Sexual behavior -chapter 4
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Sexual behavior -chapter 4 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Sexual Behavior
    • Sources:
      • Essential Animal Behavior by Graham Scott
      • The Behavior of Domestic Animals by Benjamin Hart
      • Domestic Animal Behavior by Katherine A. Houpt
  • 2. Sexual Behavior
    • Introduction
      • Sexual behavior is important
        • 1. Maintaining adequate levels of libido in breeding animals
        • 2. Controlling the various aspects of sexual behavior that persist in neutered animals
        • 3. High reproductive rates
  • 3. Sexual Behavior
    • Introduction
      • We find remnants of evolutionary selection hindering our goal of high reproduction rates – even though we have reduced the nutritional, climatic, and health stresses to which domestic animals are exposed
  • 4. Sexual Behavior
    • Introduction
      • Problems that hinder breeding and production schedules
        • Seasonal breeding in housed stock
        • Poor libido in AI program
        • Mate selection preferences that do not coincide with breeding objective because live offspring is critical to financial well being
  • 5. Sexual Behavior
    • Introduction
      • Important in raising livestock species
        • Sheep, swine, beef cattle – reproductive performance important
          • Numbers
          • Genetic improvement
  • 6. Sexual Behavior
    • Introduction
      • Important in raising livestock species
        • Dairy cattle – time of birth is important
          • Cumulative milk production
        • Companion animals – producing valuable offspring
          • Resolving reproductive problems
  • 7. Sexual Behavior
    • Introduction
      • Important in raising livestock species
        • AI has reduced the importance of knowledge of the actual sexual interaction between sexes
          • But intrasex behavior is important
          • In females knowing when to inseminate is critical
          • Sexual behavior may become a problem in males
  • 8. Sexual Behavior
    • Introduction
      • To understand
        • Normal sexual behavior
        • Behavioral changes resulting from domestication
  • 9. Sexual Behavior
    • Introduction
      • Wild ancestors
        • Breeding strategies
        • Seasonality
        • Polygamous or monogamous
  • 10. Sexual Behavior
    • Introduction
      • Wild Ancestors
        • Mostly as a point of reference for comparison to our domestic animals
  • 11. Sexual Behavior
    • Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior
      • Adult male and female sexual behavior depends
        • Factors for expression
          • Physiological
          • Environmental
          • Psychological
  • 12. Sexual Behavior
    • Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior
      • These factors are
        • The genetic sex of the animal
        • Perinatal organizational action of hormones
        • Past social and sexual experience
        • Adult activational action of hormone and anatomical status
        • The attractiveness of the potential mate
        • The external environment
  • 13. Sexual Behavior
    • Breeding Strategies
      • Objective leaving as many surviving offspring to reproduce as possible
      • Competition between males reflects individual fitness – to insure continuation of family, line, species
      • Number of offspring born reflects differences in infant and adult mortality and longevity of species
  • 14. Sexual Behavior
    • Breeding Strategies
      • Mating process (copulation) itself can influence the achievement of objective
        • Most species ovulate spontaneously
        • Cat and rabbit ovulation is induced by copulation
        • Coitus – induced ovulation increases a female’s reproductive efficiency
  • 15. Sexual Behavior
    • Breeding Strategies
      • Mating process (copulation) itself can influence the achievement of objective
        • Coitus can facilitate or hasten ovulation and is important in the utilization of AI
        • Pregnancy rate with AI is increased if the clitoris is messaged when the insemination is done
  • 16. Sexual Behavior
    • Breeding Strategies
      • Helping the reproductive success of relatives
        • Involves the indirect better-than-nothing strategy increases inclusive reproductive fitness (genetic immortality)
        • When barren sisters help sister with offspring
  • 17. Sexual Behavior
    • Seasonality
      • Most wild mammals of temperate zones are highly seasonal
        • Bearing and caring for offspring is extremely taxing on females
        • Birth of young at most optimal time of the year (seasonal)
        • Short birth season reduces predation on the offspring of one female
  • 18. Sexual Behavior
    • Seasonality
      • Most wild mammals of temperate zones are highly seasonal
        • Copulation is closely timed to insure the highest probability of conception
        • Females ova will be fertilized by the strongest male available
  • 19. Sexual Behavior
    • Seasonality
      • Domestic species
        • Artificial selection has eliminated seasonality in cattle, swine, and dogs
        • Horses, goats, and sheep are seasonal, but its effects are weakened
        • Seasonality also affects behavior in males
  • 20. Sexual Behavior
    • Seasonality
      • Domestic species
        • Testosterone concentrations in males reveal seasonal fluctuations
        • Causes display of male behavior patterns – aggressive behavior
  • 21. Sexual Behavior
    • Seasonality
      • Domestic species
        • Exception is the domestic dogs
          • Female goes through two breeding periods/year
          • Male must be sexually active all year not true in wild types
  • 22. Sexual Behavior
    • Polygamous versus monogamous matings
      • Less than 3% of all mammalian species are monogamous
      • The domestic dog has monogamous wild ancestors
      • Wild species that were domesticated are polygamous
  • 23. Sexual Behavior
    • Polygamous versus monogamous matings
      • Advantage one male services many females
      • Artificial selection is on sire side
      • Exception is domestic dog
      • Male preference in dogs (monogamous tendencies of ancestors)
  • 24. Sexual Behavior
    • General Aspects of Sexual Behavior
      • Difference between
        • Precopulatory
        • Copulatory
        • Post copulatory responses
