A N a t i o n a l S p a c e Te c h n o l o g y       Strategy for the UK               A High Growth Sector   N a t i o n ...
Chairman’s Foreword                                       The Space Innovation Growth Team through the Space              ...
ContentsChairman’s Foreword                                       21. Executive Summary                                   ...
1                              Executive Summary         Space is Earth’s Nervous System               i                  ...
U K N AT IO N AL S PACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY                Feeling The Benefits of Space   Hasita is unaware that she...
1                              Executive Summary                                                                growth and...
2                                Strategic PrinciplesThe National Space Technology Strategy (NSTS) is              • To en...
3                                Overview of the Space Sector:                                 Markets and BackgroundFor a...
U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGYvery broad, touching on all aspects of modern life. In      future markets...
3                             Overview of the Space Sector:                              Markets and BackgroundThe growth ...
U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGYparticularly ESA and EU funding and resourcesto achieve our aims, but also...
4                                 Rationale of the                       National Space Technology StrategyThe aim of the ...
U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGYThe highest priority for technology investment for both    Automotive wher...
5                Technology Themes and RoadmapsThe National Space Technology Strategy is articulated       • Presentation ...
U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY              5.1 Telecommunications                                      ...
5                 Technology Themes and Roadmaps                      5.2 Sensing                                         ...
U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY       5.3 Position, Navigation and Timing                   The roadmap h...
5                 Technology Themes and Roadmaps   specify the capabilities and requirements of PNT             • Social m...
U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY                                                            • Penetrators ...
5                    Technology Themes and Roadmaps                                                                       ...
U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGYThis first issue of the NSTS technology roadmaps                          ...
6                                Delivering the                     Space Innovation and Growth Strategy                  ...
U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY• An enhanced profile of space on the whole as a result                 ap...
7                       National Space Technology Strategy                                  GovernanceThe Space Leadership...
U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY                             About the Space Special Interest GroupThe Tec...
U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY                       Notes                                              ...
All images in this document are reproduced with the kind permission of: QinetiQ, Astrium, STFC-RAL/CEOI, QUB/CEOI, AvantiC...
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UKSA National Space Technology Strategy


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UKSA National Space Technology Strategy

  1. 1. A N a t i o n a l S p a c e Te c h n o l o g y Strategy for the UK A High Growth Sector N a t i o n a l S p a c e Te c h n o l o g y S t e e r i n g G r o u p
  2. 2. Chairman’s Foreword The Space Innovation Growth Team through the Space Innovation and Growth Strategy (IGS) published an extensive and detailed report in 2010. The report was prepared by a team of experts selected from across industry, academia and central government and made a clear set of recommendations. I had the pleasure to chair the Technologies, Capabilities and Facilities work stream whose work set a strong foundation for the third IGS recommendation which stated: “The UK Government and industry should establish a National Space Technology Strategy (NSTS), with a clearly identifiable budget separate and additional to ESA and research council budgets. This recommendation is a key building block in delivering the jobs and economic growth planned, and should be established quickly and funded properly. A National Space Technology Steering Group should be set up immediately to oversee the NSTS, chaired by industry, but with Government representation”. In August 2010 the National Space Technology Steering Group was created, which I now chair and has representation from Government departments and agencies, industry and academia. This Group with support from the Space Special Interest Group has pulled together this document, the National Space Technology Strategy with a suite of underpinning technology roadmaps. It identifies the Strategy’s objectives and introduces an initial set of 5 sector roadmaps building on the IGS data and conclusions updated through a series of roadmap workshops held with the UK space community through September 2010. The roadmaps are sector based, providing a clear vision and cohesive technology strategy for UK space activities. They bring together the institutional, commercial and scientific objectives and respond to the wider UK challenges of meeting society’s needs. During the next few months we intend to harmonise further the relationship between this, the UK Programme and other international activities as well as seeking to draw out cross-cutting themes. These approaches will maximise the UK’s engagement and impact on the global space economy. I encourage you to read the summary and following document with a view to engaging at all levels to enable delivery of the National Space Technology Strategy. The effort to create the document and roadmaps should not be underestimated and has involved extensive consultation across the UK space community over 6 months; I wish to thank the National Space Technology Steering Group, the Space Special Interest Group and the community at large for their time and contributions in delivering what follows. Sir Keith O’Nions Chairman National Space Technology Strategy Group Rector of Imperial College London March 20112
  3. 3. ContentsChairman’s Foreword 21. Executive Summary 42. Strategic Principles of the Space Sector 73. Overview of the Space Sector 84. Role of the National Space Technology Strategy 125. Technology Themes and Roadmaps 146. Delivering the Space Innovation Growth Strategy 227. Governance of the National Space Technology Strategy 24 3
