Israel Among the Nations. The Bible in Context WESLEYAN LIVE, Fall 2012 Tuesdays, Noon – 1:00 p. m. 9, 16, 23, 30 October and 6, 13 November with Professor David B. Peabody E-mail Questions/Comments to:Mel Luetchens: mluetche@NebrWesleyan.edu
Israels Next Door Neighbors (8th Century BCE)
What is "The Holy Land"?
Davids Kingdom at Its Height 10th Century BCE
Map of Assyrian Empire 9th – 7th Century BCE
Alexanders Empire ca. 325 BCE
Eastern Hemisphere , ca. 100 CE
Cuneiform (Wedge Shaped) Tablet
From Gilgamesh Epic – Tablet 11 24 Man of Surippak, son if Ubara-Tutu! 25 Tear down (your) house, build a ship! (Genesis 6:14) 26 Abandon (your) possessions, seek (to save) life! 27 Disregard (your) goods, and save (your) life! 28 [Cause to] go up into the ship the seed of all living creatures. (Genesis 6:19-20) 29 The ship which you shall build, 30 Its measurements shall be (accurately) measured; 31 Its width and its length shall be equal. (Genesis 6:15)
Michelangelos Vision of the Ark – Sistine Chapel, Vatican City
Multiple Cuneiform Documents at Ankara, Turkey
Cylinders and Their Images
Mesopotamian Gods on Cylinder Seal Sky God, Earth God, River God
Votive Statue of GudeaRuler of Lagash, ca. 2144-2124 BCE Note the flowing waters of the Tigris and the Euphrates coming out of the offering flask.
From Series Dealing with a Lion Huntfrom Friezes in Palace at Nimrud, Assyria
Wounded Lion Retaliates
A Dying Lion
From Lion Hunting to Vicious MilitaryActivity. Assyrians Lay Siege to City
Assyrians Attack with Siege Engine From Nimrud Palace
Mer-Ne-Ptah SteleNow Housed in Cairo Museum Discovered in Thebes, Egypt by Flinders Petrie in 1896. Contains the first probable extra-Biblical testimony to the people of Israel.
The Mer-Ne-Ptah (Egyptian Pharaoh, 1213-1203 BCE) or "Israel" Stele Translation of the Closing lines from the Stele:The princes lie prostrate, saying, "Salaam!"Not one lifts his head among the Nine Bows.Destruction for the Tehenu! Hatti is pacified.Canaan is plundered with every evil;Ashkelon is taken; Gezer is captured;Israel (I-si-ri-ar) lies desolate; its seed is no more;Hurru has become a widow for To-meri;All the lands in their entirety are at peace.Everyone who was restless, he has been bound by the King of Upperand Lower Egypt; Ba-En-Re, Meri-Amon, the son of Re, Mer-Ne-Ptah. Hotep-hir-Maat, given life like Re every day.
Mummy and Shabti/OsiridImage of/for Mer-Ne-Ptah
Divided Kingdoms ofIsrael and Judah (931-721 BCE) Lachish
Hebrew Exiles from Lachish
Josh. 10:23 They did so, and brought the five kings out to him fromthe cave, the king of Jerusalem, the king of Hebron, the king ofJarmuth, the king of Lachish, and the king of Eglon.Josh. 10:31 ¶ Next Joshua passed on from Libnah, and all Israelwith him, to Lachish, and laid siege to it, and assaulted it.Josh. 10:32 The LORD gave Lachishinto the hand of Israel, and hetook it on the second day, and struck it with the edge of the sword,and every person in it, as he had done to Libnah.Josh. 10:33 ¶ Then King Horam of Gezer came up to help Lachish;and Joshua struck him and his people, leaving him no survivors.Josh. 10:34 ¶ From LachishJoshua passed on with all Israel toEglon; and they laid siege to it, and assaulted it;Josh. 10:35 and they took it that day, and struck it with the edge ofthe sword; and every person in it he utterly destroyed that day, ashe had done to Lachish.Josh. 12:11 ¶ the king of Jarmuth one ¶ the king of LachishoneJosh. 15:39Lachish, Bozkath, Eglon,
Assyrians Impale the Dead Israelites of Lachish
2Kings 14:19 They made a conspiracy against him in Jerusalem, and he fled to Lachish. But they sent after him to Lachish, and killed him there. 2Kings 18:14 King Hezekiah of Judah sent to the king of Assyria at Lachish, saying, ―I have done wrong; withdraw from me; whatever you impose on me I will bear.‖ The king of Assyria demanded of King Hezekiah of Judah three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold. 2Kings 18:17 The king of Assyria sent the Tartan, the Rab-saris, and the Rabshakeh with a great army from Lachishto King Hezekiah at Jerusalem. They went up and came to Jerusalem. When they arrived, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which is on the highway to the Fuller‘s Field. 2Kings 19:8 ¶ The Rabshakeh returned, and found the king of Assyria fighting against Libnah; for he had heard that the king had left Lachish. 2Chr. 11:9 Adoraim, Lachish, Azekah, 2Chr. 25:27 From the time that Amaziah turned away from the LORD they made a conspiracy against him in Jerusalem, and he fled to Lachish. But they sent after him to Lachish, and killed him there.
