to split traffic lanes, but with a constantcrossfall, this complicates drainage (and road and berm maintenance).Blading a road with a constant crossfall is also more difficult than a crowned road, with the addedproblem of debris, spillage, etc. being pushed to the drain-side where it could cause tyre damage,etc. Good grading practice should remedy this.Further, where the road is required to change direction against the cross-fall, care will be needed tospecify speed limits (especially down-grade unladen) since on these curves, the super-elevation willbe in the wrong ‘sense’ and road surface friction supply needs to be maximised here to preventskidding. An incorrect super-elevation may lead to truck instability at speed, and the misalignmentproblems outlined above.This also raises the issue of the wearing course material itself. A good quality material is required,with a CBR ideally >80%, to help reduce the likelihood of cross-erosion or run-off channels being 35 | P a g e
  36. 36. Haul Road Upgrade Projecteroded from the wearing course on the down-slope edge of the road. The majority of even the bestspecified wearing course materials are sensitive to rain, and the road will go down eventually. Youmay want to look at adding a stabiliser or other similar treatment to the wearing course to enhanceit’s ability to shed water as opposed to absorb it. In doing this, you’ll need to ensure the roadstructure is well built and can support a long-lasting surface treatment – otherwise you’ll end upblading it off the road as you blade the surface – due to poor support problems in the structureitself.Good starting point would be to sample actual/proposed wearing course materials and get a civileng lab to run a road indicator test on them according to AS1289 (grading to 0.075, Atterburg limits,MDD, OMC and CBR at say 97% Mod AS1289) to see what you’ve got and what options you have ifyou need to fix it up (reduce clay by adding aggregates, increase fine fraction to improve binding,etc.). Treatment suppliers would also look at this info to determine how and at what rate ofapplication their product may work.Let me know if you need more info – happy to assist.RogerFrom: Stephen McKnight [mailto:Stephen.McKnight@ozminerals.com]Sent: Monday, 2 January 2012 4:59 AMTo: Roger ThompsonSubject: HAUL ROAD DESIGNHi RJ,I am currently working on an all-weather haul road upgrade project here in South AustraliaI have been applying many of your thoughts, concepts and principles to this projectThe project consists of approximately 10kms of road work; in pit haul roads, outer ring roads andwaste dump/ROM pad roadsThe projects focus is to reduce the downtime we experience from rainfall eventsIt has been determined that with rain events between 1mm – 5mm we lose up to 80% productivitydue to truck downtimeSome 470 hrs per year per digger, we have 5 Diggers; 996 LiebherOur aim is to achieve 6000 hrs per digger per year and the all-weather haul road upgrade project hasbeen put in place to achieve a high percentage of this target 36 | P a g e
  37. 37. Haul Road Upgrade ProjectCurrently, there are no crossfalls, no road designs or competent material utilised in the constructionof the roads.I have developed a traffic light system that identifies these conditions and we are working our waythrough the work requiredHowever, I require your thoughts on the following situationWe are developing a design for a negative superelevation for the in pit curved roads, which willspiral down to some 480m at the end of the pits lifeWe are considering the following ideas; • Up 2% crossfall from the in-pit side of the road out to the highwall side • We will install the drainage on the highwall side of the pit and pump it out from sumps • The width of the total road is 35m • The working surface is up to 30m • We are using 973 Cat Dump Trucks (payload 220t)My question is related to the negative superelevationTherefore, what we are proposing, is it safe and feasible or do you have better: thoughts, comments,ideas or suggestionsWe need to make sure the rain water runs off the wearing course into the drains so we do not losetruck availabilityCheers,Steve McKnightContract Mining Engineer – Mine Improvement TeamOZ Prominent Hill | Respect Integrity Action ResultsGround Floor, 170 Greenhill RoadParkside, South Australia, 5063, AustraliaT 61 8 8672 8148 F 61 8 86728101 M 04 350 29 169Stephen.McKnight@ozminerals.com 37 | P a g e