  • 25. Sexual Behavior
    • General Aspects of Sexual Behavior
      • Precopulatory Behavior
        • Courtship
          • Motivational aspects of sexual function
            • Results from factors that attract males and females to each other (olfactory, visual, auditory channels)
  • 26. Sexual Behavior
    • General Aspects of Sexual Behavior
      • Precopulatory Behavior
        • Males in pursuit of females
          • Licking and sniffing of the female genitalia
          • Mounting
  • 27. Sexual Behavior
    • General Aspects of Sexual Behavior
      • Precopulatory Behavior
        • Females in pursuit of males
          • Seeks out males
          • Demonstrating impending estrous
  • 28. Sexual Behavior
    • General Aspects of Sexual Behavior
      • Precopulatory Behavior
        • Special notation
          • Proceptive behavior
          • Receptive behavior
  • 29. Sexual Behavior
    • General Aspects of Sexual Behavior
      • Precopulatory Behavior
        • Precopulatory stimulation of males
          • Can increase sperm count in ejaculate
          • Enhance fertility
  • 30. Sexual Behavior
    • General Aspects of Sexual Behavior
      • Precopulatory Behavior
        • Precopulatory Stimulation
          • Can have an impact of reproductive performance
          • Example
            • Activity of boar is directly related to litter size (numbers)
          • Sows that are mated AI have larger litters if they are courted first by a boar before insemination
  • 31. Sexual Behavior
    • General Aspects of Sexual Behavior
      • Copulatory Behavior
        • Copulatory Responses (consummatory responses)
          • A behavioral pattern that occurs in response to a stimuli
          • Culminate or terminate a sequence of sexual interactions
          • In males, ejaculation is the primary consummatory response
  • 32. Sexual Behavior
    • General Aspects of Sexual Behavior
      • Copulatory Behavior
        • Copulatory Responses (consummatory responses
          • Difficult to identify consummatory response in female
          • Exception is cats and dogs
            • Extreme excitement at intromission by male (cats)
            • Twisting and tuning by female dog at intromission
  • 33. Sexual Behavior
    • General Aspects of Sexual Behavior
      • Copulatory Behavior
        • Greater precopulatory behavioral variation than consummatory behavioral variation
        • Some males go through much longer courtship than other males
        • Little variation exist in ejaculatory reactions among males
  • 34. Sexual Behavior
    • General Aspects of Sexual Behavior
      • Precopulatory and copulatory sexual behavior may be separated on an ontogenetic basis
        • Males
          • Mounting occurs in juvenile and prepubertal males
        • Females
          • None of the behavioral aspects of female sexual behavior occur before puberty
  • 35. Sexual Behavior
    • Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other
      • Both males and females respond to stimuli
        • Visual
        • Auditory
        • Olfactory (most important
  • 36. Sexual Behavior
    • Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other
      • Olfactory Stimuli
        • Vaginal secretions and urine of females in estrus contain pheromones, which are attractants
        • Commercially available in some wild species
  • 37. Sexual Behavior
    • Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other
      • Olfactory Stimuli
        • Males also produce pheromones which stimulate and attract female
        • May help red fox in finding a mate
  • 38. Sexual Behavior
    • Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other
      • Olfactory Stimuli
        • Obvious in male swine
        • Boars produce two pheromones
          • One in prepuse subaccous glands
          • One in salivary gland
  • 39. Sexual Behavior
    • Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other
      • Olfactory Stimuli
      • Presence of male cat often results in precopulatory response in female
  • 40. Sexual Behavior
    • Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other
      • Visual and auditory stimuli are also important
        • Can compensate for loss of olfactory stimuli
  • 41. Sexual Behavior
    • Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other
      • Why are pheromones species specific?
  • 42.
    • Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other
      • Visual Displays
        • Examples of proceptive responses
          • Sexual posturing of mares
          • Sexual posturing of dogs and cats
    Sexual Behavior
  • 43. Sexual Behavior
    • Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other
      • Tactile Stimuli
        • Females display a receptive posture to mounting by the male
        • Neck grip of the male cat activates the receptive posture of the female
  • 44. Sexual Behavior
    • Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other
      • Tactile Stimuli
        • Message of reproductive tract of bull is helpful in stimulating bull to ejaculate when semen is collected via artificial vagina
        • Bull attempting to mount
  • 45. Sexual Behavior
    • Stimuli that Attract Males and Females to Each Other
      • Tactile Stimuli
        • Rubbing the flank and genitalia of mares by man or stallion
        • Jealously – presence of cow with another bull
        • Watching another male mate stimulates sexual performance
  • 46. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Estrous cycle
        • Females are only receptive toward males during estrus
        • Estrus the olfactory, visual, auditory stimuli attract males
        • Even in wild animals males will not make sexual advances toward females not in estrus
  • 47. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • The pheromones (fer ´ e mon ´ ) must be present
      • This is also evident among dogs, cats, and livestock species under free ranging conditions
      • Exception is males in studs
      • Demands for reproductive efficiency has eliminated the possibility of females choosing among males
      • Preference is shown by ewes, dogs, cats
  • 48. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Estrous Cycles
        • Vary greatly among domestic species
        • Related to reproductive pattern of wild species
        • Polyestrous species cycle several times during breeding period
  • 49.  
