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Health problems associated with aging

Health problems associated with aging






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    Health problems associated with aging Health problems associated with aging Presentation Transcript

    • Health Problems with Aging1
    • Cataracts and Macular Degeneration2  Cataracts: clouding of lenses of eyes, impairs vision, can lead to blindness  Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD): loss of central vision or blindness related to deterioration of macular area of eye
    • Nutrition for Cataracts and AMD3  Oxidants can damage the eye - pollution, smoking, sunlight  Antioxidants may protect against oxidative damage - Vitamins - C, E, and beta-carotene - Phytochemicals - lutein and zeaxanthin
    • Arthritis4  Most common form – Osteoarthritis - joint degeneration, chronic pain, muscle atrophy, impaired mobility, poor balance - affects 58-68% age 65+  Leading cause of functional limitation in older adults  Risk factors - excess body weight, genetics, age, ethnicity, gender, exercise, trauma, bone density
    • Nutrition for Osteoarthritis5  Control pain, improve function, reduce physical limitations  Glucosamine and chondroitin? - together – probably won’t work - if it works for you, do not discontinue (placebo effect)
    • Osteoporosis and Osteopenia6  Decrease in bone mass due to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and bone matrix  Increase risk for bone fracture risk  Almost 44 million Americans over the age of 50 have either osteoporosis or osteopenia
    • Osteoporosis and Osteopenia7 Common areas for bone loss Hip (femur) Wrist Ankle Lumbar Spine
    • Bone Fracture8  Usually occur at the hip  Only 15% able to return to unassisted ambulation within 6 months  Approx. 25% of hip- fracture patients will die within 1 year
    • Bone Loss and Aging9  Manifests in older adults, process begins earlier in life Peak Bone Mass
    • Nutrition for Bone Loss and Fractures10  NO CURE  Modifiable factors: - Diet - Exercise (weight bearing exercise and ambulation)
    • Nutrition for Bone Loss and Fractures11  Calcium  Vitamin D  Vitamin K  Magnesium  Antioxidants  Phytoestrogens
    • Sarcopenia12  Loss of muscle mass with aging  Results in loss of strength  May affect up to half of people over 80 and 1/3 over 60  Slow or reverse with - strength training - optimal diet and protein
    • Alzheimer Disease13  Most common form of dementia in US – affects 4.5 million  Unknown cause, unknown cure
    • Alzheimer Disease14  Memory and judgment impaired - shopping, storing, and cooking food difficult - may forget to eat or forget they have eaten  Changes in taste and smell - may prefer sweet and salty foods  Agitation increases energy expenditure - weight loss is common  Difficulty chewing/forget to chew - choking - nutritional support if self-feeding ability is lost
    • Obesity15  Exacerbates age-related decline in physical function  Treatment is controversial - high BMI may help older adults to withstand the metabolic demands of illness  To improve physical function - 500 kcal per day reduction - adequate vitamins/minerals – may need supp. - exercise