  4. 4. 1 Executive Summary Space is Earth’s Nervous System i technologies and innovation needed to increase market share and benefit from wealth-generating opportunitiesFrom monitoring crop yields to measuring ice cover; in the short, medium and long term.protecting national security or our shared environment,delivering information instantly, anywhere in the world or For this to be realised, however, a new approach ofsafeguarding teenage drivers on local streets, the more additional investment by Government is essential.we understand about what space can do for us, the morewe want from it. Competitors Old and NewThe Innovation and Growth Strategy confirmed thatthe worldwide market for its services is predicted to Brazil, Russia, India and China are among the nationsgrow by 5% annually from £160bn to £400bn p.a within investing heavily in space, looking to claim a slice of thistwenty years rapidly expanding market. Our ‘traditional’ space-trading rivals in France, Germany and the US are doing likewise. The knowledge, infrastructure and success of the UK The UK Space Sector – Growing Success space sector currently presents a formidable barrier to entry for would-be rivals.For the past decade it has achieved year-on-year growthof 9%, a figure more commonly associated with China’s However, the pace of development is such that, were we‘economic miracle’. This rate has been maintained despite to erode our technology research and development baserecession. It manifests itself in a truly national, export- through under-investment, an advantage earned overled industry employing more than 70,000 people and thirty years could be lost within five.contributing £6.5bn to the economy each year, directlyand through its wider economic impact. Revenues in In this scenario, we would not be looking to growthis sector could readily rise from £6.5bn to £40bn p.a. our market share and create new jobs; we would beby 2030, if the UK grows its share of the global space fighting simply to cling on to what we have, vulnerableeconomy from the 6% to 10%. to multinational corporations transferring business, expertise and intellectual property to other moreThis is an achievable aspiration, but only if we make the conducive environments. Having the ability to be firstright investment decisions now. to market which with technical superiority will allow the UK to capture a greater proportion of the globalThe National Space Technology Strategy is the result growth available. The challenge should certainly notof an inclusive, six month process that distilled the be underestimated. But nor should our ability to seizeviews and expertise of all parts of the space sector into the day.a series of clear, actionable roadmaps. Market led, theStrategy details how the UK can develop and deploy the We do not need to match the investment levels of rivals 4 6
  5. 5. U K N AT IO N AL S PACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY Feeling The Benefits of Space Hasita is unaware that she’s part of the new space age. But that’s Behind them, unnoticed, is one of the companies that first put this about to change. Ten years old and dashing down a dusty path corner of the Capital on the global map – Inmarsat. A world leader in flanked by swaying wheat fields, she has abandoned early plans to be maritime and aircraft communications, its fleet of satellites is controlled a film star and set her sights on becoming a doctor. Or an architect. from a mission control room high above the whirling intersection. Either would be an achievement in a region where less than 4% of the Should disaster strike, anywhere in the world, the people in this room population go on to higher education. will be amongst the first to respond, re-tasking satellites in order to provide vital voice and data capability for the rescue services, state At school, there is nervous chatter as Hasita and her classmates take agencies, media and humanitarian organisations on the ground. their places in front of a computer. There are just five in the school and today it is their turn to use them. The teacher produces a mobile Matt Jones, deftly dodging the kids on his bike, knows about Inmarsat phone and smiles. The students glance at each other. This is going to and the power of data. Matt invents with information. His company, be a very different kind of English lesson… Berg, is located close by, one of a growing number of creative, fearless start-ups exploring new ways to vision the world and frame The offices of Cambridge University Press are 4500 miles and a our growing appetite for knowledge. pleasant stroll through leafy streets away from Hasita’s Punjab classroom. A famous academic imprint, it is also one of the world’s From maps of Manhattan that magically ‘curl’ up in the distance, oldest companies, having been in business continuously since 1584. changing a street-scene into a birds-eye view, through to applications As the venerable publisher of Newton and Darwin, CUP has often mapping Neil Armstrong’s moon-walk onto your neighbourhood, championed revolutions in thought. Today it is also leading one in Berg’s products blend curiosity, technology, fun and utility. Interna- education. tional brands come calling. Across India, North Africa and the Middle East, fast growing popula- A student’s education; the re-invention of a world famous name; tions mean demand for learning is outstripping the supply of teachers. cutting-edge communications and the entrepreneurial energy of a So Cambridge University Press uses today’s technologies – the high-tech start-up: they are all empowered, realised, connected by internet, mobile phones – to being lessons to remote locations and space. continue the mission it has been on for half a millennia. Which is why the worldwide market for its services will be worth That timeframe would not mean much to Hasita, nor the gaggle of £400bn p/a in twenty years time. For Britain, this presents a once in a teenagers standing at London’s Old Street Roundabout. They stare at generation opportunity to generate new wealth, jobs and knowledge. the traffic maelstrom and wonder if this really is the place where the next Google is supposed to spring from.in order to claim a greater share of the prize; building on Avanti is a pioneer enjoying ‘first mover’ advantage,current momentum will cost relatively little, both in real thanks to a successful strategic partnership betweenterms and in proportion to the market opportunity. Recent government, business and academia.experience shows how successful targeted investmentcan be. The National Space Technology Strategy can amplify this success, increase overseas earnings and generate 100,000 new jobs, but only with appropriate investment Real World Returns in research and development.In November 2010, Avanti launched Europe’s first Ka- Similarly, as our economy grows, the UK should alsoband broadband satellite, HYLAS 1; the novel, highly increase its contributions to the European Space Agencyadaptable payload incorporated in this satellite was (ESA). This will not only bring us more into line withdesigned and built in Britain by Astrium. It will deliver other leading European space nations, it will strengthenbroadband coverage from space, connecting users our role in ESA decision-making and create increasedin rural areas across Europe not served by wire-based opportunities for our domestic space sector to win largernetworks. With each satellite providing a consistent shares of commercial contracts.service to hundreds of thousands of homes andbusinesses, regardless of location, and a market of over UK technology will become even more important as the70m people with broadband needs, exportable products European Commission becomes more involved in spaceare in high demand. programmes and deploys its funding to deliver projects. In addition to an increase in scale, the Commission isThanks to seed-corn investment by the UK Government likely to adopt a more commercial attitude to selectingin key technologies, the company generated sufficient contractors and this provides the opportunity for the UKCity investment not only to launch HYLAS 1, but also fly a to win a greater share of work based on world-leadingsister satellite. From 2012, HYLAS 2 will extend Avanti’s technology and greater competitiveness.service to North Africa and the Middle East and millionsof new customers. 5