  • 50. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Estrous Cycles
        • Repeated opportunities to mate and pregnancy
        • Cattle, swine, sheep, goats, horses, and cats are polyestrous
          • Cycle last between 10 and 25 days
  • 51. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Estrous Cycles
        • Sheep, goats, cats are more seasonal in their display of polyestrous cycles
        • Horses tend to be seasonal, but mares cycle for much of the year
        • In cattle, swine seasonality has been eliminated
  • 52. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Estrous Cycles
        • Differs from one location to another (one country to another)
        • Current dogs cycle twice/year about 6 months apart
        • Example, sheep and goats seasonally polyestrous temperate zones, in tropics they cycle throughout the year
  • 53. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Estrous Cycles
        • Dog considered monestrous
        • Ancestors cycle one/year (monogamous)
        • Also the duration estrus is longer in dogs allowing more copulations during estrus assuring pregnancy
  • 54. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Varies among species, presence of males, presence of females
        • Biggest problem with AI is “heat” detection
  • 55. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Mares – playing recordings of courting stallions – evoke estrus in mares
        • Most important – knowing when to mate – naturally or by AI
  • 56. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Changes in Sensory and Motor Behavior
          • Females show increase in general activity (excitement) when they come into estrus
  • 57. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Changes in Sensory and Motor Behavior
          • For cattle, sheep, horses
            • Exploration
            • Vocal activity
            • Agonistic behavior toward other females
          • Energizing effect of estrogen
  • 58. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females
          • Agonistic interactions with other females
          • In cattle, pigs, and dogs females mount those in estrus
  • 59. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females
          • Cow approaches estrus
            • Becomes restless
            • Activity at the expense of eating
            • More butting of other cows (doubling normal frequency)
  • 60. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females
          • Cow approaches estrus
            • Attempts to mount other cows
            • Mounted by other cows
  • 61. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females
          • Cow approaches estrus
            • Looks for a partner (nudges other cows)
            • May sniff the genital region looking for proestrous cows
            • Standing heat – lets other cows mount
  • 62. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females
          • Cow approaches estrus
            • Mounting among cows is the single most frequently used indication of estrus
  • 63. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females
          • Cow approaches estrous
            • Estrous cows tend to groups with other estrus cows, especially at night
            • Estrus detection is easier in the field or range than in confined areas
  • 64. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females
          • Cow approaches estrus
            • Cows that show little behavioral indication of estrus around other cows have silent estrus
            • Best time to check for estrus cows is late evening or early morning
  • 65. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females
          • Cow approaches estrus
            • Androgenised cow – pick out estrus females
            • Androgenised steer – pick out estrus females
  • 66. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females
          • Cow approaches estrus
            • Gomer bull – pick out estrous females
            • Heat mount detectors an aid in locating estrous females
            • Remember, the most sexually demonstrative cows produce the most offspring
  • 67. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Other Females
          • Estrus Behavior of Ewes and Mares
            • They display only to specific males, closer to natural behavior of wild ancestors
  • 68. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males
          • Proceptive responses are quite pronounced in females when given opportunity to seek out males
          • Modern farming methods keep females confined so their options are limited
  • 69. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males
          • Exception is ewes have access to more than one ram
          • Ewes may fight over some ram for sexual attention
  • 70. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males
          • Receptive Behavior – Show a variety of behavioral patterns
            • Females urinate in the presence of males (communication through prominent in horses, sheep, goats, dogs pheromones) infrequent in cats
  • 71. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males
          • Receptive Behavior
            • Everting the clitoris rhythmically four or five times in the presence of the male – behavior is called “winking” in horses
  • 72. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males
          • Receptive Behavior
          • Female posturing to indicate receptivity in horses, winking, tail raising, squatting and urinating, in the absence of kicking, heat indicators of estrus
  • 73. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males
          • Receptive Behavior
            • Standing heat in cattle
            • Immobility response in swine
  • 74. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males
          • Receptive Behavior
            • If male slow to react, them female will mount male with pelvic thrusting
            • Common in cattle and dogs
  • 75. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrous
        • Behavior of Estrous Females Toward Males
          • Receptive Behavior
            • In some species special posture is evident for male receptivity
            • Examples – rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, and primates
  • 76. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Behavior Signs of Estrus
        • Behavior of Estrus Females Toward Males
          • Receptive Behavior
            • In dogs and cats the special postures related to sexual behavior is spinal reflexes controlled by estrogen
            • Evoked by tactile stimuli (mounting)
  • 77. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Females
      • Do female animals have orgasms?
        • No evidence to support concept of orgasm in domestic animals
      • Possibilities for similar behavior
        • Female cat after intromission by male
        • Female dog stimulation of clitoris by glands of the male dog
  • 78. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Males
      • Breeding strategies of males in wild ancestors
        • Number of offspring depends who has the most females at the right time
        • Courtship behavior
        • Male-male competition for females
        • Females attempt to attract male
          • Were all very important
        • No longer important in domestic animal production
  • 79. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Males
      • Precopulatory Responses of Males
        • Usually investigate genital region – smelling of voided urine if female urinates in male presence
        • Flehmen follows
        • Dogs will participate in play interaction or teasing by female
  • 80. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Males
      • Precopulatory Responses of Males
        • Next response attempted copulatory response (pelvic thrusting)
