Gramatica ii stephan prepositions and conjunctions new15052011

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  • Why present specialized literature if i plan to ignore it anyway? This needs to be a more hands-on approach to the topics Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Prof. Stephan Hughes
  • Prof. Stephan Hughes Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Prof. Stephan Hughes Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
  • Gramatica ii stephan prepositions and conjunctions new15052011

    1. 1. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Prepositions and Conjunctions Prof. Stephan Hughes
    2. 2. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Preposition Adverb Particle Between x Among when we are talking about three elements – the difference between an adverb, a preposition, and a particle? What is a conjunction? A conjoin? A coordinator? A subordinator?
    3. 3. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II What is a preposition? What is a simple preposition? What is a complex preposition? What is the best way to teach prepositions? And what about the best way to translate them? What approach should I adopt when dealing with prepositions? How can they presented in a very practical manner?
    4. 4. <ul><li>Initial definition and categorization of prepositions </li></ul><ul><li>How prepositions are presented in teaching materials </li></ul><ul><li>A semantic description of the preposition </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical or Grammatical morpheme? </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    5. 5. <ul><li>Conjunctions as lexical morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>Linkers, linking words, connectors </li></ul><ul><li>Units of cohesion and coherence – sentence, paragraph and text level </li></ul><ul><li>Related processes: ellipsis, empty infinitives </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    6. 6. Some prepositions Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II About Behind Concerning Like To Above Below Despite Near Toward Across Beneath Down Of Under After Beside During Off Underneath Against Besides Except On Until Along Between For Over Unto Among Beyond From Past Up Around But (except) In Since Upon At Inside Through With Within
    7. 7. Prepositions - form and types <ul><li>Simple - one-word elements </li></ul><ul><li>in, on, at, above, below, over, under, around, through, before, after, to, from, about, by, with, without, between, among, inside, outside, near, underneath </li></ul>
    8. 8. Prepositions - form and types <ul><li>Complex - two or more word combinations </li></ul><ul><li>SP + Noun + SP </li></ul><ul><li>SP = Simple Preposition </li></ul>
    9. 9.        &quot;Our deeds are like children that are born to us; they live and act  apart from  our own will. Nay, children may be strangled, but deeds never: they have an indestructible life both in and  out of  our consciousness.&quot; (George Elliot)        &quot;Thank God men cannot as yet fly and lay waste the sky  as well as  the earth!&quot; (Henry David Thoreau)
    10. 10. &quot;The people can always be brought to the bidding of their leaders. All you have to do is tell them they are in danger of being attacked and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger.&quot; (Herman Goering) &quot; Thanks to the Interstate Highway System, it is possible to travel from coast to coast without seeing anything.&quot; (Charles Kuralt)
    11. 11.   &quot;To see what is  in front of  one's nose needs a constant struggle&quot;. George Orwell)          &quot; In addition to  my other numerous acquaintances, I have one more intimate confidant. My depression is the most faithful mistress I have known. No wonder, then, that I return the love.&quot; (Soren Kierkegaard)
    12. 12. Prepositions (Bordet and Jamet, 2010) <ul><li>Discursive element –semantic value </li></ul><ul><li>Unit of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Void of syntactic function </li></ul><ul><li>Primitive semantic unit </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    13. 13. Prepositions (Bordet and Jamet, 2010) <ul><li>Functional element – syntactic value </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical sign </li></ul><ul><li>Void of semantic autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Primal grammaticalized unit </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    14. 14. What is said about them <ul><li>Connect a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectivize and adverbialize a word: one of the boys, enter through the window </li></ul><ul><li>Are spatially or figuratively derived from physical notions of space </li></ul><ul><li>Act as other parts of speech , i.e. noun or verb: down the sandwich with a glass of milk </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    15. 15. What is said about them 2 <ul><li>Prepositions and conjunctions are grammatical signs, so they are indicators of the grammatical, supralexical meanings of the words in the structure in which they appear. “ (Zugun, 2003) </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    16. 