After Taking Lachish, Assyrians Flay Hebrews Alive
2Chr. 32:9 ¶ After this, while King Sennacherib of Assyria was atLachishwith all his forces, he sent his servants to Jerusalem to KingHezekiah of Judah and to all the people of Judah that were inJerusalem, saying, Neh. 11:30 Zanoah, Adullam, and their villages, Lachishand itsfields, and Azekah and its villages. So they camped from Beer-sheba to the valley of Hinnom. Is. 36:2 The king of Assyria sent the Rabshakeh from LachishtoKing Hezekiah at Jerusalem, with a great army. He stood by theconduit of the upper pool on the highway to the Fuller‘s Field. Is. 37:8 ¶ The Rabshakeh returned, and found the king ofAssyria fighting against Libnah; for he had heard that the king hadleft Lachish. Jer. 34:7 when the army of the king of Babylon was fightingagainst Jerusalem and against all the cities of Judah that were left,Lachishand Azekah; for these were the only fortified cities of Judahthat remained. Mic. 1:13 Harness the steeds to the chariots, inhabitants ofLachish;
An Original Black Stela of Shalmaneser III, with Other Stelae in the British Museum, London
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, King of Assyria, 858-824 BCE Second Panel from Top Israelite King Jehu (841-814 BCE) DoesObeisance to King Shalmaneser III of Assyria Contains the Oldest Graphic Reference and one of the oldest references to the ancient Hebrews among the Artifacts of Other Ancient Cultures; also the earliest ,known reference to the Persian people.
Israelite King Jehu Does Obeisance toShalmaneser III of Assyria, 858-824 BCE
Note the Presence of a Symbol of an Assyrian God Above
Part of Text from Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser, Face B, Lines 97-99 In the eighteenth year of my rule I crossed the Euphrates for the sixteenth time. Hazael of Damascus put his trust upon his numerous army and called up his troops in great number, making the mountain Senir, a mountain, facing the Lebanon, to his fortress. I fought with him and inflicted a defeat upon him, killing with the sword 16,000 of his experienced soldiers. I took away from him 1,121 chariots, 470 riding horses as well as his camp. He disappeared to save his life (but) I followed him and besieged him in Damascus, his royal residence. (There) I cut down his gardens (outside of the city, and departed). I marched as far as the mountains of Hauran, destroying, tearing down and burning innumerable towns, carrying booty away from them which was beyond counting.