        • Horses, dogs, cats intromission occurs by trial and error
          • Penis of horse is usually guided
        • Livestock less trial and error required
  • 81. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Males
      • Variation Exist in Precopulatory Behavior of Males
        • Some males prolong copulation
        • Some males attempt intromission without investigation of the female’s receptivity
  • 82. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Males
      • Variation Exist in Precopulatory Behavior of Males
        • Beef bulls engage in more precopulatory behavior then dairy bulls
        • Longer courtship in beef bulls more natural because beef cattle mate in pasture conditions
  • 83. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Males
      • Males Respond Differently in Different Environments
        • Work best in home territory
        • Important especially in cats
        • Breeding is usually most successful if the female is brought to the male’s familiar home area
  • 84. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Males
      • Copulatory Behavior
        • Erection necessary for copulation and the deposition of sperm into the vagina
        • In some species the sperm is deposited into the uterus
        • In the boar the penis has a cork-screw-like tip for movement through the cervix
  • 85. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Behavior of Males
      • Copulatory Behavior
        • In the dog and stallion the glands enlarge so the seminal fluid remains near the cervix
        • In dogs and cattle teasing a male prior to artificial collection will increase the sperm count of the ejaculate, but not true in stallions
  • 86. Sexual Behavior
    • Display of Homotypical and Heterotypical Sexual Behavior
      • Nymphomania
        • Caused by prolonged estrogen production due to cyst of ovary
  • 87. Sexual Behavior
    • Display of Homotypical and Heterotypical Sexual Behavior
      • Inappropriate Mounting by Males
        • Mounting activity of males shown by juvenile males
        • Female juveniles rarely mount other males or females
  • 88. Sexual Behavior
    • Social Influence on Male Sexual Behavior
      • Social influences on male sexual behavior exist
      • Type of social interactions is important – species differences
        • Rams raised in all male groups from weaning to yearling are less sexually active than rams raised with ewes
        • Bulls and boars are independent of female exposure
  • 89. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Abnormalities Associated with Social and Sexual Experiences
      • Just lack of experience
      • Homosexual experience only
      • Too much sex
      • Sexual experience that are unpleasant
      • Repeated failure
  • 90. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Abnormalities Associated with Social and Sexual Experiences
      • Higher mammals are influenced by attractiveness of potential mates
      • Males generally are more influenced by the environment than females
  • 91. Sexual Behavior
    • Anatomical Factors
      • The muscular penis of the horse is more dependent on erection for intromission than the fibro elastic penis of the ruminant
  • 92. Sexual Behavior
    • Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior
      • Organizational: Perinatal Hormonal Influences
        • Neonatal androgens “defeminize” males
        • Pigs appear to be unique in that they are defeminized not during perinatal or neonatal period, but at puberty
  • 93. Sexual Behavior
    • Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior
      • Activational: Adult Hormonal Status
        • Certain level of hormones are required for normal sexual behavior
        • Hormonal treatment will not cure deficiency of sexual behavior unless there is a deficiency of that hormone
  • 94. Sexual Behavior
    • Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior
      • Activational: Adult Hormonal Status
        • Spaying usually abolishes estrous behavior in females
        • Castration usually abolishes sexual behavior in males
        • Exception to both
  • 95. Sexual Behavior
    • Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior
      • Activational: Adult Hormonal Status
        • The more experienced the male, the longer sexual behavior, both arousal and copulation, will persist after castration
        • Prepubertal castration is more effective than post pubertal castration in eliminating sexual behavior
  • 96. Sexual Behavior
    • Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior
      • Activational: Adult Hormonal Status
        • Species differences exist in the effect of prepubertal castration
        • Cats are affected more than dogs
  • 97. Sexual Behavior
    • Physiological Bases of Sexual Behavior
      • Genetically Determined Sex
        • Sex of individual determined at conception
        • Chromosomal sex will determine if fetal gonad develops into ovary or testis
        • Potential for masculine and feminine behavior in both sexes
        • The brain, and therefore behavior, is usually female unless the fetus is exposed to androgen during development
  • 98. Sexual Behavior
    • Inappropriate Mounting by Males
      • Buller-Steer Syndrome
        • Steers display bull like behavior
        • When given a choice steers will mount heifers instead of other steers
  • 99. Sexual Behavior
    • Inappropriate Mounting by Males
      • Buller-Steer Syndrome
        • Confined steers – a few animals seem to attract other to mount
          • Called bullers
          • May be due to estrogen – which could act as attractant
          • Buller does not object to sexual advances
          • Economic concern because it affects 2 to 3 percent of steers in feedlots
          • May be enhanced by crowding and estrogenic implants
          • Probably naturally occurring phenomenon enhanced by crowding and implants
  • 100. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Dysfunction
      • In the wild sexual dysfunction is self-limiting
        • They do not reproduce themselves
      • In farm animals and companion we often perpetuate the sexual dysfunction in an attempt to get a valuable offspring
      • Some females may have physiological estrus but not copulate
  • 101. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Dysfunction
      • Some bulls are night breeders, some are bashful about breeding in the presence of people
      • Some rams fear females
      • Anatomical problems may exist that prevent copulation
        • Injury to penis, deviated penis
  • 102. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Dysfunction
      • Dysfunction divided into two categories
        • Physiological
        • Behavioral
  • 103. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Dysfunction
      • Physiological Dysfunction
        • Hormonal problems in both males and females
        • Disease
        • Poor nutrition
        • Fatigue
  • 104. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Dysfunction
      • Behavioral Dysfunction
        • Neurochemical reasons (low sexual interest)
        • Endorphins – found naturally in brain cause sexual inactivity
        • Loose interest after repeated failure
        • Over use
  • 105. Sexual Behavior
    • Sexual Dysfunction
      • Behavioral Dysfunction
        • Presence of foals retards performance of stallions
        • Males reared in isolation may show no sexual interest toward females
        • Rams reared in homosexual environment show no interest in ewes
        • Imprinting
  • 106. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • Nonseasonal
      • Continually cycling breeder
      • Peak fertility May to June
      • Low fertility December to February
      • Puberty 4 to 24 months of age (usually 6 to 18 months)
      • Estrous cycle 18 to 24 days long (mean of 21 days)
      • Zebu vs. Bos taurus