16. Prepositions in teaching materials <ul><li>Grouped semantically – e.g. prepositions of time, place etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Presented literally and graphically </li></ul><ul><li>Transferred and figurative meanings are often classified as fixed expressions </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    17. 17. What can be inferred <ul><li>Prepositions tend to “extract” meaning from the nouns, verbs, or adjetives or adverbs that accompany them. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    18. 18. Just one case of “away” <ul><li>The problems won’t go away by themselves. You have to do something about them. </li></ul><ul><li>If only we could just wish our problems away . </li></ul><ul><li>I feel as if I have washed my fears away after that yoga session. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people believe they can will the troubles away with positive thinking. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    19. 19. How prepositions are highlighted <ul><li>Defined morphologically, not syntactically </li></ul><ul><li>Presented by type: from most common to most complex </li></ul><ul><li>Assumed as having meaning, even when temporal or physical information is provided </li></ul><ul><li>Categorized within a larger umbrella group known as particles </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    20. 20. Setbacks <ul><li>Unclear boundaries between simple and complex; weak and strong, grammatical and lexical (call for a continuum) </li></ul><ul><li>Dual identity: prepositions » adverbs, e.g. out, about, like, after, up. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar and discourse dependency </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    21. 21. Why treat them as semantic units? <ul><li>Translatability, e.g. I’m in! </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and indirect equivalence, e.g. Are we on for tonight? </li></ul><ul><li>Teachability, e.g. He was up and about soon after the surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasal verbs, e.g. I whip my hair back and forth </li></ul><ul><li>Idiomatic nature e.g. I’m into you, I’m on the case </li></ul><ul><li>Lexicalizing nature e.g. The car rounded the corner at breakneck speed. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    22. 22. The basis of translation <ul><li>Translation means finding an equivalence between “two sound complexes based on their common link with the same notion”. (Copcaeg, 1998) </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    23. 23. The basis of translation <ul><li>Instead of units of meaning, we could refer to units of notion or concepts . The latter is universal and less subjective than the former. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    24. 24. <ul><li>Teaching prepositions calls for a presentation of concepts or notion, e.g. notions of space, time, manner and place and an analysis of how the speakers of that given language see these concepts. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    25. 25. <ul><li>Mastering prepositions seem to be an eternal thorn in language learners’ sides and thus a source of frustration for the learner in question. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    26. 26. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Lexical derivant Grammatical morpheme No intermediate or transitory stage
    27. 27. Grammaticalization (Kurylowicz, 1965) <ul><li>Affixes gain full-fledged status </li></ul><ul><li>Syntactic litmus test: the more prepositional, the more grammatical </li></ul><ul><li>closed class = advanced grammaticalization = desemanticization </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositions/adverbs fluctuate from lexical to grammatical and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of compositional meaning – separate elements, one meanining </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    28. 28. Would a process called re-semanticization take place when grammaticalized items assume new meanings, sometimes even redundant ? BETWEEN: BY- + TWEONUM (two people) Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    29. 29. How can we tell? <ul><li>Like phrasal verbs, grammaticalized prepositions can be separated whereas lexicalized ones cannot </li></ul><ul><li>The longer the preposition, the lesser the grammaticalization: compare instead of with yet </li></ul><ul><li>unstressed words due to phonological attrition or erosion, e.g. OF </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    30. 30. <ul><li>Lexicalization and Grammaticalization of prepositions are cyclical processes. As such, prepositions alternate between the two categories over time </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    31. 31. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II On the one hand, prepositions are dependent _ or _ relation _ semantic continuity _ the lexical content _ the term they accompany, and _ the other hand _ the syntactic function they have Grammaticalized or lexicalized ?