Shalmaneser V in the Catholic Bible2Kings 17:3 King Shalmaneser of Assyria came up against him; Hoshea becamehis vassal, and paid him tribute.2Kings 18:9 ¶ In the fourth year of King Hezekiah, which was the seventh year ofKing Hoshea son of Elah of Israel, King Shalmaneser of Assyria came up againstSamaria, besieged it,Tob. 1:2 who in the days of King Shalmaneser of the Assyrians was taken intocaptivity from Thisbe, which is to the south of Kedesh Naphtali in Upper Galilee,above Asher toward the west, and north of Phogor.Tob. 1:13 the Most High gave me favor and good standing with Shalmaneser, and Iused to buy everything he needed.Tob. 1:15 But when Shalmaneser died, and his son Sennacherib reigned in hisplace, the highways into Media became unsafe and I could no longer go there.Tob. 1:16 ¶ In the days of Shalmaneser I performed many acts of charity to mykindred, those of my tribe.2Esdr. 13:40 these are the nine tribes that were taken away from their own land intoexile in the days of King Hoshea, whom Shalmaneser, king of the Assyrians, madecaptives; he took them across the river, and they were taken into another land.
Jehu (King of Israel, 842-814 BCE),"Of the House of Omri," (King of Israel, 885-874 BCE) According to This Inscription I (also) marched as far as the mountains of Balirasi which is a promontory (lit: at the side of the sea) and erected there a stela with my image as king. At that time, I received the tribute of the inhabitants of Tyre, Sidon, and of Jehu, of the house of Omri. Translation, lightly edited, from James A. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, Third Edition with Supplement (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969, Third Printing, 1974): 280. Translation by D. D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, 1 (Chicago, 1926). ¶ 578.
Note the Similar Symbol Related to Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrian Religion on Tomb of the Persian King Darius I (Ruled 550-486 BCE)
Tomb of Cyrus of Persia (ca. 590-530 BCE)
Is. 44:24 ¶ Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, who formed you in the womb: I am the LORD, who made all things, who alone stretched out the heavens, who by myself spread out the earth;Is. 44:25 who frustrates the omens of liars, and makes fools of diviners; who turns back the wise, and makes their knowledge foolish;Is. 44:26 who confirms the word of his servant, and fulfills the prediction of his messengers; who says of Jerusalem, ―It shall be inhabited,‖ and of the cities of Judah, ―They shall be rebuilt, and I will raise up their ruins‖;Is. 44:27 who says to the deep, ―Be dry— I will dry up your rivers‖;
Is. 44:28 who says of Cyrus, ―He is my shepherd, and he shall carry out all my purpose‖; and who says of Jerusalem, ―It shall be rebuilt,‖ and of the temple, ―Your foundation shall be laid.‖ Is. 45:1 ¶ Thus says the LORD to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have grasped to subdue nations before him and strip kings of their robes, to open doors before him— and the gates shall not be closed: Is. 45:2 I will go before you and level the mountains, I will break in pieces the doors of bronze and cut through the bars of iron, Is. 45:3 I will give you the treasures of darkness and riches hidden in secret places, so that you may know that it is I, the LORD, the God of Israel, who call you by your name. Is. 45:4 For the sake of my servant Jacob, and Israel my chosen, I call you by your name, I surname you, though you do not know me.
Sargon II (Assyrian King, 722-705 BCE) in theIsa. 20:1 In the year that the Bible commander-in-chief, who was sent byKing Sargon of Assyria, came to Ashdod and fought against it andtook it ---Isa 20:2 at that time the Lord had spoken to Isaiah, son of Amoz,saying, "Go, and loose the sackcloth from your loins and take yoursandals off your feet," and he had done so, walking naked andbarefoot.Isa 20:3 Then the Lord said, "Just as my servant, Isaiah, has walkednaked and barefoot for three years as a sign and a portent againstEgypt and Ethiopia,Isa 20:4 so shall the king of Assyria lead away Egyptians as captivesand the Ethiopians as exiles, both the young and the old, naked andbarefoot, with buttocks uncovered, to the shame of Egypt.Isa 20:5 And they shall be dismayed and confounded because ofEthiopia their hope and of Egypt their boast.Isa 20:6 In that day the inhabitants of this coastland will say, "See,this is what has happened to those in whom we hoped and to whomwe fled for help and deliverance from the King of Assyria! And we,how shall we escape?
