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Some of the Slideshare Presentations that I upload were created by others . All are worth lookng at and studying. I am Stephen Darori on Linkedin. If you think we have some Synergy Now or maybe in......

Some of the Slideshare Presentations that I upload were created by others . All are worth lookng at and studying. I am Stephen Darori on Linkedin. If you think we have some Synergy Now or maybe in the Future., Do send me an Invitation to connect on Linkedin. I will never refuse an Invitation.

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  • 1. Si Gr x i My ey nch st an es er d io we wid us t e What is the Territory of the Brand?
  • 2. Contents  Presentation Objective  Understanding Branding   Brand Attributes  Brand Management  Brand Architecture   From Products to Brands Exercise Brand Building  Brand Audit  Connection Triangle  Big Idea  Evaluating Advertising
  • 3. Presentation Objective • To understand the facets / issues involved in branding • To develop a framework for building a brand
  • 4. Al Ries, David Ogilvy & Ambani Presentation incorporates learnings from India’s Branding School, founded by Reliance: MICA Personal Al Work Experience Ries & Laura Ries: The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding
  • 5. Contents Understanding Branding Brand Building
  • 6. Module 1 Understanding Branding Understanding Branding Brand Building
  • 7. Module 1 Understanding Branding Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Brand Management Building Architecture Exercise
  • 8. Module 1 Understanding Branding Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Brand Management Building Architecture Exercise
  • 9. Module 1 - Stage 1 From Products to Brands Understanding Branding Products to Products to brands brands Attributes Attributes Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Exercise Exercise
  • 10. Module 1 - Stage 1 From Products to Brands Understanding Branding Products to Products to brands brands Attributes Attributes Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Brand v/s. Product Exercise Exercise  A brand is more distinctive than a product  It is first of all a name, a means of identification  Secondly it s a set of added values offering both functional and psychological benefits Above all ‘a brand is a promise’
  • 11. Module 1 - Stage 1 From Products to Brands Understanding Branding Products to Products to brands brands Attributes Attributes Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Exercise Exercise A Brand is a Promise “ …A seller’s promise to deliver consistently a specific set of features, benefits and services to buyers.
  • 12. Module 1 - Stage 1 From Products to Brands …….a short-hand that communicates powerfully & reduces uncertainty …….a short-hand that communicates powerfully & reduces uncertainty
  • 13. Fevicol Case Year Sales Value ( Rs. Crores) AdSpend ( Rs. Crores) 92-93 93-94 94-95 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 46.02 77.12 102.16 138 156.19 151.68 191.75 0.55 1.7 2.3 3.28 5 5.51 6 Adspend as % of Sales 1.2% 2.2% 2.3% 2.4% 3.2% 3.6% 3.1%
  • 14. Fevicol Case Fevicol's Market Share of Synthetic Adhesive Category 45% 42% 40% 35% 31.43% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 10% 5% 0% 1991 1994 1999
  • 15. Fevicol Case Fevicol's Growth Rate vs. Category Growth Rate 60% 55% 50% 40% 30% 20% 16% 10% 8% 10% 0% 1992-95 1995-99 Category Fevicol
  • 16. Brand as an Asset  “If Coca Cola lost everything except for ‘the formula’ and its brand name , it could walk into any bank in the world and get $100 billion loan to start from the scratch” Fortune Magazine
  • 17. Module 1 Understanding Branding Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Attributes Brand Management Architecture Building Exercise
  • 18. Module 1 Understanding Branding Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Name Logo Colours Essence Brand Management Architecture Building Exercise
  • 19. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Immutable Law of Name Immutable Law of Name In the long run the brand is nothing more than a name
  • 20. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Attributes Attributes Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Name Exercise Exercise Logo Colours Essence Brand Name  Short  Kodak, Fuji   CNN an AOL Time Warner Company Distinctive • •  Toyota’s Lexus is distinctive.Toyota’s Luxury commonplace Orange was a striking name in a world of tel and coms Not mean anything rude or silly in another language  Big Macs( McDonald’s) is a slang for big breasts in Canada
  • 21. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Attributes Attributes Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Name Exercise Exercise Logo Colours Essence Brand Name  Avoid generic / line extended names • •  Xerox as opposed to Haloids Paper Master Xerox (Copier) is powerful. Xerox Computer is not Changing your name will not overcome a bad strategy • “Monday” (Price Waterhouse Coopers )
  • 22. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Immutable Law of Shape Immutable Law of Shape A brand’s logotype should be designed to fit the eyes. Both eyes
  • 23. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Attributes Attributes Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Name Exercise Exercise Logo Colours Essence Brand Logo • Simple logo, designed to fit both eyes • Mercedes three star • Logos with a horizontal bias • Logo with a horizontal bias is esp. useful for retail brands • Logo font has to be clear and legible • A housewife does not buy Ariel because it is written in a specific font
