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Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
Sexual behavior -chapter 4
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Sexual behavior -chapter 4

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  • 1. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential Animal Behavior by Graham Scott </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Behavior of Domestic Animals by Benjamin Hart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic Animal Behavior by Katherine A. Houpt </li></ul></ul>
  • 2. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual behavior is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Maintaining adequate levels of libido in breeding animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Controlling the various aspects of sexual behavior that persist in neutered animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. High reproductive rates </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 3. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We find remnants of evolutionary selection hindering our goal of high reproduction rates – even though we have reduced the nutritional, climatic, and health stresses to which domestic animals are exposed </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems that hinder breeding and production schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal breeding in housed stock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor libido in AI program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mate selection preferences that do not coincide with breeding objective because live offspring is critical to financial well being </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 5. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in raising livestock species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sheep, swine, beef cattle – reproductive performance important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic improvement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in raising livestock species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy cattle – time of birth is important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulative milk production </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Companion animals – producing valuable offspring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resolving reproductive problems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in raising livestock species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AI has reduced the importance of knowledge of the actual sexual interaction between sexes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But intrasex behavior is important </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In females knowing when to inseminate is critical </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual behavior may become a problem in males </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normal sexual behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral changes resulting from domestication </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wild ancestors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breeding strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polygamous or monogamous </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 10. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wild Ancestors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly as a point of reference for comparison to our domestic animals </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 11. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult male and female sexual behavior depends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factors for expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 12. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These factors are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The genetic sex of the animal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perinatal organizational action of hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Past social and sexual experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adult activational action of hormone and anatomical status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The attractiveness of the potential mate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The external environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 13. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Breeding Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective leaving as many surviving offspring to reproduce as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition between males reflects individual fitness – to insure continuation of family, line, species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of offspring born reflects differences in infant and adult mortality and longevity of species </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Breeding Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mating process (copulation) itself can influence the achievement of objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most species ovulate spontaneously </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cat and rabbit ovulation is induced by copulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coitus – induced ovulation increases a female’s reproductive efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 15. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Breeding Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mating process (copulation) itself can influence the achievement of objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coitus can facilitate or hasten ovulation and is important in the utilization of AI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy rate with AI is increased if the clitoris is messaged when the insemination is done </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Breeding Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping the reproductive success of relatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involves the indirect better-than-nothing strategy increases inclusive reproductive fitness (genetic immortality) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When barren sisters help sister with offspring </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 17. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most wild mammals of temperate zones are highly seasonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bearing and caring for offspring is extremely taxing on females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birth of young at most optimal time of the year (seasonal) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short birth season reduces predation on the offspring of one female </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 18. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most wild mammals of temperate zones are highly seasonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copulation is closely timed to insure the highest probability of conception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females ova will be fertilized by the strongest male available </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 19. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial selection has eliminated seasonality in cattle, swine, and dogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horses, goats, and sheep are seasonal, but its effects are weakened </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonality also affects behavior in males </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 20. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone concentrations in males reveal seasonal fluctuations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes display of male behavior patterns – aggressive behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 21. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exception is the domestic dogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female goes through two breeding periods/year </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male must be sexually active all year not true in wild types </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 22. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Polygamous versus monogamous matings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 3% of all mammalian species are monogamous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The domestic dog has monogamous wild ancestors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wild species that were domesticated are polygamous </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Polygamous versus monogamous matings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage one male services many females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial selection is on sire side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception is domestic dog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male preference in dogs (monogamous tendencies of ancestors) </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>General Aspects of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precopulatory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copulatory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post copulatory responses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 25. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>General Aspects of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precopulatory Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivational aspects of sexual function </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results from factors that attract males and females to each other (olfactory, visual, auditory channels) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 26. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>General Aspects of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precopulatory Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Males in pursuit of females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Licking and sniffing of the female genitalia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mounting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 27. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>General Aspects of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precopulatory Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females in pursuit of males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks out males </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrating impending estrous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 28. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>General Aspects of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precopulatory Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special notation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proceptive behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 29. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>General Aspects of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precopulatory Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precopulatory stimulation of males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can increase sperm count in ejaculate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance fertility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 30. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>General Aspects of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precopulatory Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precopulatory Stimulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can have an impact of reproductive performance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity of boar is directly related to litter size (numbers) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sows that are mated AI have larger litters if they are courted first by a boar before insemination </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 31. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>General Aspects of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copulatory Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copulatory Responses (consummatory responses) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A behavioral pattern that occurs in response to a stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culminate or terminate a sequence of sexual interactions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In males, ejaculation is the primary consummatory response </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 32. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>General Aspects of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copulatory Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copulatory Responses (consummatory responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to identify consummatory response in female </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exception is cats and dogs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme excitement at intromission by male (cats) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twisting and tuning by female dog at intromission </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 33. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>General Aspects of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copulatory Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater precopulatory behavioral variation than consummatory behavioral variation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some males go through much longer courtship than other males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little variation exist in ejaculatory reactions among males </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 34. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>General Aspects of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precopulatory and copulatory sexual behavior may be separated on an ontogenetic basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mounting occurs in juvenile and prepubertal males </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>None of the behavioral aspects of female sexual behavior occur before puberty </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 35. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both males and females respond to stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory (most important </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 36. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory Stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaginal secretions and urine of females in estrus contain pheromones, which are attractants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercially available in some wild species </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 37. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory Stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Males also produce pheromones which stimulate and attract female </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May help red fox in finding a mate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 38. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory Stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Obvious in male swine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boars produce two pheromones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One in prepuse subaccous glands </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One in salivary gland </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 39. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory Stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of male cat often results in precopulatory response in female </li></ul></ul>
  • 40. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual and auditory stimuli are also important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can compensate for loss of olfactory stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 41. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are pheromones species specific? </li></ul></ul>
  • 42. <ul><li>Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of proceptive responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual posturing of mares </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual posturing of dogs and cats </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Sexual Behavior
  • 43. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactile Stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females display a receptive posture to mounting by the male </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neck grip of the male cat activates the receptive posture of the female </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 44. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactile Stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Message of reproductive tract of bull is helpful in stimulating bull to ejaculate when semen is collected via artificial vagina </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bull attempting to mount </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 45. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactile Stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rubbing the flank and genitalia of mares by man or stallion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jealously – presence of cow with another bull </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Watching another male mate stimulates sexual performance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 46. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females are only receptive toward males during estrus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus the olfactory, visual, auditory stimuli attract males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even in wild animals males will not make sexual advances toward females not in estrus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 47. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pheromones (fer ´ e mon ´ ) must be present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is also evident among dogs, cats, and livestock species under free ranging conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exception is males in studs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demands for reproductive efficiency has eliminated the possibility of females choosing among males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preference is shown by ewes, dogs, cats </li></ul></ul>
  • 48. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary greatly among domestic species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Related to reproductive pattern of wild species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polyestrous species cycle several times during breeding period </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 49.  
  • 50. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated opportunities to mate and pregnancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses, and cats are polyestrous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle last between 10 and 25 days </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 51. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sheep, goats, cats are more seasonal in their display of polyestrous cycles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horses tend to be seasonal, but mares cycle for much of the year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In cattle, swine seasonality has been eliminated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 52. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differs from one location to another (one country to another) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current dogs cycle twice/year about 6 months apart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example, sheep and goats seasonally polyestrous temperate zones, in tropics they cycle throughout the year </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 53. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dog considered monestrous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ancestors cycle one/year (monogamous) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also the duration estrus is longer in dogs allowing more copulations during estrus assuring pregnancy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 54. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Varies among species, presence of males, presence of females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biggest problem with AI is “heat” detection </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 55. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mares – playing recordings of courting stallions – evoke estrus in mares </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most important – knowing when to mate – naturally or by AI </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 56. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in Sensory and Motor Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females show increase in general activity (excitement) when they come into estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 57. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in Sensory and Motor Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For cattle, sheep, horses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocal activity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agonistic behavior toward other females </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energizing effect of estrogen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 58. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agonistic interactions with other females </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In cattle, pigs, and dogs females mount those in estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 59. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow approaches estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes restless </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activity at the expense of eating </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More butting of other cows (doubling normal frequency) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 60. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow approaches estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to mount other cows </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mounted by other cows </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 61. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow approaches estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looks for a partner (nudges other cows) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May sniff the genital region looking for proestrous cows </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standing heat – lets other cows mount </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 62. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow approaches estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mounting among cows is the single most frequently used indication of estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 63. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow approaches estrous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous cows tend to groups with other estrus cows, especially at night </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus detection is easier in the field or range than in confined areas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 64. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow approaches estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cows that show little behavioral indication of estrus around other cows have silent estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best time to check for estrus cows is late evening or early morning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 65. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow approaches estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Androgenised cow – pick out estrus females </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Androgenised steer – pick out estrus females </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 66. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow approaches estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gomer bull – pick out estrous females </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat mount detectors an aid in locating estrous females </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, the most sexually demonstrative cows produce the most offspring </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 67. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus Behavior of Ewes and Mares </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They display only to specific males, closer to natural behavior of wild ancestors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 68. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proceptive responses are quite pronounced in females when given opportunity to seek out males </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modern farming methods keep females confined so their options are limited </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 69. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exception is ewes have access to more than one ram </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ewes may fight over some ram for sexual attention </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 70. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive Behavior – Show a variety of behavioral patterns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females urinate in the presence of males (communication through prominent in horses, sheep, goats, dogs pheromones) infrequent in cats </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 71. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everting the clitoris rhythmically four or five times in the presence of the male – behavior is called “winking” in horses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 72. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female posturing to indicate receptivity in horses, winking, tail raising, squatting and urinating, in the absence of kicking, heat indicators of estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 73. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standing heat in cattle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immobility response in swine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 74. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If male slow to react, them female will mount male with pelvic thrusting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common in cattle and dogs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 75. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrous Females Toward Males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In some species special posture is evident for male receptivity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples – rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, and primates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 76. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior Signs of Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In dogs and cats the special postures related to sexual behavior is spinal reflexes controlled by estrogen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evoked by tactile stimuli (mounting) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 77. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Females </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do female animals have orgasms? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No evidence to support concept of orgasm in domestic animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibilities for similar behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female cat after intromission by male </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female dog stimulation of clitoris by glands of the male dog </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 78. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breeding strategies of males in wild ancestors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of offspring depends who has the most females at the right time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male-male competition for females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females attempt to attract male </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Were all very important </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No longer important in domestic animal production </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 79. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precopulatory Responses of Males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually investigate genital region – smelling of voided urine if female urinates in male presence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flehmen follows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dogs will participate in play interaction or teasing by female </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 80. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Precopulatory Responses of Males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Next response attempted copulatory response (pelvic thrusting) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horses, dogs, cats intromission occurs by trial and error </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penis of horse is usually guided </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Livestock less trial and error required </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 81. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation Exist in Precopulatory Behavior of Males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some males prolong copulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some males attempt intromission without investigation of the female’s receptivity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 82. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation Exist in Precopulatory Behavior of Males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beef bulls engage in more precopulatory behavior then dairy bulls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longer courtship in beef bulls more natural because beef cattle mate in pasture conditions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 83. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males Respond Differently in Different Environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work best in home territory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important especially in cats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breeding is usually most successful if the female is brought to the male’s familiar home area </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 84. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copulatory Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erection necessary for copulation and the deposition of sperm into the vagina </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In some species the sperm is deposited into the uterus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the boar the penis has a cork-screw-like tip for movement through the cervix </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 85. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copulatory Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the dog and stallion the glands enlarge so the seminal fluid remains near the cervix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In dogs and cattle teasing a male prior to artificial collection will increase the sperm count of the ejaculate, but not true in stallions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 86. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Display of Homotypical and Heterotypical Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nymphomania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by prolonged estrogen production due to cyst of ovary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 87. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Display of Homotypical and Heterotypical Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate Mounting by Males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mounting activity of males shown by juvenile males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female juveniles rarely mount other males or females </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 88. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Social Influence on Male Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social influences on male sexual behavior exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of social interactions is important – species differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rams raised in all male groups from weaning to yearling are less sexually active than rams raised with ewes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bulls and boars are independent of female exposure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 89. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Abnormalities Associated with Social and Sexual Experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just lack of experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homosexual experience only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual experience that are unpleasant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated failure </li></ul></ul>