    32. 32. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II On the one hand, prepositions are dependent on or in relation of semantic continuity with the lexical content of the term they accompany, and on the other hand, with the syntactic function they have
    33. 33. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Linking devices Conjunctions Adverbs Relative pronouns Infinitives Auxiliaries Participles Discourse markers
    34. 34. Same sentence <ul><li>She used to call me “Tiny” although I was as tall as she was. </li></ul><ul><li>Three more nuclear stations were built despite/in spite of widespread opposition </li></ul><ul><li>Even though I have a degree in Business Administration, I can’t fill out a tax form. </li></ul><ul><li>Much as she loved her son, she could not accept his choice of career. </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors’ salaries have risen considerably whereas/while nurses’ pay have dropped. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    35. 35. Two sentences or clauses <ul><li>Car crashes have become rare; even so , there should be stricter safety regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Prices have been rising. It is unlikely, however , that this increase is going to continue for long. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a grueling competition. Nevertheless , thousands of runners take part every year. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban expansion would be a good thing. On the other hand , it would be sad to lose the countryside atmosphere. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    36. 36. Conjunctions <ul><li>Syntactic (grammatical) elements used to link ideas in a particular so as to portray contrast, coordination, explanation, concession etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements that link ideas beyond the scope of the noun or prepositional phrase, i.e. sentence, paragraph and whole text </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    37. 37. Coordinators <ul><ul><li>Linking of elements of same syntactic status (nouns, adverbials, adjectives) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paul  and  David   </li></ul><ul><li>cold  and  wet   </li></ul><ul><li>tired  but  happy   </li></ul><ul><li>slowly  but  surely   </li></ul><ul><li>tea  or  coffee   </li></ul><ul><li>hot  or  cold </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    38. 38. Coordinators <ul><ul><li>This also applies to longer units  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We can eat now or wait till later </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>I love tennis but (I) don't play well </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    39. 39. Subordinators <ul><ul><li>Linking of unequal syntactic status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I left early because I had an interview early the next day. </li></ul><ul><li>We visited Madame Tussaud while we were in London </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    40. 40. Most common subordinators <ul><ul><li>Because </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Till </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whereas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether </li></ul></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    41. 41. Coordinators  <ul><ul><li>Must appear between the elements coordinated: Paul plays football and David plays chess </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can have the order of the coordinated elements reversed, without changing meaning: David plays chess and Paul plays football </li></ul></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    42. 42. Subordinators  <ul><ul><li>Do not need to occur between the connected items: Because I had an interview the next day, I left early. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When there is a change of order in the connected items, there is either a change in meaning or a dubious sentence: I had an interview the next day, because I left early.  </li></ul></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    43. 43. Questions to consider <ul><li>Does animacy affect word order in conjunctions? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any restrictions to relativization in English? </li></ul><ul><li>Are particles/discourse markers a lexical class? (Zwicky, 1985) If so, why the two together? </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    44. 44. Missing words <ul><ul><li>You make me want to say I do. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She told me to tidy up but I already had. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They won the match although I never thought they would. </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition <ul><li>Short answers : Should I revise for the test? I think you should </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : “I thought the film was wonderful.” “I didn’t.” </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent responses : “I wish you’d lock the door when you come in.” “But I did!” </li></ul><ul><li>With more than one auxiliary : “He could have been lying.” “Yes, he could/he could have been.” </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    46. 46. Reduced infinitives <ul><li>To give continuity to thoughts expressed , e.g. “Haven’t you done the washing-up?” “No, I’m just about to.” </li></ul><ul><li>To respond politely , e.g. “Are you coming for a walk?” “No, I dont want to, thanks.” </li></ul><ul><li>To comment : She’s less moody that she used to be. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    47. 47. Reduced infinitives <ul><ul><li>My mother can't read. She just never learnt to. (She just never learnt how)  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I know I should not have offended you. I didn't mean to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At first he refused to help, but eventually they got him to.  </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Adverbs <ul><ul><li>Despite not being well-off, he gives quite handsomely to charities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I admire him as a lecturer, though I find him a difficult person to get along with as a colleague. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He left school without any qualifications. Nevertheless , he is now one of the wealthiest men in the country.   </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Participles/Relative pronouns/Reduced clauses <ul><ul><li>I don't believe a word they say, given they never tell the truth.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Booking a flight in advance is always a better deal.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The women hurt in the accident are said to still be in critical condition at the emergency ward.    </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Adverbs vs Particles/Discourse markers <ul><li>A dverbs can modify the entire sentence, e.g. Sadly, the starting time had to pushed back. </li></ul><ul><li>Particles refer to the whole sentence as logical arguments, e.g Not knowing what to do, I didecided to wait </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse markers can be created from adverbs and adverbials, e.g. Quite honestly, you need a better job. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    51. 51. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Comment Linking The point in tme Comment Place Indefinite time Comment Adverb position
    52. 52. Sensibly <ul><li>He (A) discussed the design with her (B). </li></ul><ul><li>A – It was wise B – In a sensible way </li></ul>
    53. 53. Honestly <ul><li>(B)I don’t think the mayor is capable of answering the questions (A). (honestly) </li></ul><ul><li>A – In a honest way B – I’m telling the truth </li></ul>