  38. 38. Haul Road Upgrade Project Please consider the environment before printing this e-mail RISK • There were 5 major risk areas identified during the All Weather Upgrade Risk Assessment, which have been categorised in the below chart The issue of wet weather delays is very complex and there are no one size fits all solutions in play. Regardless the fact that there are civil engineering solutions that can and will be applied; this site has specific requirements for the appropriate solution and outcomes desired • Lack of basement material or crushed/screened or stockpiled material available when required • Equipment availability from Thiess • HV & LV, HV & HV interactions during construction/execution phase of project • Resource availability from Thiess for HV requirements • Impact of road maintenance team during construction on production team • Natural disasters • Wet weather rainfall events Risks identified Risk Rating Mitigation Action Risk Rating Likelihood Conseq. Rating Likelihood Conseq. Rating1 Lack of road basesment or crushed material Possible Major Extreme Ongoing stockpiling of Road basement Unlikely Moderate Moderate w hen required material and Hire Screening plant2 Equipment Availabilty Possible Major Extreme Hire Road Maintenance Equipment through Rare Moderate Moderate Thiess3 HV contact w ith LV during road w orks Unlikely Major High Road w orks completed on shift change Rare Major Moderate days, alternate routes to be used4 Thiess manning level drop below minimum Possible Moderate High Monitor crew levels, move personnel Unlikely Moderate Moderate requirements betw een crew s, park up digger that do not5 Impact on production during road construction, Unlikely Moderate Moderate ff t th j t Schedule to be managed by mine planner Unlikely Insignifica Low by the contruction w ork group (both 36hr plan and w eekly plan)and Thiess nt 38 | P a g e
  39. 39. Haul Road Upgrade ProjectThese 5 categories have been further calculated in the below risk register matrix 39 | P a g e
  40. 40. Haul Road Upgrade Project HUMAN RESOURCES Project Manager T8 Road Project Maintenance Engineer Supervisors Expert Road Crew A Road Crew B Consultants Project Manager: Steve McKnight Mine Project Engineer: Leidy Alvarado T8 Supervisors: David Kurtzer / Chris Carroll Road Crew A & B 2 x CAT 992 Wheel Loader Operators 2 x CAT 16 H Grader Operators 2 x CAT D10 Dozer Operators 4 x KOMATSU 785 Truck Operators Expert Consultants on an as required basis(Friction Test Engineer, Geotechnical Engineer, Surveyors & Peer Review Principal Engineer) 40 | P a g e
  41. 41. Haul Road Upgrade Project COMMUNICATIONS 41 | P a g e
  42. 42. Haul Road Upgrade Project PROCUREMENT 42 | P a g e
  43. 43. Haul Road Upgrade Project APPENDIX.1THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT PLAN 43 | P a g e
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  73. 73. Haul Road Upgrade Project DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF MINE ROADS1.0 GENERAL .......................................................... 752.0 CONTROLS ........................................................ 75 2.1 Road Classification ................................................... 75 2.1.1 Permanent Haulroads ................................................. 75 2.1.2 Pit Haulroads (Short or Medium Term Haulroads) ........... 76 2.1.3 Light Vehicle Roads .................................................... 76 2.2 Mine Road Design & Construction Process ................... 76 2.3 Rolling Resistance.................................................... 78 2.4 Geometric Design Phase ........................................... 79 2.4.1 Stopping Distance ...................................................... 79 2.4.2 Sight Distance ........................................................... 79 2.4.3 Alignment ................................................................. 80 2.4.4 Roadway Width ......................................................... 81 2.4.5 Cross Fall ................................................................. 82 2.4.6 Gradient ................................................................... 83 2.4.7 Super-elevation ......................................................... 84 2.4.8 Road Side Drainage.................................................... 86 2.4.9 Road Shoulders ......................................................... 87 2.4.10 Bundwalls ................................................................. 87 2.4.11 Intersections ............................................................. 89 2.4.12 Intersection Traffic Control .......................................... 93 2.4.13 Runaway Vehicle Control............................................. 94 2.4.14 Heavy Equipment Go-lines .......................................... 96 2.5 Structural Design Phase ........................................... 99 2.5.1 General Road Construction .......................................... 99 2.5.2 In-situ Surface Preparation ....................................... 100 2.5.3 Sub-base Requirements ............................................ 100 2.5.3 Base Course Requirements ........................................ 101 73 | P a g e