  • 90. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Abnormalities Associated with Social and Sexual Experiences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher mammals are influenced by attractiveness of potential mates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Males generally are more influenced by the environment than females </li></ul></ul>
  • 91. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Anatomical Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The muscular penis of the horse is more dependent on erection for intromission than the fibro elastic penis of the ruminant </li></ul></ul>
  • 92. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational: Perinatal Hormonal Influences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neonatal androgens “defeminize” males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pigs appear to be unique in that they are defeminized not during perinatal or neonatal period, but at puberty </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 93. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activational: Adult Hormonal Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certain level of hormones are required for normal sexual behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hormonal treatment will not cure deficiency of sexual behavior unless there is a deficiency of that hormone </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 94. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activational: Adult Hormonal Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spaying usually abolishes estrous behavior in females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Castration usually abolishes sexual behavior in males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exception to both </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 95. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activational: Adult Hormonal Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more experienced the male, the longer sexual behavior, both arousal and copulation, will persist after castration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepubertal castration is more effective than post pubertal castration in eliminating sexual behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 96. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activational: Adult Hormonal Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Species differences exist in the effect of prepubertal castration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cats are affected more than dogs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 97. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically Determined Sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sex of individual determined at conception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomal sex will determine if fetal gonad develops into ovary or testis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for masculine and feminine behavior in both sexes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The brain, and therefore behavior, is usually female unless the fetus is exposed to androgen during development </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 98. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Inappropriate Mounting by Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buller-Steer Syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steers display bull like behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When given a choice steers will mount heifers instead of other steers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 99. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Inappropriate Mounting by Males </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buller-Steer Syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confined steers – a few animals seem to attract other to mount </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called bullers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be due to estrogen – which could act as attractant </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buller does not object to sexual advances </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic concern because it affects 2 to 3 percent of steers in feedlots </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be enhanced by crowding and estrogenic implants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Probably naturally occurring phenomenon enhanced by crowding and implants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 100. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Dysfunction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the wild sexual dysfunction is self-limiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They do not reproduce themselves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In farm animals and companion we often perpetuate the sexual dysfunction in an attempt to get a valuable offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some females may have physiological estrus but not copulate </li></ul></ul>
  • 101. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Dysfunction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some bulls are night breeders, some are bashful about breeding in the presence of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some rams fear females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anatomical problems may exist that prevent copulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Injury to penis, deviated penis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 102. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Dysfunction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dysfunction divided into two categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 103. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Dysfunction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological Dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hormonal problems in both males and females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor nutrition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 104. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Dysfunction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral Dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurochemical reasons (low sexual interest) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endorphins – found naturally in brain cause sexual inactivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loose interest after repeated failure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over use </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 105. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sexual Dysfunction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral Dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presence of foals retards performance of stallions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Males reared in isolation may show no sexual interest toward females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rams reared in homosexual environment show no interest in ewes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imprinting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 106. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonseasonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continually cycling breeder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak fertility May to June </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low fertility December to February </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puberty 4 to 24 months of age (usually 6 to 18 months) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous cycle 18 to 24 days long (mean of 21 days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zebu vs. Bos taurus </li></ul></ul>
  • 107. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous vs. Estrus </li></ul></ul>
  • 108. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Onset of Estrus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows general increase in motor activity and decrease in food intake </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The more active a cow is, the higher the fertility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shows investigative behavior such as flehmen, sniffing, rubbing, and licking increases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 109. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Onset of Estrus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-mounting behavior such as standing behind another cow and resting the chin on the back of another cow (usually on estrous cow) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bellow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Switch her tail or raise and deviate it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 110. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Onset of Estrus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urinates frequently </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stands to be mounted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mounting cows are usually dominant over the mounted cows </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This interaction between hormonally mediated behavior and social influences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 111. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detection of Estrus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vulvar relaxation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaginal secretion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mounting behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standing to be mounted by other cows, androgenized cow or vasectomized bull </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 112. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Cows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silent heat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>False heat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nymphomania </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 113. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bull grazes beside proestrous cow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guards proestrous cow from other cattle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to mount repulsed by cow </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May attempt to separate cow to secluded location </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 114. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bull smells and licks cow’s vulva </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flehmen response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As estrus approaches guarding is more marked </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 115. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When cow is in estrus bull will display partial erection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory gland fluid will drip from the penis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bull nudges flank </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 116. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rest his head on cow’s rump while standing in T-position </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mounts and intromission occurs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ejaculation within seconds of intromission </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 117. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other functions in male sexual behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory Stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory cues </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual displays </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure during development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 118. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other functions in male sexual behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic and Experiential Factors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Libido may be heritable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serving-capacity may be heritable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 119. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cow’s Sexual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems in Bulls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masturbation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impotence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buller Steer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 120. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ewe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short-day (light breeder) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle in fall when days are shorter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polyestrous – cycles several times during one mating period </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average cycle for ewe is 16 days (range 14 to 20 days) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 121. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ewe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus receptivity is 30 to 36 hours </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Puberty tied to time of birth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ewe lambs may reach puberty at 4 months </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 122. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ewe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environment may play a role in the ewe sexual behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic sheep raised in the tropics and subtropics are non-seasonal breeders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In feral sheep predation may be important </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 123. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ewe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to rams tends to increase the incidence of estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rams presence shortens duration of estrus (physical contact dependent) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rams that court vigorously cause more ewes to ovulate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 124. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ewe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone must be aromatized to produce the ram effect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pheromone is present in the wool, wax, antiorbital gland secretion of the ram </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pheromone probably consist of more than one compound </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 125. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ewe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In sheep the wool odor tends to be more important than urine odor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buck hair increases LH levels and induces ovulation in ewes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ram effect can occur in ewes without the sense of smell </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory cues are not necessary, but they may stimulate estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 126. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ewe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior of Ewe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus ewe follows or seeks out a ram </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As ram approaches, ewe circles, sniff ram’s body and thrust her head against his flank, wags her tail, ewe stands to be mounted </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus ewes will choose a ram on a two-choice test </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 127. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ewe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior of Ewe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She will usually call frequently with nonspecific bleats and be more active </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standing indicates receptiveness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standing estrous occurs in ewes more often at night </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 128. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ewe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior of Ewe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ewe uses olfactory cues to locate ram </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ram-seeking behavior seems correlated with estrogen levels but does not occur without visual and olfactory stimuli of the male </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ewes have been observed fighting over access to a ram </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 129. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ewe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior of Ewe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older more experienced ewes are more successful in gaining access to the ram </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ewes seem to prefer rams of their own breed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 130. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Free-Ranging Sheep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young rams begin to seek out ewes while with their mothers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ewe reject these young rams </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mature rams are in ram flocks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move toward ewes for breeding season </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 131. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Free-Ranging Sheep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chase away strange rams, but remain friendly with flock males </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each ram for himself as season progresses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All contest have been settled by time ewes show estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 132. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual Behavior of Free-Ranging Sheep </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Winner ram male breeds the most ewes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stays with each ewe ½ to 1 day performing the courtship behavior before copulation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive capacity of ram is not seasonal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship is more pronounced in rams than ewes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 133. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rams do flehmen response after sniffing urine or genitalia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ram licks genitalia of ewe as form of tactile stimulation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rams distinguish between estrus and estrous ewe by olfaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 134. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rams can perform with sensory ewes, by testing ewes willingness to stand for mounting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ewes differ in their sexual attractiveness to rams </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ram exhibits foreleg kicking as he prepares to mount </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 135. <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nudges ewe with his head </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocalizes during courtship </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After intromission ejaculation occurs immediately </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rams recover from sexual exhaustion when the post-copulatory ewe is replaced with a strange ewe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Sexual Behavior