    54. 54. Obviously <ul><li>He (B) realized she wasn’t (A) well. </li></ul><ul><li>A- Of course she wasn’t B- Of course he did </li></ul>
    55. 55. Kindly <ul><li>The pilots (B) agreed to speak to the journalists (A). </li></ul><ul><li>A – In a kind way B – it was kind of them </li></ul>
    56. 56. Discourse markers <ul><li>What is being said and what was said </li></ul><ul><li>What is being said and what is going to be said </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker’s attitude and what he/she is saying </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker’s attitude and what was said </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    57. 57. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Meanings portrayed <ul><ul><li>Introduction : To begin with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference : With reference to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change of subject : By the way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement : As a matter of fact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis : Mainly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause : Since </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result , consequence : That's why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inference , conclusion : Therefore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose : In order to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future projection : From now on </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Meanings portrayed <ul><ul><li>Agreement : According to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searching the recent past : So far </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Momentary situations: For now </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simultaneity:  In the meantime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining circumstances : In the midst of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalizing : As a rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coincidental events : Whenever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time relationship: As time goes by </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    59. 59. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Meanings portrayed <ul><ul><li>Addressing : To whom it may concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak forms : So far </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusion: As for me  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position definers :  From the standpoint of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assurance: Of course  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equivalence : By the same token </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condition: As long as   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast : Whereas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reiterating : In other words </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II Meanings portrayed <ul><ul><li>Giving examples : For instance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figurative: if you will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternation: In his turn   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last solution: As a last resort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition: Not only... but also </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dismissal : By the same token </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reminder: Whereas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reiterating : (Otherwise) In other words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence : As a result </li></ul></ul>
    61. 61. Discourse Markers - what does each mean? <ul><ul><li>Basically , the country is spending too much money.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You might think I'm crazy when I say something like that but actually , I'm not.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apparently , there are a lot of new openings in the hotel business.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surely you understand what I mean when I say this?  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    62. 62. Discourse Markers <ul><ul><li>Basically , the country is spending too much money. (That's the most important point) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You might think I'm crazy when I say something like that but actually , I'm not. (I'm contradicting you gently) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apparently , there are a lot of new openings in the hotel business. (I've heard this, but don't know if it's true)   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surely you understand what I mean when I say this? (I don't know why you don't see things my way) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    63. 63. Some other discourse Markers <ul><ul><li>Admittedly = I know this weakens my point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After all = You have to admit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a matter of fact = This might come as a surprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind you/Still = This is something you should consider/I know this may contradict what I said earlier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I mean = What I'm trying to say is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obviously  = The fact cannot be denied </li></ul></ul>
    64. 64. Some other discourse Markers <ul><ul><li>At least = I'm rectifying what I said </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturally = This is what I would expect (to happen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anyway = Concluding the topic/Moving on to another topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All in all = I'm considering all the angles in the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So to speak = I'm speaking in a figurative manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the way = This isn't connected to what I was just talking/The topic reminds me of another one </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    65. 65. Similar in meaning* <ul><ul><li>Admittedly  = Mind you/Still </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naturally = Obviously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All in all = After all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the way = As a matter of fact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>(* with some restrictions, depending on the context)  </li></ul>
    66. 66. Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition <ul><li>Short answers : Should I revise for the test? I think you should </li></ul><ul><li>Comments : “I thought the film was wonderful.” “I didn’t.” </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequent responses : “I wish you’d lock the door when you come in.” “But I did!” </li></ul><ul><li>With more than one auxiliary : “He could have been lying.” “Yes, he could/he could have been.” </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    67. 67. Reduced infinitives <ul><li>To give continuity to thoughts expressed , e.g. “Haven’t you done the washing-up?” “No, I’m just about to.” </li></ul><ul><li>To respond politely , e.g. “Are you coming for a walk?” “No, I dont want to, thanks.” </li></ul><ul><li>To comment : She’s less moody that she used to be. </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II
    68. 68. Some useful resources <ul><li>Cassell's Students' English Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Murphy's English Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Practical English Usage </li></ul><ul><li>A Student's Grammar of the English Language </li></ul>Ensino de Língua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramática II

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