Fair value measures (1)

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  • Fair value measures (1)

    1. 1. International Financial Reporting Standards Fair value measurement for assets Joint World Bank and IFRS Foundation ‘train the trainers’ workshop hosted by the ECCB 30 April to 4 May 2012 The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    2. 2. International Financial Reporting Standards What is fair value? The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    3. 3. Definition 3 • Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (exit price) in an orderly transaction (not a forced sale) between market participants (market-based view) at the measurement date (current price). • Fair value is a market-based measurement (it is not an entity-specific measurement) • Consequently, the entity’s intention to hold an asset or to settle or otherwise fulfil a liability is not relevant when measuring fair value. IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    4. 4. International Financial Reporting Standards When are assets measured at fair value? The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    5. 5. Assets 5 Classification, recognition and measurement PP&E Intangible Inventory Assets Inv Property Financial Etc Defined Benefit © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org Biological assets
    6. 6. ASSET TYPE MEASUREMENT AT INITIAL RECOGNITION MODEL BASED ON FAIR VALUE IFRS 9 Financial Instruments Fair value For specified financial assets and for particular business models: fair value IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment Purchase costs + construction costs + costs to bring to the location and condition necessary to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. Accounting policy choice: revaluation model IAS 38 Intangible Assets Purchase costs + development costs + costs to bring to the location and condition necessary to be capable of operating as intended by management Accounting policy choice: revaluation model IAS 40 Investment Property Cost including transaction costs Accounting policy choice: fair value IAS 41 Agriculture Fair value less costs to sell Fair value less costs to sell BASIS OF IMPAIRMENT TEST 6 © 2010 IFRS Foundation. 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.iasb.org Compare carrying amount to recoverable amount. Recoverable amount is greater of value in use and fair value less disposal costs (IAS 36)
    7. 7. International Financial Reporting Standards IAS 41 Agriculture The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    8. 8. Measurement 8 • Biological assets (and agricultural produce at the point of harvest) are measured at fair value less costs to sell (initial and subsequent measurement) • changes in fair value less costs to sell are presented in profit or loss. • Biological assets that are attached to land (eg trees in a plantation forest) are measured separately from the land. If owner-occupied the land is accounted for in accordance with IAS 16. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    9. 9. Why fair value measurement? 9 • The value accretion of agricultural assets is unique • Fair value measurement provides relevant, reliable, comparable and understandable measurement of future economic benefits – consider a plantation forest with a 30 year harvesting cycle: fair value measurement reflects the biological growth using current fair values • Historical cost cannot accurately portray the value of an accreting asset – consider the plantation forest: no income would be reported until harvest and sale (30 years) – what is the cost of a fifth generation calf? © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    10. 10. Exceptions from fair value measurement 10 Measure using cost-depreciation-impairment: • IAS 41: only when on initial recognition of a biological asset for which quoted market prices are not available and other estimates of fair value are determined to be clearly unreliable • IFRS for SMEs: only for those biological assets whose fair value is not readily determinable without undue cost or effort © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    11. 11. Judgements and estimates 11 • When using the most recent market transaction price to measure fair value: identifying the most recent market transaction price and evaluating whether economic circumstances have changed significantly. • When using market prices for similar assets: adjusting the prices to reflect differences. • When using sector benchmarks (eg the value of cattle expressed per kilogram of meat): adjusting to reflect differences. • When using DCF model: estimating the expected future net cash inflows and the discount rate. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    12. 12. Judgements and estimates continued 12 • A PwC study of standing timber valuation practices observed that when applying DCFmodels management made several important assumptions including: • expected income at harvest—variables included growth rate and price per unit of volume • expected costs during growth—including silvicultural costs, eg maintenance and thinning • expected point-of-sale-cost—including harvesting and transport to market • determining the appropriate discount rate. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    13. 13. International Financial Reporting Standards IAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    14. 14. Measurement at fair value 14 • After initial recognition, an entity chooses to measure PP&E either at: (i) cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment (cost model); or (ii) fair value less subsequent accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment (revaluation model). • Revaluations must occur with sufficient regularity to ensure that the carrying amount of an asset does not differ materiality from that which would be determined with a fair value at the end of the period. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    15. 15. Measurement at fair value continued 15 • Revaluation increases are recognised in other comprehensive income and are accumulated in equity (Revaluation surplus) • Revaluation decrease should first reduce the credit balance of revaluation surplus to zero and are then recognised in profit or loss • Depreciation and impairment considerations are similar to those of the cost model © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    16. 16. Comparison to the IFRS for SMEs 16 • Section 17 Property, Plant and Equipment of the IFRS for SMEs does not permit the use of a revaluation model for property, plant and equipment • Generally, there is less fair value measurement for SMEs © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    17. 17. Judgements and estimates 17 • Revaluation model requires measuring fair value (see IFRS 13 for estimates and judgements) • Impairment testing requires many estimates (see IAS 36). © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    18. 18. International Financial Reporting Standards IAS 38 Intangible Assets The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    19. 