1. Biography of
Sara Cruz Sierra 2ºB
2. *Summary of his life.
*Presidency of South Africa.
*Marriage and family.
*Tributes to Nelson Mandela.
3. *Summary of his life
Nelson Mandela was born 18 july of 1918 in
Served As Present of South Africa from 1994
to 1999 and was the first South African
president to be elected in a fully
representative democratic election.
Mandela served 27 years in prison, spending
many of these years on Robben Island.
Following his release from prison on 11
February 1990, Mandela led his party in the
negotiations that led to multi-racial
democracy in 1994. As president, he
frequently gave priority to reconciliation,
while introducing policies aimed at
combating poverty and inequality in South
In South Africa, Mandela is often known as Madiba, his father clan name.
Mandela has received more than 250 awards over four decades, including
the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize.
4. *Early life
Nelson Mandela belongs to a cadet branch  of
the Thembu dynasty, which reigns  in
the Transkei Region  of South Africa's Eastern
Cape Province.He was born in Mvezo, a small
village located in the district of Umtata.
Mandela's father,Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa,
served as chief of the town of Mvezo.He moved
his family to Qunu . Mandela's father had four
wives, with whom he fathered thirteen children
(four boys and nine girls).Mandela was born to
his third wife, Nosekeni Fanny.Mandela spent
much of his childhood.
Rolihlahla Mandela became the first member of his family to attend a
school, where his teacher Miss Mdingane gave him the English name
5. When Mandela was nine, his father died of tuberculosis, and
the regent , Jongintaba, became his guardian.Mandela attended
a Wesleyan  mission school located next to the palace of the regent.
Following Thembu custom, he was initiated at age sixteen, and
attended Clarkebury Boarding Institute.Mandela completed his
Junior Certificate in two years, instead of the usual
three.Designated to inherit his father's position as a privy councillor,
in 1937 Mandela moved to Healdtown,the Wesleyan college in Fort
Beaufort which most Thembu royalty attended.At nineteen, he took
an interest in boxing and running at the school.
After enrolling, Mandela began to study for a Bachelor of Arts at
the Fort Hare University, where he met Oliver Tambo.Tambo and
Mandela became lifelong friends and colleagues.
6. *Political activity
After the 1948 election victory of the Afrikaner-dominated National
Party, which supported the apartheid policy of racial
segregation,Mandela began actively participating in politics.During this
time, Mandela and fellow lawyer Oliver Tambo operated the law firm of
Mandela and Tambo.
Mahatma Gandhi influenced Mandela's approach, and subsequently the
methods of succeeding generations of South African anti-apartheid
activists.Mandela later took part in the 29–30 January 2007 conference
in New Delhi marking the 100th anniversary of Gandhi's introduction of
satyagraha in South Africa.
Initially committed to nonviolent resistance, Mandela and 150 others
were arrested on 5 December 1956 and charged with treason. From
1952–1959, a new class of black activists known as the Africanists
disrupted ANC activities in the townships.
7. The Africanists ridiculed the 1955
Freedom Charter Kliptown
Conference for the concession of
the 100,000-strong ANC to just a
single vote in a Congressional
alliance. In 1959, the ANC lost its
most militant support when most
of the Africanists, with financial
support from Ghana and
significant political support from
the Transvaal-based Basotho,
broke away to form the Pan
Africanist Congress (PAC) under the direction of Robert Sobukwe and
8. *Presidency of South Africa.
South Africa's first multi-racial elections in
which full enfranchisement was granted
were held on 27 April 1994. The ANC won
62% of the votes in the election.
During the course of his presidency, a wide
range of progressive social reforms were
enacted by Mandela's government, aimed at
reducing long entrenched social and
economic inequalities in South Africa.
Amongst the measures carried out by
Mandela and this are some ministers
*The introduction of free health care.
*The launching of the Reconstruction and
*The introduction of parity in grants.
*An expansion of reproductive health services.
*The introduction of child support grants (1998) to alleviate child poverty.
*The connection of 3 million people to telephone lines.
*The bringing of 1 million children into the education system.
*The upgrading or construction of 500 clinics.
9. *The connection of 2 million
people to the electricity grid.
*The construction of 750,000
houses, housing nearly 3
million people in the process.
*The extension of water
access to 3 million people.
*The introduction of
compulsory schooling for
African children between six
and fourteen years.
*The provision of free meals
for between 3 to 5 million
*The provision of free meals for between 3 to 5 million school children.
*The launching of the National Drug Policy in 1996 to improve access to
10. *Marriage and family.
Mandela has been married three
times, has fathered six children, has
twenty grandchildren, and a growing
number of great-grandchildren. He is
grandfather to Chief Mandla Mandela.
Mandela's first marriage was to Evelyn
Ntoko Mase.Mandela's second wife,
Mandela was remarried, on his 80th birthday in 1998, to Graça Machel.
11. *Tributes to Nelson Mandela.
The statue of Mandela in Parliament