  • 136. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence that habituation to a sexual partner may last several weeks depending on satiation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This type of behavior increases fertility in the domestic flock </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship behavior is a good measure of libido </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rams with high levels of libido have higher serving capacity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 137. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prenatal Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intrauterine environment influences subsequent ram behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rams born co-twin to a ram have a higher serving capacity than those born co-twin to a ewe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The larger the litter, the higher serving capacity of its male members </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 138. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rearing Effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young rams must have a heterosexual experience between weaning and 1 year of age for them to be heterosexual </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early exposure of young rams to estrous ewes will enhance sexual development </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 139. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance effects can influence flock fertility </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominate ram will mate with most ewes, if he’s infertile ewe will not conceive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 140. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rams, like ewes, prefer males of their own or their dam’s breed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of prepubertal castration are extremely variable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Postpubertal castration causes decreased sexual activity in rams </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 141. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Rams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation causes delayed mating ability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Males raised in monosexual groups are sexually inhibited or show homosexual preferences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 142. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Rams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous exposure to ewes eventually stimulates heterosexual behavior in most rams </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some young rams are fearful of estrous ewes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 143. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Goats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-Ranging Goats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During rut, feral bucks join female groups and fight for estrous does </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older bucks select with fewer males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young bucks select groups with large numbers of does </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 144. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Goats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-Ranging Goats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Close relationship between agonistic and sexual behaviors in male goats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does are mate selective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual displays and vocalizations occur by males in courtship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bucks do flehmen response </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 145. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Goats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Doe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goats are short-day breeders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus does show increase in tail wagging, vocalization, urination, and mounting of other females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does are in estrus 39 hours once every twenty to twenty-one days </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 146. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Goats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Buck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buck behavior is similar to ram behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stomping foreleg and vocalization during courtship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unique to buck is urination by back on his own forelegs and beard during courtship (metabolic fitness) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 147. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Goats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Buck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior is termed enurination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occasionally mouthing of penis occurs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some bucks show homo- and heterosexual behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 148. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Goats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Buck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bucks have a sexual mate preference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-pubertal castration decreases activity in bucks </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 149. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Goats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Doe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silent heat – especially first cycle of season </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 150. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Goats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Buck </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bucks have color preference – prefer white does </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 151. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-Ranging Horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courting Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free-ranging mares seek out stallions and display signs of estrus to them </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stallions base their avoidance of incest on familiarity rather than on kin recognition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free ranging stallions usually acquire harem at age 6 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young stallions spend time in bachelor herds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 152. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mares are long-day breeders, show most activity during spring </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous cycle is 21 days </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus is 5 to 6 days </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 153. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breed differences exist for length of estrus, but may not be important </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teasers are used to determine receptivity of the mare </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonreceptive mares will squeal, strike fore foot, kick, and move away </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 154. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive mares are immobile, permits teaser to nibble her rump and withers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristic breeding expression, ears turned backward but not flattened, lips held loosely, basewide squatting stance, urinates frequently, rhythmically exposing clitoris by “winking ” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 155. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mares show individual preferences for stallions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocalization by courting stallions is important to mare </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 156. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foal Heat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus at 8 to 9 day following foaling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mares are often bred on foal heat, but she does not show usual signs of estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 157. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Mares </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Split and prolonged estrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anestrus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silent heat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychic heat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive sexual behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nymphomania (persistent follicles) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male sexual behavior (granulosa cell tumors) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 158. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Mare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Mares </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of estrous cycle on performance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can influence performance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 159. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibits libido through the year but show peak sexual behavior in the spring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social situation is important to sexual behavior in stallions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant stallion usually sires foal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 160. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stallion has three stages of activity; bachelor, dominant stallion in band, subordinate stallion in band </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stallion preference is affected by age </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 161. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Varies with management practices </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free ranging conditions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Driving, herding, or snaking with head down position from the presence of another stallion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prancing is done to display to other stallions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 162. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The degree of penile erection is related to degree of sexual excitement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreplay is important in stallion performance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stallions may tend a mare for several days before she is receptive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 163. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nipping and nuzzling begins at the mare’s head and proceeds along body to the perineal area </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flehmen response </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocalization occurs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 164. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mare allows stallion to lick around her hear legs and back </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During copulation, the stallion rest his sternum on the mare's croup and bites her neck </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ejaculation occurs around fifteen seconds after intromission </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After copulation the pair separates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 165. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory Stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual and sensory stimuli are vital to the display of sexual behavior, but can be replaced through learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 166. