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Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
Hlt 230   unit 25
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Hlt 230 unit 25

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  • 1. Unit 25 Water1
  • 2. Water2  50-65% of total body weight  Survive 6 weeks or longer without food  Survive only days without water (approx. 6 days)  WATER IS ESSENTIAL!
  • 3. Functions of Water3  Provide shape and structure to cells  Regulate body temperature  Aids in digestion and absorption  Transports nutrients and oxygen into cells  Eliminate waste products  INVOLVED IN VIRTUALLY EVERY BODY FUNCTION
  • 4. Water losses4  On average, adults lose approximately 1750 to 3000 mL of water daily  Insensible water losses from the skin and expirations account for approximately ½ of the total water lost  Extreme environmental temperatures, high altitude, low humidity, and strenuous exercise increase insensible losses  Water evaporation from the skin is also increased by prolonged exposure to heated or recirculated air such as during long airplane flights
  • 5. Water and Fluoride5  Water is a major source of fluoride  Fluoride - formation and maintenance of enamel and resistance to tooth decay  Added to 70% of all municipal water supplies in US  Not removed by filters
  • 6. Water losses6  Sensible water losses from urine and feces make up the remaining water loss  Because the body needs to excrete a minimum of 500 mL of urine daily to rid itself of metabolic wastes, the minimum daily total fluid output is approximately 1500 mL
  • 7. Water Intake7  35-55% consumed comes from tap/bottled water  49-63% comes from other beverages  19-25% comes from food
  • 8. Water in Food8  Fruits and vegetables - made up of 70-90% water  Meats - made up of 50-70% water  Most beverages - made up of more than 85% water
  • 9. Foods with High water content9  Lettuce  Watermelon  Broccoli  Carrots  Grapes  Tomatoes  Oranges
  • 10. Bottled vs. Tap Water10  Both are regulated by the FDA  25% of bottled water is actually tap water  “Enhanced” waters are more commercial than nutritional
  • 11. Plastic Bottles and BPA11  Certain types of plastics contain BPA (bisphenol A)  Softening compound that makes plastic flexible  Released when plastic is heated  Similar shape to estrogen  May be linked to increased risk : - reproductive problems - heart disease - diabetes - behavior changes
  • 12. How much do we need?12  Men AI = 3.7 L per day (approx. 15 cups) - 3 L coming from water and beverages  Women AI = 2.7 per day (approx. 11 cups) - 2.2 L coming from water and beverages  8 glasses a day??? - most do not consume this amount - no scientific evidence that increased intake increases health
  • 13. How do we know if we’re getting enough?13  Thirst – poor indicator of hydration status – may be 2-3% dehydrated before you feel it  Urine color – pale yellow – like lemonade
  • 14. Fluids That Don’t Hydrate14  Fluids with >8% carbohydrates can increase dehydration - can also draw water in the stomach, causing fullness and cramping  Alcoholic beverages are not hydrating - diuretic - *Beer is used after some marathons for CHO  In a sodium-depleted person, water is not hydrating
  • 15. Carbohydrate and Sodium Contents15
  • 16. Estimating Fluid Needs During16 Exercise  Sweat rate - Fluid loss per hour of exercise - Sum of body weight loss plus fluid intake  Calculate sweat rate: - Weigh yourself 1 hour before/after workout - Subtract post-workout weight from pre- - 1 pound lost = 16 oz
  • 17. Inadequate Intake of Water17  Dehydration  Impaired mental function  Impaired motor control  Increased HR  Unresolved dehydration can lead to kidney failure and even death
  • 18. Consequences of Dehydration18  Dehydration: - Loss of more than 2% of body weight (2-4 pounds) during an event - Impairs performance - Can lead to heat exhaustion or heat stroke
  • 19. Heat Exhaustion19  Caused by  body H2O & Na due to excessive loss of water through sweat in hot weather  Symptoms: - intense thirst - weakness - paleness - dizziness - nausea - fainting - confusion  Remedy: fluids w/ electrolytes & rest in a cool place
  • 20. Heat Stroke20  Requires emergency  Body temp. > 105° F medical care - breakdown of  Characterized by: mechanisms that regulate - hot, dry skin body temp. - labored, rapid breathing - rapid pulse  AKA sunstroke - nausea - blurred vision  Caused by prolonged - irrational behavior exposure to environ. heat - coma or strenuous activity
  • 21. Signs of Dehydration21  Thirst  Lightheadedness or fatigue  Headache or inability to concentrate  Feeling cold or chills in hot weather  Collapse due to heat exhaustion or heat stroke  Producing small amounts of dark-colored urine
  • 22. Hyponatremia and Athletes22  Hyponatremia - Low blood sodium - Life-threatening condition in marathon runners - Caused by consuming large amounts of water without sodium during an endurance event - Causes difficulty breathing, bloating, confusion, nausea, vomiting, swelling around brain
  • 23. Water Intoxication23  Too much water – hyponatremia – dilute constituents in blood - causes imbalances of water and electrolytes – rare  Symptoms: - confusion - headache - vomiting - seizure - coma - death
  • 24. Water Intoxication24  Can lead to death  Jennifer Strange “Hold your wee for a wii” Drank 2 gallons of water Died 6 hours later Video  Radio station was held accountable for her death

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