19. Measurement 19 • Intangible assets are usually measured using the cost model • An entity may choose to revalue (measure the asset at fair value), only if fair value can be determined by reference to an active market. • If an intangible asset is revalued, all assets within that class of intangible assets must be revalued. • The principles of the revaluation model in IAS 16 apply to IAS 38. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    20. 20. Measurement continued 20 • An intangible asset with a finite useful life is amortised. • An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life • is not amortised • is tested annually for impairment. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    21. 21. Comparison to the IFRS for SMEs 21 • Section 18 Intangible Assets of the IFRS for SMEs does not permit the use of a revaluation model for intangible assets • There are no indefinite useful life intangible asset in the IFRS for SMEs. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    22. 22. International Financial Reporting Standards IAS 40 Investment Property The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    23. 23. Subsequent measurement 23 • For subsequent measurement an entity must adopt either the fair value model or the cost model for all investment property • All entities must estimate the fair value of investment property, either for measurement (if the entity uses the fair value model) or for disclosure (if it uses the cost model) • highly unlikely that an entity can change from fair value model to cost model because the change would not satisfy the IAS 8 criteria (more relevant information) for a voluntary change in accounting policy © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    24. 24. Fair value model 24 • Investment property is remeasured to its fair value at the end of each reporting period • Changes in fair value are recognised in profit or loss in the period they occur. • In rare cases (exceptional circumstances) when fair value is not from inception reliably measurable on a continuing basis, the entity measures that property on the cost basis. • this does not affect the measurement of other investment properties. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    25. 25. Comparison to the IFRS for SMEs 25 • IFRS for SMEs does not have an accounting policy choice for measurement. • The accounting for investment property is driven by circumstance – If an entity can measure the fair value of an item without undue cost or effort on an ongoing basis, it must use the fair value model – It uses the cost model for all other investment property © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    26. 26. International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS 9 Financial Instruments The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    27. 27. Classification model: financial assets Business model test Contractual cash flow characteristics Amortised cost (one impairment method) FVO for accounting mismatch (option) Reclassification required when business model changes All other instruments: • Equities • Derivatives • Some hybrid contracts •… Fair Value (No impairment) 27 IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org © Equities: OCI presentation available (alternative)
    28. 28. Measurement 28 • If a financial asset is not measured at amortised cost, it is measured at fair value • Gains or losses in financial assets are recognised in profit or loss unless: • The financial asset is part of a cash-flow hedging relationship • The financial asset is an equity instrument and the entity has elected to present its gains and losses in other comprehensive income (see paragraph 5.7.5) © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    29. 29. Comparison to the IFRS for SMEs • The applicable sections of the IFRS for SMEs are significantly different from IFRS 9. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org 29
    30. 30. International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    31. 31. Non-current assets held for sale 31 • Non-current assets held for sale are measured at the lower of fair value less costs to sell and carrying amount (on the date of classification as held for sale)—they are not depreciated • If still on hand at the end of a reporting period, remeasured to fair value less cost to sell at that date. Changes are recognised in profit or loss (IFRS 5.21). © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    32. 32. International Financial Reporting Standards IAS 2 Inventories The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    33. 33. Measurement exception 33 • Commodity broker-traders may measure inventories at fair value less costs to sell • Changes in fair value less costs to sell are recognised in profit or loss © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    34. 34. International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS 3 Business Combinations The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    35. 35. Principles 35 • The Standard includes recognition and measurement principles. • Recognition (IFRS 3.10–17): • Separate recognition of identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed (link to Conceptual Framework) • Measurement (IFRS 3.18–20): • Assets and liabilities that qualify for recognition are measured at their acquisition-date fair values © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    36. 36. Exceptions 36 Exceptions to measurement principle • Reacquired rights • Measured at FV based on remaining contractual term ignoring the FV effect of renewal • Share-based payment transactions • Replacement awards: measured in accordance with IFRS 2 • Assets held for sale • Measured in accordance with IFRS 5 (ie FV less costs to sell) © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    37. 37. Exceptions continued 37 Exceptions to both recognition and measurement • Income taxes • Deferred tax assets or liabilities arising from acquired assets or liabilities accounted for in accordance with IAS 12 • Employee benefits • Accounted for in accordance with IAS 19 • Indemnification assets • May not be recognised at FV if it relates to an item not recognised or measured in accordance with IFRS 3 © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    38. 38. Recognition and Measurement 38 • Goodwill (asset) is measured initially indirectly as the difference between: • the consideration transferred (IFRS 3.37–40) not including transaction costs in exchange for the acquiree and • the acquiree’s identifiable assets and liabilities © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    39. 39. Recognition and Measurement continued 39 • Consideration transferred • Measured at fair value of sum of assets transferred and liabilities assumed • Acquisition-related costs are not included • Contingent consideration included at its fair value at acquisition date (changes are not included in the consideration transferred at acquisition-date) © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    40. 40. Other fair values 40 • IAS 19 Employee Benefits • The plan assets associated with a funded defined benefit plan are measured at their fair value at reporting date • IAS 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance • Grants (including some non-monetary grants) are recognised at fair value • IAS 27 Separate Financial Statements • Investments in subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates may be measured at fair value in accordance with IFRS 9. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    41. 41. When does IFRS 13 not apply? Excluded from the scope • IFRS 2 and IAS 17 • Plan assets (IAS 19) • Retirement benefit plan investments Disclosures in IFRS 13 (IAS 26) not required for • Assets for which recoverable amount is fair value less cost of disposal (IAS 36) Not required for • IAS 2 (net realisable value) measurements similar • IAS 36 (value in use) to fair value © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org 41
