These seven continents are believed to have once formed the supercontinent Pangaea, a landmass that existed on Earth 250 million years ago. Pangaea was surrounded by one ocean, known as Panthalassa. Because of movements of the underlying tectonic plates, the landmass broke up and the continents separated and moved apart, and eventually to the positions they are in now. This process took around 1 million years to complete.
Hot desert climates are typically found under the subtropical ridge where there is largely unbroken sunshine for the whole year due to the stable descending air and high pressure. Such areas include the Sahara, the Arabian, Syrian and Kalahari Deserts, large parts of Iran, southern and central Pakistan, northwest India, the southwestern United States, Northern Mexico, and much of Australia. These areas are located between 30 degrees south and 30 north latitude.
Sahara, the Arabian, Syrian and Kalahari Deserts, large parts of Iran, southern and central Pakistan, northwest India, the southwestern United States, Northern Mexico, and much of Australia.
found in regions such as West Africa, India, parts of Mexico and small parts of Pakistan
World tourism intro (BSTM- F1)
Top 20 Most Popular Cities for
tourists in 2013
What is Geography?
is the science that studies the lands,
the features, the inhabitants, and the
phenomena of the Earth.
What is Tourism?
Comprises the activities of people travelling to
and staying in places outside their usual
environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business and
other purposes not related to the exercise of
an activity remunerated from within the place
visited – World Tourism Organization
The 7 Continents
Australia and Oceania
These seven continents are believed to
have once formed the supercontinent
Pangaea, a landmass that existed on Earth
250 million years ago. Pangaea was
surrounded by one ocean, known as
Panthalassa. Because of movements of the
underlying tectonic plates, the landmass
broke up and the continents separated and
moved apart, and eventually to the
positions they are in now. This process took
around 1 million years to complete
North America lies between two great bodies of water, the
Atlantic Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean. It is east of the Pacific
Ocean, and west of the Atlantic Ocean. The continent of North
America is also attached to another continent by a small strip
of land. That continent is . . .
South America also lies between the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans. South America is attached to North America by a
small strip of land. Just like North America, the continent of
South America sits to the east of the Pacific Ocean, and to
the west of the Atlantic Ocean. It is north of the Southern
Ocean. The Atlantic Ocean separates South America from
another large continent to its east. That continent is . .
Africa is surrounded on three sides by oceans. Africa
lies east of the Atlantic Ocean, west of the Indian
Ocean, and north of the Southern Ocean. The
continent of Africa sits directly to the south of
another continent. The continent directly to the north
of Africa is . . .
Europe sits to the east of the Atlantic Ocean, and south
of the Arctic Ocean. The Atlantic Ocean separates
Europe from North America. The continent of Europe
shares its eastern border with another continent. This
giant land mass is . . .
Asia is the largest of the continents. Asia is located east of Europe,
so it shares its western border with Europe. To the east of Asia, lies
the Pacific Ocean, which also separates Asia from North America.
South of Asia, lies the Indian Ocean. The Indian Ocean separates
Asia from another continent. That continent is . . .
Australia/Oceania is the smallest of the continents. For many years it has
been called simply Australia. The continent is made up of many islands,
however. Together we call them the continent of Australia/Oceania.
Australia is by far the largest island on the continent. New Zealand, Fiji,
and Papua New Guinea, are just a few of the other islands in
Australia/Oceania. Australia is surrounded by three oceans. To the west of
Australia lies the Indian Ocean. The Pacific Ocean lies to the east. South of
Australia is the Southern Ocean. If we travel south across the Southern
Ocean, we will find the last of the seven continents. That continent is . . .
Antarctica is the southernmost of the seven continents. In
fact, the entire continent of Antarctica lies further south of
any piece of land on any other continent! Antarctica is
surrounded by the Southern Oceans. All of the other oceans
lie to the north of Antarctica, and of course, all of the other
six continents are also north of Antarctica.