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Stallions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral problems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased libido </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance declines with novelty </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stallions will not mount </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 167. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Stallions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not ejaculate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stallion that does not show interest in receptive mares </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stallions that savage mares or handlers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 168. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Stallions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-mutilation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masturbation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too much sexual experience may lower libido </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 169. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Stallions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical impairment injury </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breeding environment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overuse and rough handling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Castration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 170. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sow is a nonseasonal breeder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cycles every 18 to 24 days (mean of 21 days) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Puberty achieved at 5 to 8 months of age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male effect leads to the occurrence of the cycle at an earlier age </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 171. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased activity as estrus approaches </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urination is frequent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocalization to the male </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vocalization is a soft rhythmic grunt </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 172. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She approaches the boar and sniffs around the head and genitals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous sows attempt to mount other estrous sows </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sow searches for boar, olfactory stimuli alone will instigate this searching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 173. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boars and sows show individual differences in mate selection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boars differ in the degree to which they attract sows, but this attraction is not libido driven </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Searching behavior tends to be under endogenous control </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 174. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receptivity requires both tactile and olfactory stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boars have a courting song </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to detect estrus if boar is across aisle from sow rather than in adjoining pen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 175. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Sow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Sows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mate preference </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breed differences in the length of estrus are seen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to reproduce in confinement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 176. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Boar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After contact with estrous sow, the boar will pursue the female, nosing her sides, flanks, and vulva </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boar has courting song, series of soft grunts, about 6 to 8 per second </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tactile stimulation of the female increases intensity as the boar’s sexual excitement increases </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 177. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Boar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boar emits urine rhythmically </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several marking attempts are made until immobility is achieved </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ejaculation occurs within 3 to 20 minutes after intromission </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 178. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Boar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consort behavior continues for a short time following copulation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory cues seem unimportant in stimulating a boar to mount a female </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immobility response arouse the boar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 179. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Boar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early social environment is important to later sexual behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early isolation reduces copulatory response in boars </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group raised boars are more aggressive breeders than isolates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone and corticosteroid (cortisol) levels are higher in boars that are in contact with sows </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 180. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Pigs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Boar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Boars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Libido may be impaired through mismanagement of young boars </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low libido has been associated high plane of nutrition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aggression of boar toward humans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 181. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonseasonal breeder, unlike most of its canid relatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle is highly variable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One to four cycles yearly with two being most usual </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 182. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Onset of puberty varies greatly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small breeds reach puberty earlier or of younger age than larger breeds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age of puberty ranges from 6 to 15 months </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 183. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship behavior is marked by play behavior in the proestrous part of the cycle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bitch runs with male, approaching him with using play bow of puppies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whimpers submissively </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 184. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proestrous bitch licks body and genitalia of male </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urination becomes more frequent as estrus approaches </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posture used will be squat-raise </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 185. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In proestrus she will not let male mount </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During estrus she stands more quietly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows male to investigate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She stands to be mounted and intromission </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 186. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upon male touching her vulva she flexes body laterally </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After intromission the copulatory lock or tie </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 187. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If male shows no interest or little interest, the bitch will present hindquarters to the male and back into him while deviating her tail </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An older experienced bitch may mount young inexperienced male </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 188. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship in Free-Ranging Dogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stray bitches avoid male littermates but may be mated by persistent brother </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous females may attract 2 to 7 males </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Show less proceptive behavior in presence of many males with less active rejection of nonpreferred males </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 189. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bitch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Bitches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females may refuse males for any of several reasons </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bitch may show dominance over the male by standing over him or allow him to approach from behind </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance may prevent incest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female preference for certain males </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 190. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The male (dog) sometimes called “stud dog” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual behavior may appear in five-week-old male pups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mounting behavior becomes an important part of the males’ social repertoire as it matures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 191. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mounting is a sign of dominance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A submissive animal stands to be mounted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social contact is vital to the development of normal sexual behavior </li></ul></ul>
