Health problems associated with aging

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Health problems associated with aging

  1. 1. Health Problems with Aging1
  2. 2. Cataracts and Macular Degeneration2  Cataracts: clouding of lenses of eyes, impairs vision, can lead to blindness  Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD): loss of central vision or blindness related to deterioration of macular area of eye
  3. 3. Nutrition for Cataracts and AMD3  Oxidants can damage the eye - pollution, smoking, sunlight  Antioxidants may protect against oxidative damage - Vitamins - C, E, and beta-carotene - Phytochemicals - lutein and zeaxanthin
  4. 4. Arthritis4  Most common form – Osteoarthritis - joint degeneration, chronic pain, muscle atrophy, impaired mobility, poor balance - affects 58-68% age 65+  Leading cause of functional limitation in older adults  Risk factors - excess body weight, genetics, age, ethnicity, gender, exercise, trauma, bone density
  5. 5. Nutrition for Osteoarthritis5  Control pain, improve function, reduce physical limitations  Glucosamine and chondroitin? - together – probably won’t work - if it works for you, do not discontinue (placebo effect)
  6. 6. Osteoporosis and Osteopenia6  Decrease in bone mass due to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and bone matrix  Increase risk for bone fracture risk  Almost 44 million Americans over the age of 50 have either osteoporosis or osteopenia
  7. 7. Osteoporosis and Osteopenia7 Common areas for bone loss Hip (femur) Wrist Ankle Lumbar Spine
  8. 8. Bone Fracture8  Usually occur at the hip  Only 15% able to return to unassisted ambulation within 6 months  Approx. 25% of hip- fracture patients will die within 1 year
  9. 9. Bone Loss and Aging9  Manifests in older adults, process begins earlier in life Peak Bone Mass
  10. 10. Nutrition for Bone Loss and Fractures10  NO CURE  Modifiable factors: - Diet - Exercise (weight bearing exercise and ambulation)
  11. 11. Nutrition for Bone Loss and Fractures11  Calcium  Vitamin D  Vitamin K  Magnesium  Antioxidants  Phytoestrogens
  12. 12. Sarcopenia12  Loss of muscle mass with aging  Results in loss of strength  May affect up to half of people over 80 and 1/3 over 60  Slow or reverse with - strength training - optimal diet and protein
  13. 13. Alzheimer Disease13  Most common form of dementia in US – affects 4.5 million  Unknown cause, unknown cure
  14. 14. Alzheimer Disease14  Memory and judgment impaired - shopping, storing, and cooking food difficult - may forget to eat or forget they have eaten  Changes in taste and smell - may prefer sweet and salty foods  Agitation increases energy expenditure - weight loss is common  Difficulty chewing/forget to chew - choking - nutritional support if self-feeding ability is lost
  15. 15. Obesity15  Exacerbates age-related decline in physical function  Treatment is controversial - high BMI may help older adults to withstand the metabolic demands of illness  To improve physical function - 500 kcal per day reduction - adequate vitamins/minerals – may need supp. - exercise

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