Karuovic and Radosav 2883content. A presentation layer displays the content to web- by the CMS and are not published online. They includesite visitors based on a set of templates. WCMS allows the roles of:non-technical users to make changes to a website withlittle training. i. Authoriser - accountable for the subsite, authorises CMS software may provide a means of collaboratively major updates and changes.managing the life cycle of a document from initial creation ii. Subsite manager - stakeholder relationship manage-time, through revisions, publication, archive, and ment and coordination, ensuring quality and compliance,document destruction. There are three major types of monitoring and analysing the subsite’s performance,WCMS: offline processing, online processing, and hybrid managing / coordinating subsite reviews (goals, content,systems. These terms describe the deployment pattern information structure and workflow roles).for the WCMS in terms of when presentation templatesare applied to render web pages from structured content. It is envisaged that initially, these roles will be recorded Some systems write out executable code (for example, and that guidelines and processes will subsequently beJSP, ASP, PHP, ColdFusion, or Perl pages) rather than developed to support people assuming these roles. Thejust static HTML, so that the CMS itself does not need to content management system (CMS) is the new webbe deployed on every web server. Some of advantages content publishing and management system being rolledwhen using CMSs are: out as part of the web redevelopment. The CMS makes it easier for authorized users to edit and publish contenti. Low cost (Drupal, Joomla, and WordPress, for according to the standardized styles and workflowexample, are free), process. Workflow is a key component of the CMS. Itii. Easy customization (this systems have universal layout allocates responsibilities and automates a standardwith pages with a similar theme and design without much process for content review and publication. Within thiscode), standard process, there are 3 workflow roles:iii. Easy to use (simplicity in design of the admin userinterface allows content managers and other users to i. Editors - rights are basically limited to edits of existingupdate content without much training), content.iv. Workflow management (CMSs provide the facility to ii. Advanced editors – have the same publishing workflowcontrol how content is published, when it is published, permissions as editors. However, they can also: add newand who publishes it. Some WCMSs allow administrators sections, pages and containers, modify section and pageto set up rules for workflow management, guiding content variables.managers through a series of steps required for each of iii. Publishers - similar permissions as advanced editors,their tasks). except they can also: publish or decline content sub- mitted to the publishing workflow queue, directly modifySome of disadvantages when using CMSs are: or publish, content, reorder sections and pages.i. cost of implementation (more complexs CMSs may There are several roles in WCMS. Their access rights arerequire training, planning, and certifications), (IBM, 2011):ii. cost of maintenance (some CMSs may require licenseupdates, upgrades, and hardware maintenance), i. User - can view items in a web site or rendering portletiii. storage volume (volume of files may be large in HTML- that they have been assigned at least user access to.based systems. A site that contains many files leaves ii. Contributor – can view items in a rendering portlet oritself open to errors). servlet-rendered Web site that they have been assigned at least user access to; view libraries the they have been assigned contributor access to in an authoring portlet;Managers’ roles in web content management system access the "My Items" and "All Items" views in an authoring portlet for libraries that they have beenAs part of the web redevelopment, a number of roles and assigned contributor access to; access the item type viewresponsibilities for subsite and content management within the authoring portlet for item types that they beenneed to be assigned. These roles include: assigned at least user access to. iii. Editor– can view items in a rendering portlet or servlet-i. Subsite management roles rendered Web site that they have been assigned at leastii. Content management system (CMS) workflow roles. user access to; view libraries the they have been(Flinders, 2011) assigned contributor access to in an authoring portlet; access the "My Items" and "All Items" views in an au-Subsite management roles are essential to identify thoring portlet for libraries that they have been assignedsubsite responsibility and authority within an ongoing at least contributor access to; for library item types thatmanagement context. These roles are not administered user and groups have been assigned at least editor
2884 Afr. J. Bus. Manage. Figure 1. User role.access to, editors can access the following actions in the iii. module for managing students’ dataauthoring portlet; access the item type view; create a new iv. module for keeping teaching materials v. module for knowledge testingitem; add/remove links; apply authoring template; copy, vi. module for examination entrydelete, edit , link to, move, restore a version, edit version vii. module for sending e-mailslabels viii. module for generating various reportsiv. Manager – can view items in a rendering portlet or ix. module for publishing according to SCORM standardservlet-rendered Web site that they have been assignedat least user access to; view libraries the they have been Some modules will be described in detail.assigned contributor access to in an authoring portlet;access the “My Items” and “All Items” views in an Module for managing the users and licensesauthoring portlet for libraries that they have beenassigned at least contributor access to; for library item It is designed and implemented because of different users who aretypes that they have been assigned manager access to, using the system and have