  • 192. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship of Male Dog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male dogs are attracted to estrous bitches </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urine of the estrous bitch is more attractive to the male than is vaginal secretions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 193. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship of Male Dog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains a pheromone that tends to be a release of sexual behavior in males </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male dogs do “tonguing” instead of flehmen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience plays a role, experienced male dogs do less play activity then less inexperienced dogs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male dog mounts in response to immobility response of female </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 194. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Dogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Dogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impotence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of socialization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timidity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Disturbances </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masturbation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual Behavior After Castration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 195. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-Ranging Cats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In a feral situation, one estrous queen may be surrounded by a group of toms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competition among toms, one tom may knock another tom off an estrous queen or mount the tom that has mounted estrous queen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominance hierarchy based on size and age, gives dominant tom priority of access to queens </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 196. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-Ranging Cats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant males stay closer to estrous queens then subordinate males </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In feral state, there seems to be only one sexually active tom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pair-bonding does not occur, but short consort behavior normally occurs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 197. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free-Ranging Cats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A male and female may remain together for several hours or days, mating many times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Juvenile males tend to move away from their birth area before their third year </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 198. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonally polyestrous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most cats cycle at least twice yearly if not bred </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under today’s management individual cats may be in estrus at any season </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 199. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If not pregnant, the queen will cycle every 21 days for several months </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus last 4 days if copulation occurs and 9 to 10 days if it does not occur </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The domestic cat is an induced ovulator, copulation occurs when queen is receptive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 200. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial stimulation of the vagina induces ovulation and shorten the receptive time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be used as management tool to present repeated heats </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females reach puberty at six to ten months, varies greatly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Females try to avoid incest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 201. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catnip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant that has compound that produces behavior like estrous </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is a pleasure inducer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catnip produces behavior similar to estrous behavior but not identical with estrous behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 202. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catnip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catnip does not cause vulvar presentation, vocalization, or foot treading </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catnip causes head-shake in cats (in both queens and toms) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is thought that catnip plant contains compound similar to a compound in tom urine to which most cats are sensitive </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 203. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrous female will call and purr </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She is restless and shows increased general motor activity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially affectionate toward owner </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urination occurs frequently, she may spray </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 204. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rubs head and flank on furniture or vertical objects </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>She crouches, elevates her perineal region and treads with her rear legs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opening and closing of paws on front feet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 205. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rolling, squirming, and stretching are seen (occurs with or without tom) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During proestrus she will roll and solicit male’s attention, but is aggressive if male tries to mount </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When fully receptive, she becomes immobile and stands crouched with her head between her forelegs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 206. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May run a short distance from toms, test strength of toms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tail deviated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows male to mount </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 207. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Queens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female-Female </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female-female mounting behavior is seen in colony situations, otherwise it’s rare </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May squirm underneath each other when trying to present to an inaccessible male </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 208. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Queens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Female-Female </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One female may mount the other and do pelvic thrusting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Queens have male mate preferences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 209. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Queens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of Ovariohysterectomy (Spaying) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performed quite frequently on domestic cat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminates sexual behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 210. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Queen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effect of Ovariohysterectomy (Spaying) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affects other behavior (aggression between cats is increased) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes change in queen’s body odor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal behavior may be displayed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 211. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male locates estrous female via olfactory cues from pheromones in urine and sebaceous gland secretions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male placed with female in a mating situation spends time investigating and marking the area with urine and anal gland secretion before mating </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 212. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tom flehmen response is called “gape” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tom vocalizes to the queen, circles her, and investigates her genitalia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He is rebuffed by nonreceptive queen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 213. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male first grabs neck of estrus queen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Then mounts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rubs queen with forepaws </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intromission follows a forward stepping with arched back </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 214. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courtship Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ejaculation occurs seconds after intromission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copulatory cry by queen with intromission </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upon retraction female rolls and claws at the male </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copulation may occur every ten to fifteen minutes for several hours </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 215. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical Problems of Toms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reluctant tom to breed due to aggression of queen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of experience </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May loose interest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May not be tom of preference </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 216. Sexual Behavior <ul><li>Cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Tom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of Castration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In pets prepubertal castration generally eliminates sexually behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early castration eliminates spraying </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-pubertal castration is more effective in eliminating fighting, roaming, and spraying than post-pubertal castration of dogs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not completely eliminate mounting behavior </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>

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