    42. 42. International Financial Reporting Standards IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter, not necessarily those of the IASB or IFRS Foundation © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    43. 43. Introduction 43 • Sets out in a single IFRS framework for measuring fair value and requires disclosures about fair value measurements. • It does not introduce any new requirements to measure an asset or a liability at fair value, change what is measured at fair value in IFRSs or address how to present changes in fair value. • IFRS 13 is effective from 1 January 2013. Early application is permitted. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    44. 44. The old definition of fair value The old definition of fair value The amount for which an asset could be exchanged, or a liability settled, between knowledgeable, willing parties in an arm’s? length transaction. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org 44 Its weaknesses It did not specify whether an entity is buying or selling the asset. It was unclear about what settling meant because it did not refer to the creditor. It was unclear about whether it was market-based. It did not state explicitly when the exchange or settlement takes place.
    45. 45. Definition 45 • Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability (exit price) in an orderly transaction (not a forced sale) between market participants (market-based view) at the measurement date (current price). • Fair value is a market-based measurement (it is not an entity-specific measurement) • Consequently, the entity’s intention to hold an asset or to settle or otherwise fulfil a liability is not relevant when measuring fair value. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    46. 46. Application guidance 46 • When measuring fair value use assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability under current market conditions, including assumptions about risk. • Characteristics of a particular asset or liability that a market participant would take into account when pricing the item at the measurment date, include: – age, condition and location of the asset – restrictions on the sale or use. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    47. 47. Transaction and Price 47 • Measured using the price in the principal market for the asset or liability (ie the market with the greatest volume and level of activity for the asset or liability) or, in the absence of a principal market, the most advantageous market for the asset or liability. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    48. 48. Non-financial assets 48 • Must reflect the use of a non-financial asset by market participants that maximises the value of the asset – physically possible – legally permissible – financially feasible • Highest and best use is usually (but not always) the current use. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    49. 49. The fair value hierarchy Yes Is there a quoted price in an active market for an identical asset or liability? (Level 1 input) * Maximise the use of relevant observable inputs. Observable inputs include market data (prices and other information) that is publicly available ‡ Unobservable inputs include the entity’s own data (eg budgets, forecasts), which must be adjusted if market participants would use different assumptions 49 No Are there any observable inputs* other than quoted prices for an identical asset or liability? Use the Level 1 input = Level 1 measurement Must use without adjustment 49 Yes No use of significant unobservable (Level 3) inputs‡ = Level 2 measurement No Use of significant unobservable (Level 3) inputs‡ = Level 3 measurement
    50. 50. Disclosure 50 • Information about an entity’s valuation processes is required for fair value measurements categorised within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy. • A narrative discussion is required about the sensitivity of a fair value measurement categorised within Level 3. • Quantitative sensitivity analysis is required for financial instruments measured at fair value. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    51. 51. Judgements and estimates 51 • An entity must take all information that is reasonably available to search for a principal market. • determining fair value and the highest and best-use.for a non-financial asset. • Assumptions that a market participant would use (including assumptions about risk). • Determining the correct valuation technique to use and the inputs to the techniques, particularly on the income approach, require a wide range of estimates as: • discount rates • future cash flows • risks and uncertainty © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    52. 52. Judgements and estimates continued 52 • The inputs used in the valuation techniques should primarily be based on observable inputs (where possible) to minimise the use of unobservable inputs. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org
    53. 53. Questions or comments? Expressions of individual views by members of the IASB and its staff are encouraged. The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenter. Official positions of the IASB on accounting matters are determined only after extensive due process and deliberation. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org © 2012 IFRS Foundation. 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK. www.ifrs.org 53
    54. 54. 54 The requirements are set out in International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs), as issued by the IASB at 1 January 2012 with an effective date after 1 January 2012 but not the IFRSs they will replace. The IFRS Foundation, the authors, the presenters and the publishers do not accept responsibility for loss caused to any person who acts or refrains from acting in reliance on the material in this PowerPoint presentation, whether such loss is caused by negligence or otherwise. © IFRS Foundation | 30 Cannon Street | London EC4M 6XH | UK | www.ifrs.org

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