Tools in Geography
1. A globe is a round model of the Earth.
By looking at a globe and spinning it around, we can see all the areas of
land and water in scale, so they are exactly true to their real shapes and
sizes. Scale is the way that mapmakers reduce the real size of land
masses, oceans, rivers, and other landforms to sizes that fit on a map or
globe. Having a true scale is an advantage of using a globe. We can not
however, see all of the world at the same time. We can not see what is
on the back of the globe, while we are looking at the front. This is one
disadvantage of using a globe.
2. Maps – are the blueprints of travel
Types of Maps
Flat Maps - With a flat map, we can see the entire world at one time.
This is an advantage of using a flat map. Because the world is round and not
flat, a flat map can not show the exact scale of the shape or size of the land
and water areas. This is one disadvantage of using a flat map.
Route Maps - are useful references for both airlines and the car rental
Locator Maps – usually represents a small area, say a city, they help
you find the locations of attractions and hotels
Other Map Considerations
• compass rose.
The compass rose will remind us of the
directions: north, south, west, and east.
• Hemispheres. Everything north of the equator is the
Northern Hemisphere and everything south is the Southern
Hemisphere. The world is also divided into a Western
Hemisphere and an Eastern Hemisphere.
• Equator- an imaginary line on the Earth's surface equidistant from
the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into the Northern
Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. The sun passes over the
Equator twice each year, at the March and September equinoxes.
• International Date line - The International Date Line (IDL) is an
imaginary line on the surface of the Earth that runs from the north
to the south pole and demarcates one calendar day from the next.
It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following
the 180° longitude but it deviates to pass around some territories
and island groups.
• Prime Meridian - a line of longitude, at which longitude is
defined to be 0°. It divides the Earth into two hemispheres, Eastern
Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere. The Prime Meridian is used
to define Universal Time and is the meridian from which all other
time zones are calculated. Time zones to the east of the Prime
Meridian are in advance of UTC (up to UTC+14); time zones to the
west are behind UTC (to UTC-12).
Elements of Geography
4.Human & Cultural Characteristics
Longitude and Latitude
is a system used to find the location of any place
It is commonly called the Grid System
It is made up of 2 sets of lines that cross each
• Also called Parallels
• Are parallel lines extending
east and west
• Measures points north and
south of the equator
• Base point is the equator
Also called Meridians
Extends north and south
from the poles
Measures east and west
with respect to the Prime
Base point of reference or
Prime Meridian is at
• Every 15 degree change in the meridian, there is a one
(1) hour difference in time
• The time of the initial begins at the Prime Meridian in
• The meridian marking the change of date at 180 degrees
is the International Date Line
• Travelling eastward from one time zone to another,
clocks are advanced I hour in each time zone until
reaching the line of 180 degree longitude where the day
changes to the PRECEDING DAY
• Travelling westward, the opposite occurs and the date
changes to the NEXT DAY
3. Physical Characteristics of a Place
is the name we give to the typical weather
patterns in one place which does not change much. It is the
average, long range weather or sate of the atmosphere of any
Climate is important to tourism:
1. Climate is an attraction
2. Climate affects an individual’s comfort level
Characteristics affecting Climate
1. Latitude and related solar energy
– A place’s climate is controlled by its distance from the
– The sun is at its hottest at the equator, gives little warmth
at the poles
– Places near the equator have warm temperatures all year
round 0-25 degrees (low Latitude)
– Places 30 to 60 degrees north and south of the equator
have distinct summers and winters (Mid-latitude)
– Places 60 degrees and above north and south of the
equator have cooler temperatures all year (High latitude)
2. Land and Water Distribution or Continental Effect
– At the same latitude, air temperatures are warmer
in summer and colder in winter over land because
landmasses heat and cool more rapidly than
bodies of water do
– Bodies of water tend to moderate the air
temperature over nearby land areas, warming
them in winter and cooling them in summer
3. Prevailing Winds
– When air passes over ground warmed by the
sun, it is heated and becomes lighter, it rises
leaving an area with less air pressure – LOW
– Rain, snow or hail
– There is gradual decrease in temperature with
5 Major Climatic Regions
– Lies in the low latitude areas around 0-25
– Warm all year and has no winter
– High temperature and heavy rainfall
A. Tropical Rainforest Climate
- Has rainfall all year
- Equatorial lowlands and along mountainous tropical coasts
- Amazon Basin, South America, parts of South central Africa and
B. Tropical Savannah Climate
- Distinct wet and dry season – dry season is longer
- SE Asian countries, Mexico, Miami, FL, Caribbean Islands
• Also lies in the low latitude areas
• High temperature and little or no
A. Desert or Arid
Very dry areas with almost no rainfall
Hot Desert Climate - Sahara, the Arabian, Syrian and Kalahari
Deserts, large parts of Iran, southern and central
Pakistan, northwest India, the southwestern United
States, Northern Mexico, and much of Australia. These areas are
located between 30 degrees south and 30 north latitude.