  • 107. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • Estrous vs. Estrus
  • 108. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • The Cow
        • Onset of Estrus
          • Shows general increase in motor activity and decrease in food intake
          • The more active a cow is, the higher the fertility
          • Shows investigative behavior such as flehmen, sniffing, rubbing, and licking increases
  • 109. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • The Cow
        • Onset of Estrus
          • Pre-mounting behavior such as standing behind another cow and resting the chin on the back of another cow (usually on estrous cow)
          • Bellow
          • Switch her tail or raise and deviate it
  • 110. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • The Cow
        • Onset of Estrus
          • Urinates frequently
          • Stands to be mounted
          • Mounting cows are usually dominant over the mounted cows
          • This interaction between hormonally mediated behavior and social influences
  • 111. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • The Cow
        • Detection of Estrus
          • Vulvar relaxation
          • Vaginal secretion
          • Mounting behavior
          • Standing to be mounted by other cows, androgenized cow or vasectomized bull
  • 112. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • The Cow
        • Clinical Problems of Cows
          • Silent heat
          • False heat
          • Nymphomania
  • 113. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • The Bull
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Bull grazes beside proestrous cow
          • Guards proestrous cow from other cattle
          • Attempts to mount repulsed by cow
          • May attempt to separate cow to secluded location
  • 114. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • The Bull
        • Courtship Behavior
        • Bull smells and licks cow’s vulva
        • Flehmen response
        • As estrus approaches guarding is more marked
  • 115. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • The Bull
        • Courtship Behavior
          • When cow is in estrus bull will display partial erection
          • Accessory gland fluid will drip from the penis
          • Bull nudges flank
  • 116. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • The Bull
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Rest his head on cow’s rump while standing in T-position
          • Mounts and intromission occurs
          • Ejaculation within seconds of intromission
  • 117. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • The Bull
        • Other functions in male sexual behavior
          • Sensory Stimuli
            • Olfactory cues
            • Visual displays
            • Malnutrition
            • Exposure during development
  • 118. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • The Bull
        • Other functions in male sexual behavior
          • Genetic and Experiential Factors
            • Libido may be heritable
            • Serving-capacity may be heritable
  • 119. Sexual Behavior
    • Cow’s Sexual Behavior
      • The Bull
        • Clinical Problems in Bulls
          • Masturbation
          • Impotence
          • Buller Steer
  • 120. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ewe
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Short-day (light breeder)
          • Cycle in fall when days are shorter
          • Polyestrous – cycles several times during one mating period
          • Average cycle for ewe is 16 days (range 14 to 20 days)
  • 121. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ewe
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Estrus receptivity is 30 to 36 hours
          • Puberty tied to time of birth
          • Ewe lambs may reach puberty at 4 months
  • 122. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ewe
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Environment may play a role in the ewe sexual behavior
          • Domestic sheep raised in the tropics and subtropics are non-seasonal breeders
          • In feral sheep predation may be important
  • 123. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ewe
        • The Ram Effect
          • Exposure to rams tends to increase the incidence of estrus
          • Rams presence shortens duration of estrus (physical contact dependent)
          • Rams that court vigorously cause more ewes to ovulate
  • 124. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ewe
        • The Ram Effect
          • Testosterone must be aromatized to produce the ram effect
          • Pheromone is present in the wool, wax, antiorbital gland secretion of the ram
          • The pheromone probably consist of more than one compound
  • 125. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ewe
        • The Ram Effect
          • In sheep the wool odor tends to be more important than urine odor
          • Buck hair increases LH levels and induces ovulation in ewes
          • Ram effect can occur in ewes without the sense of smell
          • Olfactory cues are not necessary, but they may stimulate estrus
  • 126. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ewe
        • Courtship Behavior of Ewe
          • Estrus ewe follows or seeks out a ram
          • As ram approaches, ewe circles, sniff ram’s body and thrust her head against his flank, wags her tail, ewe stands to be mounted
          • Estrus ewes will choose a ram on a two-choice test
  • 127. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ewe
        • Courtship Behavior of Ewe
          • She will usually call frequently with nonspecific bleats and be more active
          • Standing indicates receptiveness
          • Standing estrous occurs in ewes more often at night
  • 128. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ewe
        • Courtship Behavior of Ewe
          • Ewe uses olfactory cues to locate ram
          • Ram-seeking behavior seems correlated with estrogen levels but does not occur without visual and olfactory stimuli of the male
          • Ewes have been observed fighting over access to a ram
  • 129. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ewe
        • Courtship Behavior of Ewe
          • Older more experienced ewes are more successful in gaining access to the ram
          • Ewes seem to prefer rams of their own breed
  • 130. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Sexual Behavior of Free-Ranging Sheep
          • Young rams begin to seek out ewes while with their mothers
          • Ewe reject these young rams
          • Mature rams are in ram flocks
          • Move toward ewes for breeding season
  • 131. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Sexual Behavior of Free-Ranging Sheep
          • Chase away strange rams, but remain friendly with flock males
          • Each ram for himself as season progresses
          • All contest have been settled by time ewes show estrus
  • 132. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Sexual Behavior of Free-Ranging Sheep
          • Winner ram male breeds the most ewes
          • Stays with each ewe ½ to 1 day performing the courtship behavior before copulation
          • Reproductive capacity of ram is not seasonal
          • Courtship is more pronounced in rams than ewes
  • 133. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Rams do flehmen response after sniffing urine or genitalia
          • Ram licks genitalia of ewe as form of tactile stimulation
          • Rams distinguish between estrus and estrous ewe by olfaction
  • 134. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Rams can perform with sensory ewes, by testing ewes willingness to stand for mounting
          • Ewes differ in their sexual attractiveness to rams
          • Ram exhibits foreleg kicking as he prepares to mount
  • 135.