  6. 6. 1 Executive Summary growth and wider policy objectives. Specifically, weThat space provides a good return is not in doubt: recommend it is aimed to:£1m invested in satellite developments in 1998 is nowworth £350m. • Develop and de-risk technologies needed to directly increase the UK’s share of global high growth marketsA systematic failure in this sector has been the difficultyfor equipment suppliers to cross the boundary between • Ensure we lever maximum benefit from our strategicscience domains, where disruptive technology is often funding commitments in Europe and beyonddeveloped, and commercial markets where exploitationleads to wealth creation. By bringing together the prime • Maximise the return from UK’s existing investments incontractors and the suppliers in a combined strategy, this the International Space Innovation Centre at Harwellplan ensures a clear development path for both which,in the long run, should enhance the competiveness and • Develop new technologies and IP for the market byhence success of all players. encouraging UK-based SMEs and academia to exploit ideas in applications and servicesMore pragmatically, the National Space TechnologyStrategy represents the most realistic and achievable • Game-changing technologies require alternativeroute to realising essential national ambitions: mechanisms of investment, which are outside ofeconomic growth and stability; creation of highly skilled the scope of this strategy due to the high level ofjobs; development of new knowledge and business innovation involvedopportunities; and generation of tangible revenue forthe economy. This Strategy is critical to deliver the growth promised, and needs to span the commercial markets and the public service markets such as climate monitoring A National Programme, UK competiveness and security services.The UK space industry has been successful in research The UK should launch a cross-sector National Spaceactivity, largely through European research and Technology programme in 2011, jointly funded bydevelopment (R&D) programmes. Nonetheless, the industry and Government, rising from £20m per yearcompetitive advantage the UK enjoys in key technology to £100m per annum by 2015/16 as this becomesareas is at risk of being eroded and further action is needed affordable to industry and Government. This willto increase both the value to the UK of R&D support and deliver both near and longer-term economic andsecure a still greater level of industry investment. This social benefits to the UK and the scale of benefits forrequires a national programme. the five technology themes presented in the report.A UK programme provides the advantages that it can We need not lose market share to China, India or anybe agile, focus accurately on market needs that UK- other ‘challenger’ nation; these countries will, instead, betechnology can meet and support the UK’s industrial our markets. This is the future the UK space sector has been building towards. 6
  7. 7. 2 Strategic PrinciplesThe National Space Technology Strategy (NSTS) is • To encourage innovative service-led business modelsgoverned by a set o underlying principles which have of recognising the growing importance of public-privatebeen established to meet the overarching strategic partnerships, and of the EU as an operational drivergoals and vision for the Space sector as articulated in for European space needsthe IGS. The Strategy is detailed and implemented viaa suite of market-driven Technology Roadmaps. The • To recognise the linkages between thestrategic principles are: applications and services that can drive the development of cutting edge and disruptive • Technology must meet an end objective, such as: technologies and capabilities o direct economic jobs and wealth creation o indirect impact on GDP through societal or strategic • To create an environment for the growth of a needs (e.g. health, environment, resilience, defence) balanced space sector, embracing the benefits o longer-term scientific understanding of linking prime contractors, subsystem and equipment suppliers, technology companies, SMEs, • To encourage clarity of focus for the UK space and academia industry technological capability, in order to increase competitive standing and therefore profitability • To create greater alignment of space sector capability with Government needs and priorities • To continue to use the technology development funding mechanisms that exist today but • To maximise job creation and employment of STEM encouraging the UK space industry and government trained graduates in the UK space industry and to look to the future structures of national, European associated terrestrial applications and global markets ( including new and emerging markets and those of emerging space powers) • To utilise as appropriate to the market sector, a mix of private, national government and European funding 7
  8. 8. 3 Overview of the Space Sector: Markets and BackgroundFor an industry which is half the age of the automotive scientific exploration that is fundamental to furtheringand aerospace sectors the space industry provides human understanding.significant benefit to today’s society in areas of businessand leisure. Space has been one of the hidden success Telecommunications currently dominates the UK spacestories of UK industry over the past decades not simply industry in terms of earnings, exports and employmentbecause of its remote space-enabled services but for for both upstream manufacturing and downstreamthe revenues it generates £6.5bn in the UK in 2008 services and applications. Over 95% of the commercialof which £3.6bn contributed directly to the nation’s (non-government and institutional) upstream satelliteGross Domestic Product (GDP) and its track record manufacturing market by value is dedicated toas an important source of export revenue. The sector telecommunication satellites. Over 90% of the UKaccounts for 19,100 jobs as a direct result of its activities downstream space market is dedicated to telecoms.with up to 70,000 in related activities. More than 80% of the telecommunications satellites produced in the UK have been built for overseasStrongly market-driven, space represents a truly cross- customers.cutting sector which permeates our everyday lives inall manner of ways from our satellite TV, the navigation The Position, Navigation and Timing market whichsystem in our cars, the weather forecasts and the has significantly developed over the past ten years is 8
  9. 9. U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGYvery broad, touching on all aspects of modern life. In future markets is sensing whose technologies haveaddition to the well understood transport and personal applications elsewhere in areas ranging from healthcarenavigation applications, it also includes more discrete through to security.services: from the timing signals needed to deliver fibreoptic communications to the telematic elements of our Space science and its associated instrumentationjust in time supply chain culture. The common element and space engineering remains a very strong and keyis the space component, with a very well established part of our success in space, with the UK providing aand trusted infrastructure in the form of GPS meeting knowledge base and capability for many developmentsalmost all of our current needs. We are however on the feeding into applications and services which arebrink of a number of new generation satellite navigation all around us in our lives. Academic experts havesystems, including Galileo in Europe, GLONASS from teamed with industry to help develop new technology,Russia and Beidou from China. instrumentation and capabilities via research and development programmes. Knowledge exchange fromMajor market growth is expected in the future from this part of the sector have grown over the last fiveEarth Observation (EO) data provision and services years to ensure economic return. Recently, applicationswhere the market has traditionally been dominated by from drink can manufacturing through to petrochemicalgovernment applications. However, programmes such processing are emerging from a space explorationas the European Global Monitoring for Environment programme (ESA ExoMars programme). This trendand Security (GMES) are enablers for both future will continue. The academic knowledge base in spacetechnology and applications. Through innovations like technology also provides for the future training ofGoogle Earth, EO data has become more accessible to the highly skilled workforce needed to exploit futurethe consumer; new markets relating to climate change, opportunities in space.carbon emissions and security are further developedvia GMES and other programmes. Furthermore The UK has great strengths in space technology. Pastnew markets and applications are also anticipated and current investment in these capabilities has been afrom the integration of EO and position data with central factor in making space one of the highest growthtelecommunications services. Longer term markets, sectors in the UK economy and resilient to the effects ofreaching up to ten years hence, such as robotics economic and political turmoil. Between 1999 and 2007and new energy systems will grow, which will utilise the UK’s space sector grew on average by 9% per year.space derived technologies. A key aspect of all these 9
