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Hlt 230   unit 8
 

Hlt 230 unit 8

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TNCC - HLT 230 - Chapter 8 - Energy

TNCC - HLT 230 - Chapter 8 - Energy

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    Hlt 230   unit 8 Hlt 230 unit 8 Presentation Transcript

    • Unit 8 Calories and Energy 1
    • Energy 2  Energy = kilocalories = kcal = Calories  Unit of measure used to express the amount of energy produced by foods in the form of heat Carbohydrates – 4 kcal/g Protein – 4 kcal/g 
    • Energy Metabolism 3
    • What do we need energy for? 4  - - Energy in food fuels body processes Muscular activity Growth Tissue repair and maintenance Chemical processes Body temperature
    • Total Energy Needs 5 Thermic Effect of Food Approx. 10% Physical Activity Basal Metabolism Approx. 30% 60-75%
    • Basal Metabolism 6  - - - Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) the minimum Caloric requirement to sustain life in a resting individual Breathing Heartbeat Body Temperature Growth Organ Functions
    • 7 Estimate Energy Used for Basal Metabolism  Men: - BMR Calories = body weight (lbs) x 11  Women: - BMR Calories = body weight (lbs) x 10  Varies ± 20% - Depending on physical activity, muscle mass, height, health status, genetic traits
    • Factors that Effect BMR 8           Body composition - lean vs. fat tissue Growth Hormones Fever Height Environmental temperature Starvation, fasting, and malnutrition Weight loss from dieting Stress Certain drugs
    • Thermic Effect of Food (Dietary Thermogenesis) 9  Amount of energy required to digest, absorb, and metabolize food  Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) = BMR + Thermic Effect of Food
    • 10 Physical Activity – Voluntary Muscle Movements    Inactive - sitting most of the day - less than 2 hours of moving about slowly or standing Average - sitting most of the day - walking or standing 2-4 hours, no strenuous activity Active - physically active 4 or more hours each day - little standing, some strenuous activities
    • Measuring Caloric Need 11 Indirect Calorimetry  indirect estimate of resting energy expenditure that measures the ratio of CO2 expired to the amount of O2 inspired  gold standard  rarely used in clinical settings due to time and cost
    • Estimating Total Caloric Need 12  Harris-Benedict Equation Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation Ireton-Jones Equation Schofield Equations Toronto Equation  “Rule of Thumb” = 30 kcal/ kg body weight    
    • MyPyramid Caloric Estimates 13
    • Energy in Food 14  Carbohydrates – 4 kcal/g  Protein – 4 kcal/g  Alcohol - 7 kcal/g  Fat – 9 kcal/g
    • Energy in Food 15  Energy-dense foods - provide relatively high levels of Calories  Energy-dense foods tend to be nutrient-poor  Nutrient-rich foods tend to be low in energy  US Diet tends to be high in energy-dense foods
    • Energy Metabolism 16
    • Estimate Calories by Food Groups 17 Food Group Ave. Calories / serving Starch/grains 80 Fruits 60 Milk skim or 1% 2% whole 100 120 160 Nonstarchy Veggies 25 Meat and beans Plant-based protein Lean Medium fat High fat varies 45 75 100 Fat/oils 45 Based on American Diabetes Association Exchange lists
    • Calculating Calories in Food 18  Nutrient grams x calories/gram = calories  Example: 15 g carbohydrate x 4 kcal/g = 60 Calories 10 g protein x 4 kcal/g = 40 Calories 5 g fat x 9 kcal/g = 45 Calories Total = 145 Calories  Most foods are a mixture
    • Estimating Calories in a Recipe 19  Example: Ricotta Cheese Cookies - 2 C sugar 774 x 2 = 1548 - 1 C butter 1628 - 15 oz. Ricotta cheese 560 - 2 tsp. vanilla extract 31 x 2 = 62 - 2 large eggs 72 x 2 = 144 - 3 ½ C flour 3.5 x 455 = 1593 - 2 tbsp. baking powder 0 - 1 tsp. salt 0 5535 / 36 = 154 Calories per Cookie
    • How Is Caloric Intake Regulated? 20  Hunger - Physical and psychological sensations that lead people to acquire and eat food - Causes weakness, stomach pains, irritability  Satiety - Feeling of fullness or of having eaten enough
    • How Is Caloric Intake Regulated? 21  Appetite - The desire to eat - A pleasant sensation aroused by thoughts of taste and enjoyment of food - Can override hunger and satiety mechanisms  Appetite may or may not relate to hunger
    • In vs. Out 22 Intake < TEE Intake = TEE Intake > TEE
    • Weight Change WEIGHT MAINTENANCE 23 WEIGHT GAIN WEIGHT LOSS CARBS PROTEIN BMR IN OUT Dietary Thermogenesis FAT CALORIE INTAKE (WHAT YOU EAT) Physical Activity vs. TOTAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE
    • Tips for increasing activity 24       Find something you enjoy Use the buddy system Spread activity over the entire day if desired Start slowly and gradually increase activity Keep moving / move more Keep an activity log
    • Calorie Requirements Homework 25  Go to http://www.bmrcalculator.org/  Do not get tempted by the pretty flashing advertisements.  Input your information for age, gender, weight, and height.  Discover your Calorie requirements based off of 2 estimating equations