Institute for Interstellar Studies
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Institute for Interstellar Studies

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Lecture on Institute of Interstellar Studies given by Kelvin Long at UKSEDS25 conference.

Lecture on Institute of Interstellar Studies given by Kelvin Long at UKSEDS25 conference.

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Institute for Interstellar Studies Institute for Interstellar Studies Presentation Transcript

  • Interstellar Flight:Discovering the Limits of the Possible Kelvin F. Long kelvin.long@i4is.org Executive Director Institute for Interstellar Studies Chief Editor, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society Presented at UKSEDS, University of Bristol, England, February 2013
  • Contents • The British Interplanetary Society • Interstellar Studies • The Institute for Interstellar Studies 2
  • The British Interplanetary Society www.bis-space.com 3
  • The British Interplanetary Society www.bis-space.com 4
  • BIS (from imagination to reality) THE IMAGINATION WALL THE REALITY WALL BRITISH INTERPLANETARY SOCIETYIdeas (DOMAIN) IndustryConjecture AcademiaCreativity GovernmentConcepts InventionsStories TechnologiesSolutions Spin-offsphilosophy careers SPIN-IN SPIN-OUT 5
  • BIS Projects (Imagination to Reality)BIS Project Megaroc (1946) NASA Project Mercury-Redstone (1960-61) 6
  • BIS Projects (Imagination to Reality)Ross, H, “Lunar Space Suit”, Jbis, 9, 1, January 1950. 7
  • BIS Projects (Imagination to Reality)J.Verne, “From Earth to the Moon”, 1865 H.G.Wells, “The First Men in the Moon”, 1901 Ross, H.E, “The BIS Space-Ship”1939. NASA Project Apollo (1969) 8
  • BIS Project KickSatProject KickSat is an initiative of Zac Manchester, CornellUniversity, USA and the BIS are launching a fleet of ChipSats orSprites into Earth orbit. RECRUITS NEEDED!! 9
  • BIS Project 2033 (NEW Launch)What is the state of space exploration in the year 2033?Are you the next visionary?Send us your submission RECRUITS NEEDED!! 10
  • Alpha Centauri Prize (New) RECRUITS NEEDED!! 11
  • BIS Project STARDROP (New Launch) Solar Thermal Amplified Radiation Dynamic Relay of Orbiting PowerA project to design a 10 GW Solar Collector station in space capable ofdelivering energy to a space habitat at the L5 point. RECRUITS NEEDED!! 12
  • Standard Aerospace Engineering Credit: NASA
  • Extreme Aerospace Engineering Credit: Adrian Mann
  • “Imagining” Starships Credit: David A Hardy
  • Motivations “I can never look now at the Milky Way without wondering from which of those banked clouds of stars the emissaries are coming…I do not think we will have to wait for long”. Arthur C Clarke Sir Arthur C. Clarke 16
  • The Size of Space and Beyond • Barred spiral galaxy • 100-400 billion stars • Oldest 13.2 billion years • 1×1012Msun • 200 million years to rotate • 27kLY to the centre from the Sun • 1MLY Diameter • 1kLY thick • Even if we could travel at the speed of light, would take 27,000 years to reach Galactic centre and would take 1 millions years for any starship to cross entire galaxy, or 1,000 years to penetrate galactic thickness.The Milky Way galaxy • Implications for Fermi Paradox: A statement on the apparent contradiction between our theoretical expectations for intelligent life in the Universe and our observations. 17
  • Voyager 1 • Launched 1977 • Currently at around 120 AU distance • 1AU = 1.496×1011 m, so Voyager at 1.795×1013m. Light travels at 3×108 m/s, so Voyager at 59,840 s, 997 minutes or 16.62 light hours away. • Travelling at 17.4 km/s or 3.67 AU/year, which is 0.0058%c. • So would take 74,138 years to reach Alpha Centauri if it was pointing that way. • Conclusion: We need to go faster and further. 19
  • Interstellar Studies (1952) Shepherd, L, “Interstellar Flight”, JBIS, 11, 1952. 20
  • Interstellar Books 21