  10. 10. 3 Overview of the Space Sector: Markets and BackgroundThe growth in the sector includes the contributions • They serve defence markets, offering ever more costfrom UK prime contractors as well as the many (and effective options for gathering data and underwritingincreasing number of) SMEs and technology companies communication and command structures.involved in the space industry along with the growingtrend of academic industrial partnerships which enable • They provide solutions to Government agendasfull economic exploitation of the UK’s knowledge and in key areas of societal challenge such as energy,technology base. transport, climate change and healthcare.Through the IGS we have set ourselves a clear For such markets to prosper and to ensure the UK ischallenge to firmly establish the UK as one of the in the position to capture the maximum portion of theworld’s leading space nations and grow the UK’s share market it is important to position UK industry with theof the global market to 10% over the next 20 years. This ability to be first to market and technically superior.drives space in the UK from a £6bn to a £4bn sector and There is no room for complacency in the UK, manyprovides an estimated 100,000 new highly skilled jobs in other governments recognise the importance and investthe UK. significantly greater sums into their space sectors.Space consequently combines high-value To realise the vision set out in the Space IGS, themanufacturing and services, advanced engineering National Space Technology Steering Group hasand technology with an ability to provide solutions categorised and focused the UK capabilities, andto Government agendas through the delivery of data their potential contributions – economic, scientific andand information by space enabled services and from societal to achieve maximum impact for the UK. This isterrestrial applications of the technology. reflected in the first issue of a suite of roadmaps which will be maintained ensuring that underpinning appliedWithin the global space economy existing and emerging research supports the development programmes whichtechnology capabilities drive three key areas: in turn meet the projected market needs. • They support strong commercial markets, particularly The aim is to achieve the best and most effective in telecommunications and broadcast. balance of this investment for the UK across national, ESA and international programmes and leverage the strong partnership between public and private institutions established through the space Innovation and Growth Team Project. Because space is a global business, we need to present the UK’s technology strategy in a wider context. We must have a clear view of how we plan to leverage 10
  11. 11. U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGYparticularly ESA and EU funding and resourcesto achieve our aims, but also how we will developpartnerships with the wider international community,including the emerging economies of China, Indiaand South America. This in turn must be informed bythe broader vision of where the UK sees itself in ten totwenty years time. Clarity of aim will allow the UK tomore effectively drive the international agenda. Campuses, including the International Space InnovationGovernment investment is a key enabler of a long- Centre at Harwell (linked to other centres of excellenceterm strategy, creating both a level playing field for around the UK), is a major attractor for ESA and others,UK companies and science in the international arena, while novel financing models such as the PPP for Avantiand guarding the long-term vision for the nation. Communications HYLAS broadband satellite and theGovernment is also vital in setting the appropriate successful PFI for the Skynet 5 secure satcoms systemregulatory framework and in brokering the relationship can revolutionise the way in which the space businesswith other national agencies (e.g. NASA, ISRO). In turn is conducted.Government can use the space agenda to further itsbroader policy aims and global geopolitical relationships A pragmatic but visionary technology strategy is a key(so-called ‘soft power’). foundation upon which the UK’s future role in space can be defined. The case for space technology is strongUnderpinning this vision is the strength that the UK because of its inherent multidisciplinary applicationcan bring in innovation and new enabling models, to that benefits society across many sectors (e.g. health,be responsive to a changing environment and resilient security, transport and communications). As a majorto future demands. The UK is leading the way in contributor to the EU, the UK can use this technologybringing together capabilities and enabling new ways strategy to leverage EU funding and bolster theof working across different sectors and disciplines. competitive position of the UK and Europe in the worldThe development of the National Science & Innovation market, both in the space sector and beyond. 11
  12. 12. 4 Rationale of the National Space Technology StrategyThe aim of the NSTS is to set out a strategy which will The cross-cutting technologies will flow out from theenable UK industry to achieve the vision of the IGS sector roadmaps, as they are brought together in thethrough a balanced portfolio of technology priorities that overall technology strategy. This consolidation has notsupport the development of the UK’s commercial space yet fully taken place, and is planned in our next phase ofsector and are aligned with scientific priorities, and activities. It is anticipated that cross-cutting technologiesGovernment/societal and strategic needs. should potentially have a very wide range of application and demonstrate very different “advantages”. However,Support will firstly be targeted to areas of current UK all must have the potential to make a significant impactstrength and capability, where there is evidence of a strategically and/or competitively.leading position, and capability to deliver and exploit thetechnology. This will deliver tangible economic benefits Space science missions tend to have long periodsand is likely to have a high return on investment. The of gestation and it is necessary to bring forwardsupport must be timely and result in a real difference technologies in parallel with the study and planningin the context of the world stage and the support being of mission concepts. Technological proposals in thisgiven by other nations. Collaborative projects (e.g. area must be written in the context of this lifecycleindustry-academia collaborations) are particularly and demonstrate clearly how they enable a valuableencouraged and the added value of the proposed opportunity. In some situations new technologicalcollaboration would have to be demonstrated. Proposals developments may generate ground-breaking futurewill be expected to address a strategic need with clear missions and longer term spin-offs and economicreference to national priorities and roadmaps. return, in such cases an appropriate level of investment to demonstrate proof-of-concept will be required.Particular emphasis should also be placed upon cross-cutting opportunities and technologies which can Space has enormous potential for societal benefit, inaddress many space and terrestrial application areas the study of the Earth (e.g. climate change), as a vehicleincluding technologies where developments may lead for the inspiration of future generations of scientists andto applications in other areas such as health, defence engineers, in the generation of technological spin-offsand security. and many other areas. Where appropriate investment proposals must evidence such benefits. 12