different rights and roles in the system.managers can access the all of the actions available to The system’s functions require restrictions of activities for individual users. For example, students are not allowed to attach teachingeditors and also the following actions in the authoring materials until teachers correct and approve them. Students can putportlet; edit access settings, next stage, purge, unlock, their materials in a separate part of data base, where the teachersedit user profile can, firstly, see and correct them and then set them if they considerv. Administrator – can view items in a rendering portlet or them useful to other users/students. This module assumes theservlet-rendered Web site that they have been assigned following activities: creating a new user (by giving a user name and a password), defining a role or a status, changing a password or aat least user access to; view libraries the they have been role as well as deleting the user.assigned contributor access to in an authoring portlet;access the “My Items” and “All Items” views in an au-thoring portlet for libraries that they have been assigned Administrative moduleat least contributor access to; all actions in the authoringportlet for library item types that they have been assigned The need for this module appeared in the domain of updating basic data about students, educators (professors or assistants) andadministrator access to. subjects.vi. Roles that have no access to web contentmanagement are security administrator, delegator andprivileged user. Module for testing knowledge Students can repeat tests several times and they can access them at any time and the results may be input into the base when theyMATERIALS AND METHODS are satisfied with their results. In this way students are more relaxed because they can correct the mistakes by repeating the test. TestWeb content management system model results are input in the data base with the date of testing. A teacher gives the final mark on account of collected points.Web content management system model is realized at TechnicalFaculty “Mihajlo Pupin” in Zrenjanin. This model as shown in Figure1 has 9 modules which are: Module for sending e-mailsi. Managing the users and licenses This paper also contains a module for communication amongii. administrative module students as well as for communication between students and
Karuovic and Radosav 2885 Figure 2. Logical organization of forum.educators in the form of on-line communication via forum. Every viii. Validation andstudent has a possibility to set any section, theme or an answer to ix. Implementation.the asked question. In the same time forum can serve for attachingstudents materials. Students who want to set additional teaching The module for maintaining teaching material has some processesmaterials through forum send their requests for acceptance and that are given in Table 1. During the system definition, the followingvalidation of these materials by their teachers. Teachers receive activities have been identified:these materials and if they satisfy the prescribed criteria, theyincorporate them in the teaching units. This communication may be i. Loggingperformed in real time because the asked questions are kept in the ii. Entry of Educators, Students, Subjects, Teaching plans andbase so other users can access them at any time and ask their programsquestions, give answers or leave comments. This module can also iii. Deleting Educators, Students, Subjects, Teaching plans andbe used for setting different information to students with an option programsof deleting them when necessary. Information and notices can be iv. Review of Educators, Students, Subjects, Teaching plans andgrouped according to themes and within sections. Logical programsorganization of forum is presented in Figure 2. v. Forum The advantage of this type of communication comparing to e-mailis in the fact that more users can access to questions and answers There is a rule concerning data input into the system: the users’in the same time, whether they are students or teachers. A user rights have been defined and only the administrator has the right todoes not have to wait for his interlocutor to connect to the web in input data related to educators, students and subjects. Educatorsorder to read the answer. Another advantage is in the fact that enter/input teaching material that is, teaching topics, teaching unitsusers don’t have to know addresses of their interlocutors but they and exercises. During the process of teaching material entry, thesimply leave their comments in the base which all registered users following activities have been identified:can access at any time. i. Teaching topics entry ii. Teaching units entryThe phases of designing WCMS iii. Exercises entry iv. The choice of subjects for entryThe procedure of making a module for keeping teaching materials v. The choice of teaching topic for entryof WCMS model has passed through nine phases (Radosav and vi. The choice of teaching unit for entryKaruovic, 2005): vii. Acknowledgment of entryi. Definition of objectives, All users can assess data review (they cannot change any data).ii. Research planning,iii. Problem formulation,iv. Making a model, The description of creating system for maintaining teachingv. Selecting a method for solution, materialvi. Programing and testing,vii. Collecting data, Since the process of model designing has been concluded