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Nudges ewe with his head
          • Vocalizes during courtship
          • After intromission ejaculation occurs immediately
          • Rams recover from sexual exhaustion when the post-copulatory ewe is replaced with a strange ewe
    Sexual Behavior
  • 136. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Evidence that habituation to a sexual partner may last several weeks depending on satiation
          • This type of behavior increases fertility in the domestic flock
          • Courtship behavior is a good measure of libido
          • Rams with high levels of libido have higher serving capacity
  • 137. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Prenatal Effect
          • Intrauterine environment influences subsequent ram behavior
          • Rams born co-twin to a ram have a higher serving capacity than those born co-twin to a ewe
          • The larger the litter, the higher serving capacity of its male members
  • 138. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Rearing Effects
          • Young rams must have a heterosexual experience between weaning and 1 year of age for them to be heterosexual
          • Early exposure of young rams to estrous ewes will enhance sexual development
  • 139. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Dominance Effect
          • Dominance effects can influence flock fertility
          • Dominate ram will mate with most ewes, if he’s infertile ewe will not conceive
  • 140. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Dominance Effect
          • Rams, like ewes, prefer males of their own or their dam’s breed
          • Effect of prepubertal castration are extremely variable
          • Postpubertal castration causes decreased sexual activity in rams
  • 141. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Clinical Problems of Rams
          • Isolation causes delayed mating ability
          • Males raised in monosexual groups are sexually inhibited or show homosexual preferences
  • 142. Sexual Behavior
    • Sheep
      • The Ram
        • Clinical Problems of Rams
          • Continuous exposure to ewes eventually stimulates heterosexual behavior in most rams
          • Some young rams are fearful of estrous ewes
  • 143. Sexual Behavior
    • Goats
      • Free-Ranging Goats
        • During rut, feral bucks join female groups and fight for estrous does
        • Older bucks select with fewer males
        • Young bucks select groups with large numbers of does
  • 144. Sexual Behavior
    • Goats
      • Free-Ranging Goats
        • Close relationship between agonistic and sexual behaviors in male goats
        • Does are mate selective
        • Visual displays and vocalizations occur by males in courtship
        • Bucks do flehmen response
  • 145. Sexual Behavior
    • Goats
      • The Doe
        • Goats are short-day breeders
        • Estrus does show increase in tail wagging, vocalization, urination, and mounting of other females
        • Does are in estrus 39 hours once every twenty to twenty-one days
  • 146. Sexual Behavior
    • Goats
      • The Buck
        • Buck behavior is similar to ram behavior
        • Stomping foreleg and vocalization during courtship
        • Unique to buck is urination by back on his own forelegs and beard during courtship (metabolic fitness)
  • 147. Sexual Behavior
    • Goats
      • The Buck
        • Behavior is termed enurination
        • Occasionally mouthing of penis occurs
        • Some bucks show homo- and heterosexual behavior
  • 148. Sexual Behavior
    • Goats
      • The Buck
        • Bucks have a sexual mate preference
        • Post-pubertal castration decreases activity in bucks
  • 149. Sexual Behavior
    • Goats
      • Clinical Problems
        • The Doe
          • Silent heat – especially first cycle of season
  • 150. Sexual Behavior
    • Goats
      • Clinical Problems
        • The Buck
          • Bucks have color preference – prefer white does
  • 151. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • Free-Ranging Horses
        • Courting Behavior
          • Free-ranging mares seek out stallions and display signs of estrus to them
          • Stallions base their avoidance of incest on familiarity rather than on kin recognition
          • Free ranging stallions usually acquire harem at age 6
          • Young stallions spend time in bachelor herds
  • 152. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Mare
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Mares are long-day breeders, show most activity during spring
          • Estrous cycle is 21 days
          • Estrus is 5 to 6 days
  • 153. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Mare
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Breed differences exist for length of estrus, but may not be important
          • Teasers are used to determine receptivity of the mare
          • Nonreceptive mares will squeal, strike fore foot, kick, and move away
  • 154. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Mare
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Receptive mares are immobile, permits teaser to nibble her rump and withers
          • Characteristic breeding expression, ears turned backward but not flattened, lips held loosely, basewide squatting stance, urinates frequently, rhythmically exposing clitoris by “winking ”
  • 155. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Mare
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Mares show individual preferences for stallions
          • Vocalization by courting stallions is important to mare
  • 156. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Mare
        • Foal Heat
          • Estrus at 8 to 9 day following foaling
          • Mares are often bred on foal heat, but she does not show usual signs of estrus
  • 157. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Mare
        • Clinical Problems of Mares
          • Split and prolonged estrus
          • Anestrus
          • Silent heat
          • Psychic heat
          • Excessive sexual behavior
            • Nymphomania (persistent follicles)
            • Male sexual behavior (granulosa cell tumors)
  • 158. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Mare
        • Clinical Problems of Mares
          • Effect of estrous cycle on performance
            • Can influence performance
  • 159. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Stallion
        • Exhibits libido through the year but show peak sexual behavior in the spring
        • Social situation is important to sexual behavior in stallions
        • Dominant stallion usually sires foal
  • 160. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Stallion
        • Stallion has three stages of activity; bachelor, dominant stallion in band, subordinate stallion in band
        • Stallion preference is affected by age
  • 161. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Stallion
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Varies with management practices
          • Free ranging conditions
            • Driving, herding, or snaking with head down position from the presence of another stallion
            • Prancing is done to display to other stallions
  • 162. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Stallion
        • Courtship Behavior
          • The degree of penile erection is related to degree of sexual excitement
          • Foreplay is important in stallion performance
          • Stallions may tend a mare for several days before she is receptive
  • 163. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Stallion
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Nipping and nuzzling begins at the mare’s head and proceeds along body to the perineal area
          • Flehmen response
          • Vocalization occurs