  13. 13. U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGYThe highest priority for technology investment for both Automotive where a small additional activity focusedprivate and public sectors will be the commercial market on the space market could leverage core technologysector which has a strong track record of return on programmes already funded through other meansinvestment and is continuing to demonstrate growth. (for example, autonomous systems activity includedWhere the UK has a proven strength in a particular in the National Aerospace Technology Strategy). Themarket sector, for example, mobile satcomms, the involvement of the Technology Strategy Board in thetechnology roadmaps identify research themes which NSTSG will be crucial in exploiting these crossbuild and develop these strengths through innovation sector opportunities.and collaboration where an investment may enablelarger market share to be gained. The UK should also consider, if deemed appropriate by the UK Government, UK Space Agency, NSTSG and theThe roadmaps also highlight research themes which Space industry, trading equipment and instrumentationwill open up new and emerging growth markets such for involvement in missions of other countries, emergingas next generation broadband, Earth Observation or markets, and those of emerging space powers. Anrobotics by delivering step changes in cost, capacity example here is a bilateral science mission where theand capability. The roadmaps include research themes UK provides instrumentation to conduct science but aswhich support development of new ‘downstream’ a condition of involvement also requires the country toservices which bring together capability and data use UK provided equipment or facilities on the missionfrom existing space assets and add value to terrestrial enabling UK space industry to enter a non-UK nationalservices (for example location based services using mission and that potential market. This kind of tradeGPS/Galileo). In order for the UK to remain competitive, is already exploited by many of the UK’s competitorsmaintain its capability and be able to sustain, and and may also be used to achieve some of the IGScontinue to grow its share in the world space market recommendations in terms of the desire for UK-leda balanced portfolio across the various space market science and exploration missions. The roadmaps willsectors will need to be achieved. also allow any such opportunities to be identified at an early stage.A further element of the roadmaps will be researchin areas of disruptive technology where UK expertisecould create large new markets (for example reusablelaunchers). An important consideration for the roadmapswill be alignment with research and developmentactivity in other sectors such as Aerospace, Digital and 13
  14. 14. 5 Technology Themes and RoadmapsThe National Space Technology Strategy is articulated • Presentation of research and technology fundingvia a suite of five ma market driven technology roadmaps requirements from all participants.based around technology themes. These enableengagement with a broad stakeholder community • Development of stakeholder relationships as a resultacross the industrial supply chain, government and of collaborative thinking.academia and ensure widespread awareness of thestrategy’s content. In particular the roadmaps afford • The roadmaps themselves equip stakeholders withgovernment agencies, such as the UK Space Agency, insight and information to inform decision-making.the Technology Strategy Board and the ResearchCouncils, an understanding of technology needs The NSTS focuses on those areas of the space sectorwithin the sector and the market impact of research in which the UK is globally competitive and/or world-and development. leading. Each area has its own roadmap that details the sequence for transition of research into technologyThe Space Special Interest Group will actively maintain development and validation through to products thatthe technology roadmaps facilitating a biannual revision feed the global space market.in collaboration with the UK space sector. The NSTS technology roadmapping process is open,The collaborative process by which the roadmaps are transparent and inclusive to UK stakeholders whoformulated delivers five high level outcomes, namely: engage in collaborative research and development within the space sector. This approach to sector • A consensus view of the sector’s research and roadmapping enables top-down and bottom-up technology requirements in the UK. integration of research, technology and development requirements, ensuring the UK space sector thrives and • Planned and targeted technology development that expands in a competitive global market. is focussed on the UK’s highest priority areas. 14
  15. 15. U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY 5.1 Telecommunications • Turnkey satellite systems (e.g. Inmarsat’s ParadigmThe telecommunications roadmap covers both and Avanti systems; with scope to expand into Earththe upstream manufacturing and downstream Observation)manufacturing aspects of the satellitetelecommunications sector. The IGS report highlights • Spacecraft platform, structure and compositeskey market opportunities including satellite broadband,broadcast, enterprise services, transport, security and • Payload systems capabilitythe environment. • Satellite Network Operations, Business SupportIt is widely recognised that the telecommunications Systems, Services and Applicationssector provides the critical mass for the UK spaceindustry in terms of workload, skills, capabilities and • RF electronic equipment including telecoms,facilities to enable the UK to compete effectively in other navigation, radar EO, communications for sciencesectors. UK industrial strengths are highlighted for the and exploration missions.required telecommunications satellite systems acrossthe full value chain. • Space antennas covering telecoms, radar with opportunities in other sectorsTelecommunications developments enable industry tobuild large programmes leading to significant returns Telecommunications investments in R&D have shownon investment. Individual programmes are not identified consistent high returns and this can be highlighted byin the roadmap, it is the requirement to facilitate the following:technology demonstration opportunities to secureflight heritage for novel technology that is recognised. • Over 10 years, the UK invested £15m into the AstriumThese flight opportunities could be through institutional E3000 Spacecraft through the ESA ARTES programmissions, public/private partnerships or technology with matched investments by industry resulting in thedemonstrator payloads (TDPs) on commercial missions. award of 34 spacecraft platform contracts worth over £510m directly to the Astrium Stevenage site. ThisResearch themes as highlighted below have been equates to a 30 fold return on investment.identified based on maintaining and improving thecompetitiveness of the UK satellite telecommunications • A 36 fold return of investment was achieved followingindustry: £20m of ARTES support for the on-board digital signal processor to lead to a contract to Astrium worth • Increased telecommunications satellite capacity £740m for three Inmarsat 4 satellites. • Reducing cost to manufacturer, operator and user • Investment of £20m generic flexible payload technology developments secured the contract for • Enabling new services and market opportunities the Avanti Hylas satellite with Astrium and directly led to the creation of a new UK satellite operator with aExample technology themes from the roadmap include: market capitalisation of £531m. 15