  74. 74. Haul Road Upgrade Project 2.6 Functional Design Phase ......................................... 101 2.6.1 Running Surface Requirements .................................. 102 2.7 Maintenance Design ............................................... 102 2.7.1 General Road Maintenance ........................................ 104 2.7.2 Road Furniture – Signs ............................................. 104 2.7.3 Road Furniture – Sign Positioning ............................... 105 2.7.4 Road Furniture – Delineators ..................................... 1063.0 MONITORING & REVIEW ................................ 1064.0 RESPONSIBILITIES ........................................ 107 4.1 Mineworkers ........................................................... 107 4.2 Supervisors ............................................................ 107 4.4 Superintendents / Project Manager ............................ 1075.0 USEFUL REFERENCES & FORMS ...................... 108 74 | P a g e
  75. 75. Haul Road Upgrade ProjectPROCEDURE & INFORMATION Procedure Information1.0 General PRINTING INFORMATIONMine roads shall be designed and constructed to appropriate specifications Due to the graphicsto allow the safe and efficient movement of vehicles around the mine site. included within the body of this document it must be printed inThe specifications must have regard to the particular conditions at the mine, high resolutionincluding the following: • The characteristics of the mine vehicles; • The types of materials available for road construction; • The methods of working the mine; • Relevant legislation.Good design and construction of mine roads will enable: • Safe movement of vehicles; • Optimal haulage cycle times; • Increased tyre life; • Less stress to mechanical components of vehicles; • Less structural damage to vehicle chassis; • Reduced operator fatigue.2.0 Controls2.1 Road ClassificationMine roads should be designed and constructed to a standard in accordancewith the road classification which is dependent on: • The expected life span of the road; • The primary purpose of the road; • The frequency of usage of the road.2.1.1 Permanent HaulroadsPermanent haulroads are major arterial roads used by haul trucks and themajority of mine traffic. The basic criteria for permanent haulroads are as 75 | P a g e
  76. 76. Haul Road Upgrade Project Procedure Informationfollows: • Long term existence; • Used by haul trucks and other mine vehicles; • High frequency usage; • Formed construction profile; • Delineated.2.1.2 Pit Haulroads (Short or Medium Term Haulroads)Pit haulroads are roads that are used by haul trucks and other mine trafficin and around pit areas including, in pit haulroads and ramps, bench roads,dump roads and ramps, etc. The basic criteria for pit haulroads are asfollows: • Short to long term existence depending on particular road function; • Used by haul trucks and other mine vehicles; • High frequency usage (may be periodic); • Formed or non-formed construction profile; • Delineated.2.1.3 Light Vehicle RoadsLight vehicle roads are roads that are used by light and medium vehicles foraccess around the perimeter of the pit, within pit areas and on the surface.The basic criteria for light vehicle roads are as follows: • Short to long term existence depending on particular road function; • Used by light and medium vehicles only; • Low to medium frequency usage; • Basic construction profile only; • Delineated on more permanent light vehicle roads.2.2 Mine Road Design & Construction Process 76 | P a g e
  77. 77. Haul Road Upgrade Project Procedure InformationMine road design and construction can be thought of as 4 distinct steps orphases: • Alignment • Super-elevation • Gradient • Sight Distance, Etc. • General road construction • In-situ surface preparation • Sub-base requirements • Base course requirements • Running surface requirements Design & Construct • Haulroad maintenance • Road furniture – signage • Road furniture – delineators • Inspections / audits 77 | P a g e