  • 164. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Stallion
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Mare allows stallion to lick around her hear legs and back
          • During copulation, the stallion rest his sternum on the mare's croup and bites her neck
          • Ejaculation occurs around fifteen seconds after intromission
          • After copulation the pair separates
  • 165. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Stallion
        • Sensory Stimuli
          • Visual and sensory stimuli are vital to the display of sexual behavior, but can be replaced through learning
  • 166. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Stallion
        • Clinical Problems of Stallions
          • Behavioral problems
          • Decreased libido
          • Performance declines with novelty
          • Stallions will not mount
  • 167. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Stallion
        • Clinical Problems of Stallions
          • Do not ejaculate
          • Stallion that does not show interest in receptive mares
          • Stallions that savage mares or handlers
  • 168. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Stallion
        • Clinical Problems of Stallions
          • Self-mutilation
          • Masturbation
          • Too much sexual experience may lower libido
  • 169. Sexual Behavior
    • Horses
      • The Stallion
        • Clinical Problems of Stallions
          • Physical impairment injury
          • Breeding environment
          • Overuse and rough handling
          • Castration
  • 170. Sexual Behavior
    • Pigs
      • The Sow
        • Sow is a nonseasonal breeder
        • Cycles every 18 to 24 days (mean of 21 days)
        • Puberty achieved at 5 to 8 months of age
        • Male effect leads to the occurrence of the cycle at an earlier age
  • 171. Sexual Behavior
    • Pigs
      • The Sow
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Increased activity as estrus approaches
          • Urination is frequent
          • Vocalization to the male
          • Vocalization is a soft rhythmic grunt
  • 172. Sexual Behavior
    • Pigs
      • The Sow
        • Estrous Cycle
          • She approaches the boar and sniffs around the head and genitals
          • Estrous sows attempt to mount other estrous sows
          • Sow searches for boar, olfactory stimuli alone will instigate this searching
  • 173. Sexual Behavior
    • Pigs
      • The Sow
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Boars and sows show individual differences in mate selection
          • Boars differ in the degree to which they attract sows, but this attraction is not libido driven
          • Searching behavior tends to be under endogenous control
  • 174. Sexual Behavior
    • Pigs
      • The Sow
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Receptivity requires both tactile and olfactory stimuli
          • Boars have a courting song
          • Easier to detect estrus if boar is across aisle from sow rather than in adjoining pen
  • 175. Sexual Behavior
    • Pigs
      • The Sow
        • Clinical Problems of Sows
          • Mate preference
          • Breed differences in the length of estrus are seen
          • Failure to reproduce in confinement
  • 176. Sexual Behavior
    • Pigs
      • The Boar
        • Courtship Behavior
          • After contact with estrous sow, the boar will pursue the female, nosing her sides, flanks, and vulva
          • Boar has courting song, series of soft grunts, about 6 to 8 per second
          • Tactile stimulation of the female increases intensity as the boar’s sexual excitement increases
  • 177. Sexual Behavior
    • Pigs
      • The Boar
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Boar emits urine rhythmically
          • Several marking attempts are made until immobility is achieved
          • Ejaculation occurs within 3 to 20 minutes after intromission
  • 178. Sexual Behavior
    • Pigs
      • The Boar
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Consort behavior continues for a short time following copulation
          • Olfactory cues seem unimportant in stimulating a boar to mount a female
          • Immobility response arouse the boar
  • 179. Sexual Behavior
    • Pigs
      • The Boar
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Early social environment is important to later sexual behavior
          • Early isolation reduces copulatory response in boars
          • Group raised boars are more aggressive breeders than isolates
          • Testosterone and corticosteroid (cortisol) levels are higher in boars that are in contact with sows
  • 180. Sexual Behavior
    • Pigs
      • The Boar
        • Clinical Problems of Boars
          • Libido may be impaired through mismanagement of young boars
          • Low libido has been associated high plane of nutrition
          • Aggression of boar toward humans
  • 181. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Bitch
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Nonseasonal breeder, unlike most of its canid relatives
          • Cycle is highly variable
          • One to four cycles yearly with two being most usual
  • 182. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Bitch
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Onset of puberty varies greatly
          • Small breeds reach puberty earlier or of younger age than larger breeds
          • Age of puberty ranges from 6 to 15 months
  • 183. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Bitch
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Courtship behavior is marked by play behavior in the proestrous part of the cycle
          • Bitch runs with male, approaching him with using play bow of puppies
          • Whimpers submissively
  • 184. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Bitch
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Proestrous bitch licks body and genitalia of male
          • Urination becomes more frequent as estrus approaches
          • Posture used will be squat-raise
  • 185. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Bitch
        • Courtship Behavior
          • In proestrus she will not let male mount
          • During estrus she stands more quietly
          • Allows male to investigate
          • She stands to be mounted and intromission
  • 186. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Bitch
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Upon male touching her vulva she flexes body laterally
          • After intromission the copulatory lock or tie
  • 187. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Bitch
        • Courtship Behavior
          • If male shows no interest or little interest, the bitch will present hindquarters to the male and back into him while deviating her tail
          • An older experienced bitch may mount young inexperienced male
  • 188. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Bitch
        • Courtship in Free-Ranging Dogs
          • Stray bitches avoid male littermates but may be mated by persistent brother
          • Estrous females may attract 2 to 7 males
          • Show less proceptive behavior in presence of many males with less active rejection of nonpreferred males
  • 189. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Bitch
        • Clinical Problems of Bitches
          • Females may refuse males for any of several reasons
          • Bitch may show dominance over the male by standing over him or allow him to approach from behind
          • Dominance may prevent incest
          • Female preference for certain males
  • 190. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Dog
        • The male (dog) sometimes called “stud dog”
        • Sexual behavior may appear in five-week-old male pups