  16. 16. 5 Technology Themes and Roadmaps 5.2 Sensing commercial customers for EO data is expected to grow by more than a factor of three to $1.4bn over theSensing is defined as the space and ground systems next decade. With UK industrial and academic teamsand technologies that allow detection of data together working closely together in upstream and downstreamwith the technologies to exploit that data for scientific developments, it will be possible to capture a significantand commercial applications. The scope is broad, share by being ‘first-to-market’.including detectors, instruments and supportingsystems, either mounted on satellites or on planetary The market drives technology capability, leading tolanders. It also includes the ground technologies to societal benefit and economic impact through thehandle and process the data. development of downstream servicesThe UK has a well established world-leading capability UK industry and academia are major providers ofin sensing, a capability built on meeting challenging sensing technologies and systems into internationalrequirements from space and EO missions and the space missions with the following identified as UKanalysis of complex datasets. This allows the UK to differentiators:access the upstream and downstream emerging marketareas in the short term and prepare technologies for • Detectors – UV/visible, IR and X-raylonger term applications. • Optical systems and LidarInstitutional markets (e.g. Government, ResearchCouncils, ESA, Eumetsat and European Union) act as • Microwave sensing systems – active and passivestrong drivers of technology development providingmaturity in capability which is further exploited via • In-situ instrumentsexport and commercial EO markets. It also equipsthe UK supply chain to export to other national space • Down-stream technologies and EO applicationsagencies including NASA and NOAA. Major commercialopportunities exist, which could be captured with Downstream technology development will providestrategic and timely investment in sensing technologies, the next generation of ground systems necessary toenabling UK industry to remain competitive in the world. handle ever increasing data volumes and to provide the new applications using EO data. This area is growingSensing technologies are vital to provide information to significantly and UK organisations are well placed toaddress important societal issues, including monitoring access markets in climate services, for instance tropicalthe climate, environmental change and future energy forest monitoring.needs. There are strong links to security and defencewith many common requirements, capabilities and The sensing roadmap has identified many technologiestechnologies, where the opportunities for dual-use where the UK has an established and competitivedevelopment in space and non-space markets are capability. Investment in these technologies bysignificant. government and industry will ensure continued growth in capability and maximise access to the growingThe downstream market for civil government and market in sensing Environment & Climate Change Detectors Drivers Market Space Commercial EO Capability Microwave Systems Space Science Technology Capability Optics & Sensors Ground Systems & Applications Societal & Space Economic Support Technologies Science Impact Sensing Technologies Applications Security & Health Defence Commercial Low Carbon EO Monitoring The Earth 16
  17. 17. U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY 5.3 Position, Navigation and Timing The roadmap has focused on how these services can be best exploited and the expertise resident in theThe Position, Navigation and Timing (PNT) Sector UK is retained and leveraged. There is an upstreamtouches on all aspects of modern life such as the requirement to retain and develop the UK’s payloadwell understood transport and personal navigation expertise, this is captured under the European GNSSapplications; it also includes discrete services Evolutions Programme (EGEP) that the UK participatessuch as timing signals needed to deliver fibre optic in thus protecting and developing the home growncommunications to the telematic elements of the just-in- competencies, specifically in payload development. It istime supply chain culture evidenced in retail. therefore proposed that the upstream activity is aligned and funded through this programme.This area is on the brink of a number of new generationsatellite navigation systems, including Galileo in Europe, Market Drivers in Position, Navigation and Timing fallGLONASS from Russia and Beidou from China as well into three categoriesas upgrades to GPS (GPS-III) to meet the shortfalls ofthe current GPS system. Satellite Based Augmentation • An appropriate service, e.g. a phone “App” is just aServices (SBAS), is commonly known as EGNOS is good idea that customers are prepared to pay for butEurope and WAAS in the US. Additional services over the infrastructure may or may not already exist. TheIndia (GAGAN) and Japan (QZSS) are currently space community need to be aware of this growthbeing developed. and also assist in influencing such developers regarding the capabilities and limitations of currentThe key point is that each of these infrastructure and future PNT technology.projects is underway and UK companies have secured asignificant share of the Galileo system procurement, the • Legislation ensures that services developed suchmidterm growth is in the downstream exploitation of the as phone “Apps” are fit for purpose and the Spacecurrent and future GNSS services, both in domestic and community has a strong role to play in helpingexport markets. 17
  18. 18. 5 Technology Themes and Roadmaps specify the capabilities and requirements of PNT • Social market and structure as the UK is a fertile related services whilst also validating the services. market for LBS applications with large numbers of early adopters and mature privacy laws. • Services have in-service dates forming fixed milestones for availability. The technology must • Securing and exploiting the GNSS infrastructure for therefore keep pace or shape the service offering security applications. such as integrity (knowing your location is correct), increased availability (being able to operate in The key need to have arisen from both the IGS and environments it is not currently possible, e.g. roadmapping process is for a national test bed. city centres) or improved accuracy (over the current Consensus revolves around improved availability, better GPS services). exploitation of current test facilities, promotion within non-PNT led communities and impartial expertise andThe greatest threat to the global GNSS and PNT advice available.markets is time to market with many programmes, suchas Galileo which is behind schedule; such delays have 5.4 Exploration and Roboticsimpacted all GNSS programmes. The importancefor Galileo being on time ensures being the second Exploration and Robotics is technologically driven and“full” service to GPS, before GLONASS achieves full faces huge challenges to achieve the science goals thatrecognition or even Beidou to become commercially typically drive the missions. Focused on the upstreamavailable. The risk is that the supply chain cannot aspect of space, it has excellent potential for spin-in andwait for new infrastructure or services and will seek spin-out of other sectors. Exploration of other planetsalternative solutions, including non-space requires cutting edge and highly resilient solutions tobased services. successfully deploy robotics in remote and hazardous locations where human intervention for operations,The availability of new services will then further stimulate repairs or accidents is not possible.improvements as well as the development of new, nicheapplications. Exploration and Robotics is defined as including all types of robotics for the exploration of a planet surfaceThe UK capabilities can be broadly categorised as: as well as robotics used in orbit around the Earth. The instruments used to meet the science objectives • Innovative application developers demonstrated of a mission are covered by the sensing sector, while by the UK attracting the single largest number of sensors needed by the platform for navigation or control applicants in the ESA IAP programme, with almost are included in this sector. half as many again as the next most active region. 18