  78. 78. Haul Road Upgrade Project2.3 Rolling ResistanceRolling resistance is the resistance that occurs when a tyre rolls on a  Refer to AM-PH-HS-IF- 0832.8 Informationsurface. Sheet – Rolling Resistance TableRolling resistance can significantly impact on the efficiency of vehiclestravelling on a mine road and associated haulage costs.It is caused by any combination of the following: • Deformation of the road (may be at any depth in the road profile) under the tyre; • Penetration of the tyre into the road surface; • Tyre deformation caused by the road surface resulting in energy required to lift the vehicle as opposed to propel it forward.Rolling resistance of a haulroad shall be considered throughout all 4 phasesof the design and construction process to maximise haulage efficiency andsafety. • Poor geometric design resulting in significant or sharp changes to vehicle direction and speed may result in deformation of the road, tyre deformation and/or tyre penetration into the road surface; • Poor structural design (as a result of poor in- situ surface, insufficient structural layer thickness, inappropriate structural material and/or poorly constructed structural layers) may result in deformation of the road profile; • Poor functional design (as a result of inappropriate running surface material and/or poorly constructed running surface layer) may result in tyre penetration; • Poor maintenance design (as a result of poor maintenance practices and/or insufficient maintenance frequency) may result in an inability to minimise all types of rolling resistance.In order to maximise haulage efficiency rolling resistance should beminimised where possible. 78 | P a g e
  79. 79. Haul Road Upgrade Project2.4 Geometric Design PhaseThe geometric parameters of the mine road shall be designed to ensure thesafe and efficient travel of mine vehicles at normal operating speeds.2.4.1 Stopping DistanceMine roads shall be designed to accommodate the stopping distance of the  Refer to AM-PH-HS-IF-largest fully laden haul truck regularly using the road (using emergency 0832.10 Informationbraking). Sheet – SAE Stopping Distance GraphsTheoretical stopping distances may be determined from a series of StoppingDistance Characteristic Graphs developed by the Society of AutomotiveEngineers (SAE).OEM’s utilise these standards to design their vehicle brake systems.Tests carried out by Dawson in 1975 indicate that to preclude brake fade orfailure, 61m braking distance should be considered the minimum allowable(this is under test conditions). However, adopted stopping distance needs toaccommodate a number of variables (e.g. driver reaction time, road surfaceconditions, traction loss, etc) as well as the vehicle braking capability. As aresult, a minimum stopping distance of 100m should be utilised.2.4.2 Sight DistanceSight distance is the extent of peripheral area visible to the vehicleoperator, and is dictated by: • The design speed of the road; • The driver eye height of the lowest vehicle using the road; • The stopping distance of the largest vehicle using the mine road in the worst case driving conditions.The distance ahead of the driver to an unforeseen hazard shall always begreater than the distance required to bring the vehicle to a stop.On hill crests, the sight distance may be restricted by the vertical curve orcrest of the hill, in this instance the crest may need to be flattened.At horizontal curves or intersections of the road the sight distance may berestricted by batters, vegetation, signs or other obstructions. Wherepossible horizontal curves and intersections should have all sightrestrictions removed or minimised. 79 | P a g e
  80. 80. Haul Road Upgrade Project2.4.3 AlignmentRoad alignment refers to the road direction in both the horizontal andvertical planes.The following elements should be considered when designing the mine roadalignment: • All curves (horizontal and vertical) should be designed with the largest radius possible; • The alignment should be smooth and consistent; • Compound curves (curves where the radius changes) shall not be used; 80 | P a g e