Tiglath-Pileser III, From Nimrud Palace, ca.728 BCE, Now in British Museum Assyrian King Ruled 745-727 BCE
Tiglath-Pileser in the Bible2Kings 15:29 ¶ In the days of King Pekah of Israel, KingTiglath-pileserof Assyria came and captured Ijon, Abel-beth-maacah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, and Galilee, all theland of Naphtali; and he carried the people captive to Assyria.2Kings 16:7 Ahaz sent messengers to King Tiglath-pileser ofAssyria, saying, ―I am your servant and your son. Come up,and rescue me from the hand of the king of Aram and from thehand of the king of Israel, who are attacking me.‖2Kings 16:10 ¶ When King Ahaz went to Damascus to meetKing Tiglath-pileser of Assyria, he saw the altar that was atDamascus. King Ahaz sent to the priest Uriah a model of thealtar, and its pattern, exact in all its details.
Prince Sennacherib (left)Before King Sargon II (right) Sargon II Assyrian King, 722-705 BCE (See Isa 20:1-6)
Sargon II in Isaiah 20:1-6Is. 20:1 ¶ In the year that the commander-in-chief, who was sent by KingSargon of Assyria, came to Ashdod and fought against it and took it—Is. 20:2 at that time the LORD had spoken to Isaiah son of Amoz,saying, ―Go, and loose the sackcloth from your loins and take yoursandals off your feet,‖ and he had done so, walking naked and barefoot.Is. 20:3 Then the LORD said, ―Just as my servant Isaiah has walkednaked and barefoot for three years as a sign and a portent against Egyptand Ethiopia,Is. 20:4 so shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians as captivesand the Ethiopians as exiles, both the young and the old, naked andbarefoot, with buttocks uncovered, to the shame of Egypt.Is. 20:5 And they shall be dismayed and confounded because ofEthiopia their hope and of Egypt their boast.Is. 20:6 In that day the inhabitants of this coastland will say, ‗See, this iswhat has happened to those in whom we hoped and to whom we fled forhelp and deliverance from the king of Assyria! And we, how shall weescape?‘‖
Prince Sennacherib(Part of Previous Frieze in Louvre, Paris
Esarhaddon(Assyrian King, 681-669 BCE) Defeated Peoples, Depicted as Diminutives at Esarhaddons Feet
Esarhaddon in the Catholic Bible2 Kings 19:37Ezra 4:2Isa 37:38Tobit 1:21-22, 2:11 Esdras 5:69
Assurbanipal(Assyrian Ruler, 669-631 BCE)
Asshur in the Bible Gen 10:22 Num 24:22, 24 1 Chron 1:17 Ezekiel 27:23
Fall of Nineveh and the Assyrian Empire to the Babylonian Empire, 612 BCE
The Burning of Babylon.A Modern Imaginative Depiction
Babylons Processional WayA Reconstruction in the Pergamum Museum, Berlin
Gate of Ishtar, Babylon
An Aurochs, "Bull of Heaven," Associated with Ishtar,Goddess of War, Fertility, Love and Sex The Last Known Living Aurochs, A Female, Is Reported to Have Died in the Jaktorów Forest in Poland in 1627 CE.
Lion, Symbol of Ishtar,Goddess of War and Fertility
Mythical Beast/Dragon,Associate of the Babylonian Sun God, Marduk Head/Body/Tail of Serpent, Front Feet of Lion, Back Feet of Fowl.
Stele of Laws of Hammurabi,King of Old Babylonian Empire (1728-1686 BCE)
HammurabiReceives Law from God Here Law is Derived from the Divine, not the Political Ruler. Therefore, even the King is now bound by "The Laws of God." Detail Stele of Hammurabi
Ancient Depiction of Ziggurat at Ur, ca. 604-562 BCE
Diagram from this Stele
Ziggurat at Ur(19th Century Remains)
Saddam HusseinsZiggurat Reconstruction
Model of Ziggurat at Rosicrucian Museum, San Jose, CA
Imagined Ziggurat Reconstruction
U. S. Troops In IraqClimb Ziggurat of Ur
Rosetta Stone,The Key to Deciphering Hieroglyphics Same Story in Hieroglyphics Demotic Greek