  19. 19. U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY • Penetrators – Includes modelling of de-orbit, entryThe roadmap identifies a series of opportunities for and descent, flight control of high velocity objects,specific ESA space missions, other multi-national sensors, novel power/heating, highly ruggedprogrammes with UK contributions and some electronicscommercial opportunities. Routes into terrestrialapplications through spin-out are significant thus • Novel Locomotion Technologies – includes aerobots,leveraging further the technology investments. Areas of under liquid propulsion, climbing robots and couldpossible spin-out include unmanned vehicles for military spin out to military and civil dirigible programmes,use in dangerous situations, civil applications such as low cost high altitude communications platforms andthe nuclear industry or oil and gas exploration and in robotic access to difficult locations.assisted living developments, results of spin-out fromthe Aurora programme are already being observed. • Novel Power Technologies - nuclear power/heating sources, autonomous mission management, veryUK expertise has been further advanced as a result low power systems, energy scavenging.of the Beagle 2 mission as well as the work alreadyperformed for the ExoMars programme. • Robotic Support of Manned Exploration - human factors, multi-agent collaboration, in-situMore than 70 individual technologies have been resource utilisation.mapped out and then grouped into a set of themes: 5.5 Access to Space • Autonomous Vehicles – Technologies include autonomous mission management, navigation, The Access to Space technology roadmap focuses science autonomy, robotic control, localisation on the future market need for technologies to deliver without GPS, data fusion and multi-agent autonomy. payloads into space where the term ‘payloads’ is used in a generic sense, e.g. science instrument, a network of • Robotic Manipulators – Includes teleoperation, sensors distributed around multiple orbits, a satellite, a sampling devices, sample transfer and manipulation, space tourist, etc. Key market opportunities have been rendezvous and docking. further developed following the publication of the Space IGS. 19
  20. 20. 5 Technology Themes and Roadmaps MEMS based sensors, technologies for structureSpace-plane/Reusable launch systems assembly in space and technologies for space-basedThe ability to deliver a payload to orbit and return the solar power generation and supply to ground.launch system to the ground safely and efficientlypresents a game-changing capability in launch Inter-orbital transfer capabilitysystems. UK developments in this area include engine This activity includes propulsion stages that assistdevelopment, advanced aerospace structures, re-entry platforms to transfer from one orbit to another.systems and automatic flight systems. Applications include: transfer of communications satellites to geostationary orbit, interplanetary transferSmall satellite launcher and Sub-orbital space-planes module; transfer and deployment of constellationsCurrently, an air-launch system seems the most of satellites in LEO and space-tugs. Existing UKadaptable solution, enabling launches from recently capability identified includes chemical propulsion, solarformed ‘space ports’ such as New Mexico or even electric propulsion, lightweight structures, fuel tanks,from a space port in the UK. This also opens up the rendezvous and docking, nuclear power systems, de-possibility of a space tourist industry for the UK, using orbiting devices and on-orbit refuelling.sub-orbital space-planes either developed in the UK orfrom companies like Virgin Galactic. Legislation and regulatory changes Many of the market opportunities identified are limitedSmall and nano platform technologies by current UK legislation. The roadmap shows areasThe ability to have a capable small satellite platform to be resolved relating to the Outer Space Act, liability,requires the miniaturisation of spacecraft components, RF spectrum, Civil Aviation Authority limitations andwithout significant degradation in performance. insurance to create a 5, 10 and 20 year plan coveringExpanding UK capability, the research themes for small low-cost access to space, infrastructure andand nano spacecraft will increase the performance space tourism.of small satellite platforms, whilst at the same timeputting the UK at the forefront of miniaturised spacetechnologies.Large platform technologiesDevelopment themes for this roadmap include:deployable and inflatable structures, ultra stableplatforms, agile control moment gyro systems and Market Opportunities UK Capability Research Themes Low cost launch systems Reusable launcher design Reusable launch systems Cost effective orbit transfer Large telecom platforms Launch services for small satellites Services using advanced low-cost small Small and nano-satellite platforms New smallsat platform technologies satellites Launcher elements (propulsion, avionics, Space tourism Inter-orbital transfer units structures) Enabling regulatory improvements 5.6 NSTS Investment ProfileThe IGS concluded that a £20 million national program technology innovation that resides in all UK players,should start in 2011 jointly funded by government and from academia, through SMEs, equipment suppliersindustry, rising incrementally to around £100 million per and Prime contractors, ranging from academic ‘blueannum by 2015/16.The exact funding for years 2 to 5 skies’(TRL1), through technology demonstration (TRLshould be determined from the roadmapping activity. 5-6), to exploitation (TRL9). Support and agreement of the Research Councils including those not normallyThe roadmaps prepared for the NSTS cover all engaged in space technology development, such as theaspects of the UK space programme including ESA Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Counciland EU based programs and have been developed in (EPSRC) as well as the Technology Strategy Boardpartnership by industry, government and academia. through their R&D competitions and grants is requiredThis ensures an integrated and agile exploitation of the to ensure this integrated approach. 20
  21. 21. U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGYThis first issue of the NSTS technology roadmaps programs it is essential that Europe collaboratesidentifies a priority plan for a National Funding through the European Space Agency. SustainedProgramme for the next 5 years built on top of the ESA investment in ESA and EU programmes (latter via EUand EU programmes. funding) is therefore essential to maintaining the UK’s market share as this investment underpins medium toDue to the high cost of research and demonstration long term technology developments. National Space Technology Strategy Sectors ESA and EU Relevant Programmes Science, Earth Observation, Robotics and Exploration Sensing (Aurora), GMES, Space Situation Awareness Telecomms Telecommunications (ARTES) Position, Navigation and Timing Galileo, EGEP Robotics and Exploration Robotics and Exploration (Aurora) GSTP Science, Earth Observation, GMES, Space , Access to Space Situation AwarenessThere is a natural correspondence between the and meet IGS objectives by: enabling UK developmentEuropean based programmes and the sectors adopted and ownership of the Intellectual Property; providingwithin this strategy document; this is shown in the table commercial opportunities for UK industry; andabove. competitively positioning the UK for ESA and European programmes. The National Programme will ensure thatThe ESA Ministerial in 2012 will define the future ESA the UK continues to secure a comparative advantageprogrammes and additional funding will needed for UK from developing and exploiting technologies for futureto participate in future programmes. Failure to sustain markets in both manufacturing and applications.and increase this funding will result in a slow downin growth, an erosion of UK space Capabilities and The investment profile shown below, which has beentherefore a loss of global market share. produced as a direct output of the roadmapping activity, reflects the balances between ESA and national fundingA national programme (based upon this Strategy) and share of costs between industry and government,in addition is required to enable exponential growth as seen in the following table. Space Investment Profile (Indicative Numbers Only) 500 400 £Millions 300 200 100 0 0 Current 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 2013/14 2014/15 Baseline spend (Existing ESA based programmes) Baseline spend (ESA based programmes including extensions and new programmes - Indicative) National Space Technology Programme (Indicative) Profile does not include research council expenditure on Space. 21