  • 24. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes
  • 25. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Immutable Law of Colour Immutable Law of Colour A brand should use a colour opposite of its rival
  • 26. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes The Cola Wars: Energy Vs. Peace The Cola Wars: Energy Vs. Peace
  • 27. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Attributes Attributes Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Name Exercise Exercise Brand Colours  Colours have meanings • • Red is energetic •  Purple means royalty Blue is peaceful Opposite colours can differentiate • Coke is red, Pepsi is blue • Kodak is yellow, Fuji is green Logo Colours Essence
  • 28. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Attributes Attributes Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Name Exercise Exercise Logo Colours Essence Brand Colours..  Colours can help you stand out •  FedEx’s orange and purple packet stands out in corporate blue Logo and colours help, but the power of the brand  Essentially in the meaning of the brand name in consumer’s mind, its essence
  • 29. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Immutable Law of Singularity Immutable Law of Singularity Most important thing for a brand is its single mindedness.
  • 30. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Single-mindedness means consistency. Single-mindedness means consistency. Fresh and interesting manifestations of a single idea. Fresh and interesting manifestations of a single idea.
  • 31. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Attributes Attributes Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Name Exercise Exercise Logo Colours Essence Brand Essence  A brand must “leverage a compelling truth”   Linux stands for freedom as opposed to Microsoft’s monopoly A brand should mean a single powerful thing: the essence  Essence of Volvo is Safety  Essence of Tata is trust  Essence of Fevicol is bonding
  • 32. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Attributes Attributes Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Name Exercise Exercise Logo Colours Essence Brand Essence  A brand should also be clear of what is not its essence   In India, STAR NEWS is not a channel of the masses unlike STAR PLUS A brand should drive single mindedly its essence   Raymond has been selling the complete man for over 2 decades   Volvo has been selling safety for 35 years Essence of Dettol is protection against germs A brand loses its essence if it starts meaning a lot of things  What is Miller :A regular,light,draft,cheap, expensive beer
  • 33. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes Immutable Law of Word Immutable Law of Word A brand should try to own a word in consumer’s mind
  • 34. Module 1 - Stage 2 Attributes
  • 35. Module 1 Understanding Branding Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Brand Management Architecture Building Exercise
  • 36. Module 1 Understanding Branding Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Brand Management Architecture Co-Brand Stealth Brand Fighting Brand Multi-Brand Building Exercise
  • 37. Module 1 - Stage 3 Management Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Attributes Attributes Co-Brand Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Exercise Exercise Stealth Brand Fighting Brand Multi-Brand Co-Brand  Brands need to address a similar need segment –  Kellogg's Pop-tarts with Smuckers Jam Brands with complementary strengths: Seen often on the Net – NY Times gives Amazon credibility – Amazon makes NY Times look modern.
  • 38. Module 1 - Stage 3 Management Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Attributes Attributes Co-Brand Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Exercise Exercise Stealth Brand Fighting Brand Multi-Brand Stealth Brand  Brand building that attracts customer attention but not of rivals • •  Home-to-home, word of mouth / PR, internet community building Krispy Kreme relies only on PR Good option when unsure of a new medium/market  Little promotion for Maytag website as opposed to a buy.com. Maytag sold 1000s of Neptune washers on web
  • 39. Module 1 - Stage 3 Management Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Attributes Attributes Co-Brand Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Exercise Exercise Stealth Brand Fighting Brand Multi-Brand Fighting Brand  Pricing led branding option. Works as a competitive response. • Smirnov (Heublein) Case  Smirnov attacked by W’schmidt @ $1 less  Heublein raised the price of Smirnov  Heublein introduced Reiska(fighting brand) at the same price point as W’schmidt  Heublein added Popov lower than both
  • 40. Module 1 - Stage 3 Management Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Attributes Attributes Co-Brand Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Exercise Exercise Stealth Brand Fighting Brand Multi-Brand Fighting Brand  Built as new, independent brand • Prevents dilution of the leading brand  HLL introduced Wheel to fight Nirma
  • 41. Module 1 - Stage 3 Management Immutable Law of Siblings Immutable Law of Siblings There is a time and place to launch a second brand
  • 42. Possibly even a third or a fourth brand.. Possibly even a third or a fourth brand..