  81. 81. Haul Road Upgrade Project • Horizontal and vertical alignments should complement each other and the following should be considered when combining horizontal and vertical curves: o Avoid sharp horizontal curves at the crest of vertical curves as sight distance is generally restricted and it is difficult for drivers to perceive the curves in such a situation; o Avoid sharp horizontal curves at the base of ramps or long sustained downhill grades as vehicles are typically at their highest speed at these locations; o If switchbacks are required they should be designed with the largest radius possible and should be placed on flat sections, avoid placing them on grade as the inside of the curve may exceed the design gradient specification.2.4.4 Roadway WidthMine roads should be designed and constructed to suit the Operating Width The Roadway of a mine road refers to the runningof the largest vehicle that will be using the road regularly. surface of the road.The following table summarises the roadway width for various road types: The Operating Width of a vehicle is the maximum Straight Single Lane Roadway 2 x Operating Width width of the vehicle during normal operation. The Straight Double Lane Roadway 3.5 x Operating Width measurement must be taken from outer Curved Single Lane Roadway 2 x Operating Width x 1.18 extremity (for example mirrors, tray, rock Curved Double Lane Roadway 3.5 x Operating Width x 1.18 deflectors, etc) on one side to the outer extremity(1.18 represents an overhang/vehicle tracking multiplier) (for example mirrors, tray, rock deflectors, etc) on theConsideration should be given to separate roadways where possible other side.particularly in high hazard areas (e.g. fog zones). In such circumstances theroadways should be separated by a median (separation) bund or other  Refer to AM-PH-HS- TP-0832.6 Template –physical barrier. The height of the median bund or physical barrier must be Site Specificationappropriately selected to ensure that sight distance is not affected (typically Sheet (Site Version)median bundwall height should be restricted to 1m unless otherwiserequired for risk control).  Refer to AM-PH-HS-FO-In areas where roadway width criteria cannot be met, an assessment of risk 0501.6 Job Safety andshall be undertaken and appropriate controls put in place. Environmental Analysis Straight Double Lane Roadway Schematic 81 | P a g e
  82. 82. Haul Road Upgrade Project© Cat Graphics reproduced with permission from Caterpillar Inc. Straight Separated Double Lane Roadway Schematic Separated Roadways are treated as two single lane roadways when determining roadway width.© Cat Graphics reproduced with permission from Caterpillar Inc.2.4.5 Cross Fall  Refer to AM-PH-HS-Cross fall is the cross road gradient perpendicular to the road direction and TP-0832.6 Template – Site Specification Sheet (Site Version) 82 | P a g e
  83. 83. Haul Road Upgrade Projectshould be utilised in order to divert water away from the road surface.  Refer to AM-PH-HS-IF- 0832.11 InformationThe rate of cross fall should allow rapid water runoff without adversely Sheet – Gradientaffecting the drivers steering control or increasing Position 1 tyre wear. ConversionThe degree of cross fall is dependent and directly related to: • Road gradient; • Expected rainfall (during normal weather conditions); • Construction materials used on the running surface.The following table details typical cross fall for various applications: Min Cross fall Max Cross fall Road Gradient Low Rainfall or Smooth High Rainfall or Rough Surface Surface 0 to 4% 1 in 25 1.0% 3% 5 to 9% 1 in 11 1.0% 2.5% 10 to 12.5% 1 in 8 0.5% 2%2.4.6 Gradient  Refer to AM-PH-HS-IF-The gradient on a ramp is the grade line profile along the road centre line, 0832.11 Informationin the vertical plane. Sheet – Gradient ConversionVertical curves should be utilised to provide smooth transitions from one  Refer to AM-PH-HS-grade to another. The vertical curves utilised shall ensure that the sight TP-0832.6 Template –distance is sufficient at the design speed for the vehicles using the road. Site Specification Sheet (Site Version)Gradient should be kept as constant as possible (avoid unnecessary gradechanges) to reduce the tendency of trucks to change through gears (hunt)on the up-grade hauls. This affects: • Haulage cycle times; • Fuel consumption; • Stress on the mechanical components of the vehicle e.g. transmissions and torque converters; • Excessive chassis flexing due to uneven surfaces (Racking); • Damage to the road surface.Gradient should be selected in accordance with manufacturer’sspecifications to suit the particular vehicle that is expected to utilise theroad.Both the uphill (rimpull) and downhill (retarding/brake capability) of thevehicle should be considered when determining the most appropriate grade. 83 | P a g e

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