Cold Desert Climate - The Gobi desert in Mongolia, The Kyzyl Kum and
Taklamakan deserts of Central Asia and the drier portions of the Great
Basin Desert of the western United States, The Ladakh region, lying in
the Great Himalayas in India also has a cold desert climate.
B. Steppe or Semi arid
- Have greater amounts of vegetation which means it
receives little rain
TROPICAL STEPPE - West Africa, India, parts of
Mexico and small parts of Pakistan , In Australia, a
large portion of the Outback , sections of South
America such as the sertão (the sertão consists
mainly of low uplands that form part of the
COLD SEMI-ARID - commonly found in Asia and North
America, Northern Africa, South Africa, Europe, (primarily in
Spain) sections of South America and sections of interior
southern Australia and New Zealand.
3. Mesothermal Humid
• occupies the mid latitude areas (30-60
• Found in the margins of continents or near
bodies of water
• With distinct seasons
• Relatively no snow during winter
- Lies on west facing coasts at lat 35-40 deg
- Warm dry summers and mild wet winters
- Tel Aviv, Israel, Seville, Spain, Perth,
Western Australia, Portugal ,
San Francisco, United States, Southern
B. Humid Subtropical
• Lies on the east side of continents at lat 25-35 deg
• Winters are short and mild, summer months have
• SE USA, South Japan and Korea, Australia
C. Marine West Coast
40-55 deg lat
Temperatures are moderated by westerly winds
Winters and summers are mild, winter fog is common
NW Europe, Portugal, Pacific Coast of North America
4. Microthermal Humid
Also occupies the middle latitude areas of 35 to 70 degrees
Occupies the centers of large land masses
Cold, snowy winters and warm humid summers
Eurasia and North America
southern Canada, inland and northeastern China, Korea,
northern Japan, most of Russia and Bosnia, parts of Norway,
Sweden, inner parts of Spain and Turkey, parts of north and
north-west of Iran, northern Iraq specifically Iraqi Kurdistan,
Poland, Czech Republic, Austria, some parts of Germany,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine,
Armenia, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland.
A. Hot Summer Continental climates
• Chicago, Illinois, United States , Muş, Turkey , Pyongyang,
B. Warm Summer Continental or Hemiboreal climates
• Helsinki, Finland, Kiev, Ukraine, Fargo, North Dakota, United
States, Buffalo, New York, United States, Montreal, Quebec,
Canada, Vladivostok, Russia
C. Continental Subarctic or Boreal (taiga) climates
• Northwest Territories, Heilongjiang, China
• Occupies the high latitude area 70 degrees
• North Pole (Arctic) is 15 ft thick of ice floating
on the sea
• South Pole (Antarctica) is 8,800 ft thick of ice
over solid rock
-Beyond the Arctic Circle
-Winters are bitterly cold with no true summers
-Ground underneath the surface is Permafrost (permanently frozen) ---These climates occur on the northern edges of the North American
and Eurasian landmasses, and on nearby islands. It also occurs on
some islands near the Antarctic Convergence.
B. Ice Cap
Has no month with temperatures above freezing
Covered by permanent ice and snow
This climate is dominant in Antarctica (e.g., Scott Base) and in inner
Greenland (e.g., Eismitte or North Ice).
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