2886 Afr. J. Bus. Manage. Table 1. Teaching material processes. The name of process Filling in the forms for setting up the content Access to system Setting up the content by the students Recognizing about inaccurate content Setting up the content Maintenance of contents that have been set up Checking of a content Choosing the subject for which the content is set upsuccessfully, a demonstrational example for maintaining teaching classical way of teaching. This attitude implied a certainmaterial in the system of distance learning has been started. ASP fear from accepting new systems of education that weretechnology was used in creating it. There is no time limit for adopting teaching units, every user not known and realized enough here. They considered itdefines his own time needed for studying teaching programs and better (33.8%) because:plans. What are the benefits? One of the main characteristics isuniformity and simplicity of usage (that is not the case with i. Studying is more interesting,traditional presenting of teaching material on Internet, because ii. Studying can be performed according to their ownthere are a lot of different ways for site design, different choice of choice (adjusted to individuals),multimedia materials and conceptual solutions). It improves theaccess to teaching materials due to the fact that pupils don’t have iii. Contains more information.to spend time while looking for individual sites for each subject, andthey also don’t have to waste time in coping with requirements of Those who considered a traditional educational systemeach design. The usefulness of the site that has been mastered better (17%) founded their opinion on the presence ofonce can be applied to all subjects. Teachers do not have to think teachers in the classroom because they could clarifyabout his site design, but only about the contents to be put on it. He teaching materials at any moment - no machine couldfills in the appropriate table, and the content is presented on thescreen whenever the user wants to use it by clicking on the replace teachers.appropriate subject they picks out of the base through forms. The half of the interviewed users (50%) who Another important characteristic is accessing velocity. Teachers considered that distance learning system should be com-set up their contents on-line, and students or pupils can access bined with a traditional system of education, used it asthem in a few seconds. Organisation is very important in this additional material, so they thought that these twosystem. The subjects are read out from the base by their codes systems were equal.(numbers in increasing order). Users can choose time, place andthe way of adopting teaching material as well as whether they want No matter if they considered it better in comparison to ato study exercises or adopt theoretical knowledge. classical way of teaching, the majority of the interviewed The application of this system enables the unity of teachers and students (78%) thought that WCMS would improve theirusers (pupils or students) because users can put their contents with learning results because it:teachers’ approval and, in that way, take part in teaching processactively. If users’ are physically separated (in the case of illness),they do not have to lose the continuity because they can follow the i. Offers more informationcontents from home. The teacher or other students can easily solve ii. Offers only necessary informationpossible problems or misunderstandings through forum. Home user iii. Does not waste time in classesdoesn’t have to memorize e-mail addresses, which enables iv. Offers possibilities to students to concentrate on newmultidirectional communication. and unknown material v. Enables individualization of teaching vi. Learning is more interesting.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In 2011, when asked if they considered WCMS betterThe research results from 2005 and 2011 will be than a classical way of teaching, the students gave thepresented in this part of the paper. The objective was to expected more positive results because the Internetdetermine the users attitudes about WCMS and to broke all barriers and took the deserved place incompare them during the period of five years. All education. A great majority of students (78%) thoughtstudents answered the questions about WCMS. Three that WCMS would improve their learning results becausehundred students were polled. it: In 2005, when asked if WCMS was better than classicalform, the students gave a bit unexpected answers, taking i. makes learning materials easier and faster,into account that all of them expressed a wish to use ii. has modern methods of work,WCMS, but that they did not consider it better than a iii. does not limit time and space.
Karuovic and Radosav 2887Conclusion of usage but it also makes some new ones such as a security issue. Managers themselves must implement theOur WCMS is designed to fit any organization size. The first step.main prerequisite for successful application of a new kindof education conducting is certainly developing students’web culture and also qualifying teaching stuff for using REFERENCESnew informative technologies in more sophisticated way. Radosav D, Karuovic D (2005): (2005): Тhe Multimedia educationalUsing internet for material distribution, communication software usage in web environment – AT VOJVODINA SCHOOLS,with students and improving recourses for studying 28TH International Convention MIPRO 2005, May 30 – June 3, 2005 -certain teaching subject, must become an usual way for Opatija, Croatia, Str. 106- 112, ISBN 953-233-009-7. Flinders (2011). Flinders University, http://www.flinders.edu.au/online-teaching conducting. communications/guidelines/subsite-management-and-workflow- Beside new way of distributing traditional materials and roles.cfm accessed, May, 08 , thinformation, it is also necessary to prepare oneself IBM (2011).intensively for a new concept of education conducting http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/wcmdoc/v6r1/index.jsp?topic =/com.ibm.lotus.wcm.doc_v615/wcm/wcm_cms_roles.html,that includes intensive interaction with students through accessed, April, 27th.organized talk rooms, forums mailing lists, etc., and Naris SN, Ukpere WI (2010).” Mentoring programmes for academic staffwhich means distance learning and conducting of at the Polytechnic of Namibia”. African Journal of Businessdistance projects including all kinds of multimedia: Management Vol. 4(3), pp. 350-356, March 2010telecommunications, video recordings from lessons, etcNew information technologies enable internet orientededucation conducting which is very popular all over theworld, it overcomes compatibility problems and simplicity.