  • 43. Module 1 - Stage 3 Management Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Management Management Attributes Attributes Co-Brand Brand Building Architecture Architecture Exercise Exercise Stealth Brand Fighting Brand Multi-Brand Multi Brand  Key to a multi-brand approach is to give each sibling a unique identity   Time, Fortune,Life, Money, People Tempting to mash the brands and top it with corporate frosting  Tata Salt,Tata Tea  Second brand risks diluting equity  Is Kingfisher Mild drinker more likely to be from Kingfisher or from Fosters?
  • 44. Module 1 - Stage 3 Management Understanding Branding Products to brands Products to brands Attributes Attributes Co-Brand Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Exercise Exercise Multi Brand..  Common product area focus   Single attribute segmentation   Shampoos: Clinic Plus, Ayush, Sunsilk Price:Maruti 800, Zen, Esteem Sibling creates a new category  Herbal Anti-Dandruff category by Ayush Stealth Brand Fighting Brand Multi-Brand
  • 45. Module 1 Understanding Branding Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Brand Management Architecture Building Exercise
  • 46. Module 1 Understanding Branding Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Brand Management Building Architecture Exercise House of Brands Endorsed Brand Sub Brand Branded House
  • 47. Module 1 - Stage 4 Architecture Immutable Law of Contraction Immutable Law of Contraction A brand becomes stronger when you narrow its focus
  • 48. Module 1 - Stage 4 Architecture The Economist is red and daring. The Economist is red and daring. Provocative, brutally honest and non-conformist Provocative, brutally honest and non-conformist
  • 49. Module 1 - Stage 4 Architecture Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes House of Brands Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Exercise Exercise Endorsed Brand Sub Brand Branded House House of Brands  Often dictated by corporate strategy. Core competence of the firm is marketing / branding •  Multiple independent brands allows company to fill each niche •  P&G is the prime example. Its “big” with the channel Helps brand focus Gives an opportunity for the company to focus on each brand and contract its scope.
  • 50. Module 1 - Stage 4 Architecture Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes House of Brands Brand Building Architecture Architecture Management Management Exercise Exercise Endorsed Brand Sub Brand Branded House Endorsed Brand  Endorsement used as a device to transfer brand assets from one brand(corporate) to another  Titan from TATA, transferring trust  Danger of diluting the equity of endorsing brand  Best as a transitional strategy  Gain, from makers of Ariel
  • 51. Module 1 - Stage 4 Architecture Immutable Law of Expansion Immutable Law of Expansion Brand’s power inversely proportional to scope.
  • 52. Module 1 - Stage 4 Architecture The Volkswagen bus ad, talked only about ‘plenty of room’ The Volkswagen bus ad, talked only about ‘plenty of room’
  • 53. Module 1 - Stage 4 Architecture Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes House of Brands Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Exercise Exercise Endorsed Brand Sub Brand Branded House Sub Brand  Inside out branding.Company pushes core brand in different directions  Sub-branding can destroy what branding builds • Donna Karan menswear, DKNY, DKNY menswear, DKNY kids
  • 54. Module 1 - Stage 4 Architecture Immutable Law of Company Immutable Law of Company Brands are brands, companies are companies. There is a difference.
  • 55. Module 1 - Stage 4 Architecture Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes House of Brands Brand Building Management Management Architecture Architecture Exercise Exercise Endorsed Brand Sub Brand Branded House Branded house  Consumers buy brands, not companies  Danger of branded house, being many things to one group of people •  Virgin? Does “Virgin trains” work? May motivate trade, so might be useful for PR purposes with trade/other stakeholders • P& G way
  • 56. Module 1 Understanding Branding Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Brand Management Architecture Building Exercise
  • 57. Module 1 Understanding Branding Exercise  Two brand positioning within the same brand family?How do we reconcile the two positions?  The options available to us 1. 2. Stand Alone New Brand 3.  Single brand Transfer of Brand Assets from an existing brand What are the pros and cons of each option ?