  • Fundamental Requirements• Energy: 1018 – 1020 J• Power: 10s - 100s GW• Cost $billions - $trillions• Mission Time: 50 – 100s years• Cruise Velocity: 2,000 – 3,000 AU/year• Exhaust Velocity: 8,000 – 10,000 km/s• Acceleration: 0.01 < g < 1• Distance: 4 < LY < 20• Unmanned Robotic Flyby Probe• Unmanned Robotic Flyby Return Probe• Unmanned Robotic Orbital Probe• Crewed Minimum Return Ship• Crewed Small Colony Ship• Crewed Large World Ship
  • Advanced Space Propulsion • Electric • Fission • Nuclear Electric • Fission/Fusion • Laser Thermal • Fusion • Solar Thermal • External Nuclear Pulse • Nuclear Thermal • Antimatter Catalysed Fusion • Plasma Drives • Interstellar Ramjets • EM Mass Drivers • Negative Energy • Particle Beamers • Space Drives • Solar Sails • Warp Drives • Laser Sails • Worm Holes • Microwave Beam Sails • Time MachinesThe technology readiness maturity distinguishesbetween ‘imagination’ and ‘reality’, conjecture andapplication. Physics  Engineering  Economics √ √ √ 23
  • Energy Sources for Starships• Chemical: 0.000001 unit, ~13 MJ/kg• Nuclear Fission: ×1unit, ~82 million MJ/kg• Nuclear Fusion: ×10 units, ~347 million MJ/kg • Nuclear Fission/Fusion • Antimatter Catalysed Fusion• Antimatter: ×1,000 unit, 90 billion MJ/kg• Propellantless Solutions • Solar Sails • Laser Sails • Interstellar Ramjets• Space Drives & Metric Drives • Vacuum Energy • Dark Energy • Negative Energy • Warp Drives 24
  • The Physics of Nuclear Fusion• Sun confines fusion plasma by gravitational field.• Tokamak uses magnetic field to confine plasma.• ICF uses inertial mass of material to confine plasma.• Balance of compression & ignition to deliver fusion energy to engine.• Ideal reactions: D(T,He4)n (radioactive) D(He3,He4)p (charged particle, minimal shielding required). • D + T He4(3.52MeV) + n(14.06MeV) • D + D  T(1.01MeV) + p(3.03MeV) • D + D  He3(0.82MeV) +n(2.45MeV) • D + He3 He4(3.67MeV) + p(14.67MeV) • Li6 + n  T + He4 + 4.8MeV • Li7 + n  T + He4 + n - 2.5MeV 25
  • Fusion Triple Product (Lawson Criteria) nT  10 m sKeV 21 3For ~10keV plasma n  10 m s 20 3Confinement n  Inertial ~1023cm-3 <1ns Magnetic 10-6cm-3 ~few sec 26
  • National Ignition Facility (US)• Neodymium glass laser• Started operation 2009.• 192 beams• Deliver 1.8MJ to target.• Potential output power 20MJ for ns but could be high as 45MJ.• Achievable gains >10. 27
  • Project Daedalus (BIS, 1973-1978) Bond, A et al., “Project Daedalus”, Final Study Report, JBIS Special Supplement, 1978. Credit: Adrian Mann 28
  • Project Daedalus (BIS, 1973-1978) 29
  • 30
  • Credit: Adrian Mann 31
  • Credit: Adrian Mann 32
  • Project Longshot (1988) Beals, K.A et al., Projecty Longshot, An Unmanned Probe to Alpha Centauri, N89-16904, 1988. Credit: Christian Darkin
  • Project Orion (1950s-1960s)Dyson, F, Interstellar Transport,Physics Today, 21, 10, October 1968. 34
  • Enzmann Colony Starship (1960s)Crowl, A, “The Enzmann Starship: History &Engineering Appraisal”, JBIS, 65, 6, June2012. 35 Credit: David Hardy
  • World Ships World Ships (1980s)Martin, A.R, World Ships – Concept, Cause, Cost, Bond, A & A.R.Martin, World Ships – An Assessment ofConstruction and Colonisation, JBIS, 37, pp.243- the Engineering Feasibility, JBIS, 37, pp.254-266, pp.254-253, pp.243-253, June 1984. 266, June 1984. 36 Credit: Adrian Mann
  • Space Infrastructure (Skylon) Credit: Adrian Mann and Reaction Engines Ltd
  • STARWISP (1984)1984: Starwisp: An Ultra-Light Interstellar Probe,J.Spacecraft & Rockets, 21, May-June, pp.345-350,Robert L. Forward. Credit: Mark A.Garlick
  • Interstellar Ramjet (1960) Bussard, R.W, “Galactic Matter & Interstellar Flight”, Astronautica Acta, 6, Fasc.4,1960. 39 Credit: Adrian Mann
  • 1963: Carl Sagan & Relativistic Flight momrel  1 v2 / c2 2c 1  an S  t  cosh 1  2  an  2c  Sagan, C, “Direct Contact Among Galactic Civilizations by Relativistic Interstellar Spaceflight”, Planet.Space Sci, Vol, 11, 1963.