        • Mounting behavior becomes an important part of the males’ social repertoire as it matures
  • 191. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Dog
      • Mounting is a sign of dominance
      • A submissive animal stands to be mounted
      • Social contact is vital to the development of normal sexual behavior
  • 192. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Dog
        • Courtship of Male Dog
          • Male dogs are attracted to estrous bitches
          • Urine of the estrous bitch is more attractive to the male than is vaginal secretions
  • 193. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Dog
        • Courtship of Male Dog
          • Contains a pheromone that tends to be a release of sexual behavior in males
          • Male dogs do “tonguing” instead of flehmen
          • Experience plays a role, experienced male dogs do less play activity then less inexperienced dogs
          • Male dog mounts in response to immobility response of female
  • 194. Sexual Behavior
    • Dogs
      • The Dog
        • Clinical Problems of Dogs
          • Impotence
          • Lack of socialization
          • Timidity
          • Environmental Disturbances
          • Masturbation
          • Sexual Behavior After Castration
  • 195. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • Free-Ranging Cats
        • In a feral situation, one estrous queen may be surrounded by a group of toms
        • Competition among toms, one tom may knock another tom off an estrous queen or mount the tom that has mounted estrous queen
        • Dominance hierarchy based on size and age, gives dominant tom priority of access to queens
  • 196. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • Free-Ranging Cats
        • Dominant males stay closer to estrous queens then subordinate males
        • In feral state, there seems to be only one sexually active tom
        • Pair-bonding does not occur, but short consort behavior normally occurs
  • 197. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • Free-Ranging Cats
        • A male and female may remain together for several hours or days, mating many times
        • Juvenile males tend to move away from their birth area before their third year
  • 198. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Seasonally polyestrous
          • Most cats cycle at least twice yearly if not bred
          • Under today’s management individual cats may be in estrus at any season
  • 199. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Estrous Cycle
          • If not pregnant, the queen will cycle every 21 days for several months
          • Estrus last 4 days if copulation occurs and 9 to 10 days if it does not occur
          • The domestic cat is an induced ovulator, copulation occurs when queen is receptive
  • 200. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Estrous Cycle
          • Artificial stimulation of the vagina induces ovulation and shorten the receptive time
          • May be used as management tool to present repeated heats
          • Females reach puberty at six to ten months, varies greatly
          • Females try to avoid incest
  • 201. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Catnip
          • Plant that has compound that produces behavior like estrous
          • It is a pleasure inducer
          • Catnip produces behavior similar to estrous behavior but not identical with estrous behavior
  • 202. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Catnip
          • Catnip does not cause vulvar presentation, vocalization, or foot treading
          • Catnip causes head-shake in cats (in both queens and toms)
          • It is thought that catnip plant contains compound similar to a compound in tom urine to which most cats are sensitive
  • 203. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Estrous female will call and purr
          • She is restless and shows increased general motor activity
          • Especially affectionate toward owner
          • Urination occurs frequently, she may spray
  • 204. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Rubs head and flank on furniture or vertical objects
          • She crouches, elevates her perineal region and treads with her rear legs
          • Opening and closing of paws on front feet
  • 205. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Rolling, squirming, and stretching are seen (occurs with or without tom)
          • During proestrus she will roll and solicit male’s attention, but is aggressive if male tries to mount
          • When fully receptive, she becomes immobile and stands crouched with her head between her forelegs
  • 206. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Courtship Behavior
          • May run a short distance from toms, test strength of toms
          • Tail deviated
          • Allows male to mount
  • 207. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Clinical Problems of Queens
          • Female-Female
            • Female-female mounting behavior is seen in colony situations, otherwise it’s rare
            • May squirm underneath each other when trying to present to an inaccessible male
  • 208. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Clinical Problems of Queens
          • Female-Female
            • One female may mount the other and do pelvic thrusting
            • Queens have male mate preferences
  • 209. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Clinical Problems of Queens
          • Effect of Ovariohysterectomy (Spaying)
            • Performed quite frequently on domestic cat
            • Eliminates sexual behavior
  • 210. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Queen
        • Clinical Problems of Queen
          • Effect of Ovariohysterectomy (Spaying)
            • Affects other behavior (aggression between cats is increased)
            • Causes change in queen’s body odor
            • Maternal behavior may be displayed
  • 211. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Tom
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Male locates estrous female via olfactory cues from pheromones in urine and sebaceous gland secretions
          • Male placed with female in a mating situation spends time investigating and marking the area with urine and anal gland secretion before mating
  • 212. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Tom
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Tom flehmen response is called “gape”
          • Tom vocalizes to the queen, circles her, and investigates her genitalia
          • He is rebuffed by nonreceptive queen
  • 213. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Tom
        • Courtship Behavior
          • Male first grabs neck of estrus queen
          • Then mounts
          • Rubs queen with forepaws
          • Intromission follows a forward stepping with arched back
  • 214. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Tom
      • Courtship Behavior
        • Ejaculation occurs seconds after intromission
        • Copulatory cry by queen with intromission
        • Upon retraction female rolls and claws at the male
        • Copulation may occur every ten to fifteen minutes for several hours
  • 215. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Tom
        • Clinical Problems of Toms
          • Reluctant tom to breed due to aggression of queen
          • Lack of experience
          • May loose interest
          • May not be tom of preference
  • 216. Sexual Behavior
    • Cats
      • The Tom
        • Effects of Castration
          • In pets prepubertal castration generally eliminates sexually behavior
          • Early castration eliminates spraying
          • Post-pubertal castration is more effective in eliminating fighting, roaming, and spraying than post-pubertal castration of dogs
          • Does not completely eliminate mounting behavior