  • 58. Module 1 Understanding Branding Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Brand Management Architecture Building Exercise Options Single Brand Family Stand Alone Brand Transfer of Brand Assets
  • 59. Module 1 - Stage5 Exercise Brand Building Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes Management Management Options Single Brand Family Architecture Architecture Stand Alone Brand Transfer of Brand Assets Exercise Exercise  Single Brand Family  ‘Stand-alone’ New Brand  Transfer of Brand Assets ‘x from y’
  • 60. Module 1 - Stage5 Exercise Brand Building Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes Management Management Options Single Brand Family Architecture Architecture Stand Alone Brand Transfer of Brand Assets Exercise Exercise Option : Single Brand family  Constant values / different products • •  Dettol antiseptic / soap / hand wash Crest toothpaste / Mouth wash (But not chewing gum) Differentiate on product usage • IBM Value Point - Entry level purchase • Gillette Good News Line - Disposables
  • 61. Module 1 - Stage5 Exercise Brand Building Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes Management Management Options Single Brand Family Architecture Architecture Stand Alone Brand Transfer of Brand Assets Exercise Exercise Option : Single Brand family  Use as umbrella branding   TATA SONY   Trust Electronic technology But Taj from TATA for Performance segments Difficult for a single brand to straddle Performance and Price segments   Surf entry in popular segment with Surf Easywash. Withdrew after 2 yrs Gap changed Gap Warehouse to Old Navy Clothing due to perceived brand erosion
  • 62. Module 1 - Stage5 Exercise Brand Building Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes Management Management Options Single Brand Family Architecture Architecture Stand Alone Brand Transfer of Brand Assets Exercise Exercise Option : Single Brand family Learnings + Cheaper than creating a new brand - Difficult to stretch brands across Price and Performance - Risk of eroding present position - Lose opportunity of creating a new segment
  • 63. Module 1 - Stage5 Exercise Brand Building Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes Management Management Options Single Brand Family Architecture Architecture Stand Alone Brand Transfer of Brand Assets Exercise Exercise Option : ‘Stand-alone’ New Brand  Levers enters popular segment successfully with Wheel as opposed to Surf Easywash  Levers use of brand-wise differentiation of brand values and attributes to target consumer segments- Surf / Rin / Wheel / OK detergents  Toyota launches Lexus to enter the Premium Auto segment credibly
  • 64. Module 1 - Stage5 Exercise Brand Building Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes Management Management Options Single Brand Family Architecture Architecture Stand Alone Brand Transfer of Brand Assets Exercise Exercise Option : ‘Stand-alone’ New Brand Learnings + Clear brand identity, values and assets + Create new opportunity of a range possibility in Popular segment + Leave present brand secure - Expensive to build brand assets - Difficult to build trial as a stand-alone Brand
  • 65. Module 1 - Stage5 Exercise Brand Building Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes Management Management Options Single Brand Family Architecture Architecture Stand Alone Brand Transfer of Brand Assets Exercise Exercise Option: Transfer of Brand Assets ‘x from y’  Titan (from Tata’s) •  Sonata (from Titan) •  Worked well for Titan Eroding equity of Titan Gain (from the makers of Ariel) • Apparently a ‘Transitional Strategy’
  • 66. Module 1 - Stage5 Exercise Brand Building Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes Management Management Options Single Brand Family Architecture Architecture Stand Alone Brand Transfer of Brand Assets Exercise Exercise Option: Transfer of Brand Assets ‘x from y’ Learnings + Cheaper than developing a new brand + Can be used as a ‘Transitional Strategy’ - Still a risk of eroding present image - Possible mix of values and assets
  • 67. Module 1 - Stage5 Exercise Brand Building Understanding Branding Products to brands Attributes Products to brands Attributes Management Management Options Single Brand Family Architecture Architecture Stand Alone Brand Transfer of Brand Assets Exercise Exercise Branding Options: Conclusion  ‘Single Brand family possible if:  Different products / similar values  Differentiate on end use  ‘Stand-alone ‘New Brand’ best option to straddle values - however it is expensive to create a new Brand  ‘Transfer of Brand assets ‘x from y’’ possible, especially as a transitional strategy - still a risk of eroding present values and mixing values and assets
  • 68. www.mastersungroup.com http://strategy-execution.blogspot.com chandra@mastersunindia.com