  • Breakthrough Propulsion Physics (1994) 41
  • Warp Drive Physicsds  dt  [dx  vs (t ) f (rs (t ))dt ]  dy  dz 2 2 2 2 2 Alcubierre, M, The Warp Drive: Hyper-Fast Travel within General Relativity, Class.Quantum Grav, 11-5, L73-L77, 1994. 42
  • NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project1996 - 2002Three visionary breakthroughswere identified: (1) Mass: propulsion that requires no propellant (2) Speed: propulsion that circumvents existing speed limits (3) Energy: breakthrough methods of energy production to power such devices. 43
  • 45
  • Project Icarus Pathfinder (1,000 AU) and Starfinder (10,000 AU) Concepts 46
  • Building an Interstellar Society• Political• Economic• Business• Socio/cultural• Philosophical • (e.g. religious)• Psychological• Legal• Scientific• Technological 47
  • The Emergence of “Interstellar Studies” 2000s • Organisation 1990s • Co-ordination “To the Stars…” 1980s • Co-operation • Friendly Competition • Programmatics • Strategic Roadmaps 1970s • BIS • Technology Roadmaps • TZF • Mission Demonstrations • Icarus Interstellar • Infrastructure • 100YSS • Funding • Books • I4IS 1960s • Documentaries • Films • Articles • Concepts • Papers • Designs 1950s • Projects • Inventions • Mission Architectures • Propulsion Specific • Sub-systems • Feasibility Requirements • Problem Scoping • Constraints • Requirements• Ideas•• Imagination Conjecture “…but with a Plan”• Science Fiction 48
  • 49
  • The seeds of an Idea 50
  • 51
  • I4IS Logo “Scientia ad sidera” Knowledge to the Stars52
  • Mission & Vision• Mission Statement:"The mission of the Institute for Interstellar Studies is tofoster and promote education, knowledge and technicalcapabilities which lead to designs, technologies or enterprisethat will enable the construction and launch of interstellarspacecraft."• Vision Statement:"We aspire towards an optimistic future for humans on Earthand in space. Our bold vision is to be an organisation which iscentral to catalysing the conditions in society over the nextcentury to enable robotic and human exploration of thefrontier beyond our Solar System and to other stars, as partof a long-term enduring strategy and towards a sustainablespace-based economy. 53
  • Web Sites www.I4IS.org www.interstellarindex.com 54
  • I4IS Newsletter: PrincipiumEditor: Keith CooperProduction: Adrian Mann 55
  • Business Model 56
  • Educational Academy• Purpose: To build the knowledge and people capability• 3 internal students• 4 ISU Msc students: • James Harpur, “design of 100 kg interstellar probe” • Piotr Murzionak, design of an 550-1000 AU interstellar precursor mission” • Wei Wang, Review of deceleration options for an interstellar probe” • Eric Franks, “Agricultural methods for microgravity environments”. 57
  • Research & Development• Purpose: To conduct the fundamental research, solve the problems, derive solutions, insights and designs. • CATSTAR • OAKTREE • Bussard • SENTINEL • Quantum Light • Unruh • BAIR • Casimir • GeV 58
  • Enterprise• Purpose: To develop and spin-out the technology developments as innovations, business or enterprise.• Similar to the Stanford University model of the 1940s and 1950s when dean of engineering Frederick Terman encouraged faculty and graduates to start their own companies, e.g. Hewlett-Packard, Varian Associates…Silicon Valley 59
  • Project OAKTREE 60
  • Project Bussard 61
  • Project SENTINEL 62
  • Project Quantum Light 63
  • Project Unruh 64
  • Project BAIR 65
  • Project Casimir 66
  • Project GeV 67
  • CATSTAR PROGRAM CubeSat Architecture Tests for Space Technology And ReadinessGoal: To design 5. Missionconcepts and build Appication 4. Orbitalmissions cheaply which System (~$1000,000s)can demonstrate Demonstrator (~$100,000s)interstellar relatedtechnologies usingCubeSat and smaller 3. Engineering Grounddevices, related Demonstrationarchitectures. (~$10,000s) 2. Physics Principles Validated (~$1000s) 1. Physics Principles Understood (~$100s)
  • “Travel to the stars will be difficult and expensive. It will take decades of time, GW of power, kg of mass-energy and trillions of dollars…interstellar travel will always be difficult and expensive, but it can no longer be considered impossible”. Dr Robert Forward, 1996.www.i4is.org