  22. 22. 6 Delivering the Space Innovation and Growth Strategy SThe targets laid out in the Space Innovation and Growth Space organisations have been successful in theStrategy of reaching £40bn of revenue and an additional following Technology Strategy Board competitions100,000 high skilled jobs in the sector are ambitious this year:– BUT can be realised if the recommendations areimplemented in an integrated way. • Trusted ServicesThis document is a key deliverable of Recommendation • Network Services DemonstratorsThree of the Space IGS along with the developmentof a suite of technology roadmaps and supporting • Nuclear R&D Feasibility Studiesdocumentation. Other areas of Recommendation 3 areconcerned with the identification of a separate and ring • Assisted Livingfenced R&D budget; initial investment was targetedfor April 2010/11 with increases to then reach £50m of • Collaboration across Digital Industriespublic investment by 2015/16. • Crop ProtectionWhilst no new ringfenced space technology budget wasidentified in 2010/11 it is important to note that there has • Technology Inspired Collaborative R&Dbeen an increase in space related applications for theTechnology Strategy Board’s Collaborative R&D grants Up to £3m of new public funding will have beenand new technology demonstration opportunities have committed in 2010/11 via the Technology Strategybeen created by Technology Strategy Board grants for Board’s R&D grants. This increase in publicly fundedTech Demo Sat and UKube1. R&D can be attributed to: 22
  23. 23. U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY• An enhanced profile of space on the whole as a result applications for 78 grants of up to £25k. These projects of the publication of the Space IGS Report will be carried out between May and July 2011 and the results will influence future developments of the• Improved understanding of possible areas of space National Space Technology Strategy. related interest to possible funders, public and private The publication and regular updating of this National• Greater visibility to the space community of Space Technology Strategy and its underpinning collaborative R&D competitions through technology technology roadmaps not only mark a delivery of a roadmapping developments and enhanced Space IGS recommendation but also enable informed communications discussions across broad ranging stakeholders regarding future investments.The first dedicated space competition, “FeasibilityStudies for Innovation in Space” attracted over 215 Space IGS Relationship of National Space Recommendation Summary Recommendation Technology Strategy to IGS Recommendation 1 National Space Policy Defines technology base and possible mission opportunities 2 Executive UK Space Agency Provides independent input on strategy and funding requirements 4 Access to capital Improves access to capital by reducing technical risk 5 Innovative indigenous EO data service Defines technology base and aids in development planning Climate Change Validation, adaptation and 6 Defines technological development paths mitigation Space enabled services as complementary Defines technological development paths for satellite broadband, 7 Information and Communication Technologies broadcast and innovative applications and services (ICT ) infrastructure Strategic view of use of space in national security Defines technology base and possible mission opportunities along 9 and defence planning with technological development paths UK to take lead in Mobile Satellite-based Services 10 Defines technological development paths (MSS) UK should initiate and lead space exploration or Defines technology base and possible mission opportunities along 13 science missions with technological development paths 14 Hub and Spokes Centres of excellence Defines technology base and associated centres of excellence Defines technology base and possible mission opportunities along 15 Increase investment in ESA with technological development paths and relationship to national technology development 16 Space Leadership Council Provides a National Strategy for use by the SLC 23
  24. 24. 7 National Space Technology Strategy GovernanceThe Space Leadership Council (SLC) which oversees the technology programmes. These groups will adopt athe delivery of the Space Innovation and Growth generic approach that will provide:Strategy has endorsed the process used to develop theSpace Technology Strategy. It is not the role of the SLC • An accessible advisory body for the NSTSG to betterto determine the content of Technology Strategy but to understand sector themesrepresent the Strategy at all necessary forums wheredecisions are to be made regarding its implementation. • Clearly defined working objectives to encourage further involvement from UK space industryThe development and ongoing implementation of stakeholdersthe NSTS will be governed by the National SpaceTechnology Steering Group (NSTSG). This is a forum of • A set of mutually agreed outcomes that benefit theindustry, government and academia experts from across participants and the broader community spacethe space community to provide technical direction. at largeChaired by Sir Keith O’Nions, Imperial College, thegroup will meet upto six times per year. The Group The Technology Strategy Board’s pan-KTN Spacecurrently involves the organisations detailed below. Special Interest Group (SIG) has a coordinating and facilitating role in the above groups. It acts as aThe NSTSG takes its lead from the five sector based light touch secretariat to the NSTSG and will on anSpace Technology Roadmaps. Each space sector is ongoing basis coordinate the Space Sector Technicalrepresented by a small working group of organisations Committees. The Space SIG will also continue towhich are able to contribute to the overall development publish a biweekly newsletter highlighting technologyof that area. Each group is chaired by industry but strategy developments, opportunities of funding andincludes a wide range of experts from a range of public the promotion of relevant technology basedsector bodies and universities. networking events from across the community. It will also actively utilise the Technology Strategy Board’sIt is expected that the space sector groups will create portal _connect to enable wider access to the StrategySpace Sector Technical Committees that will meet and its developments.approximately four times per year to further develop Astrium QinetiQ Avanti SciSys Centre for Earth Observation Instrumentation South East England Development Agency Clyde Space Space Special Interest Group Department for Business Innovations and Skills Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd Imperial College Technology Strategy Board Inmarsat UK space Agency International Space Innovation Centre University of Edinburgh Logica University of Leicester Ministry of Defence University of Sheffield Mullard Space Science Laboratory University of Strathyclyde 24
  25. 25. U K N AT IO N A L SPACE TEC HN OLOGY S T R ATEGY About the Space Special Interest GroupThe Technology Strategy Board created the Space Special Interest Group (SIG) as a pilot that will aim toconnect pan-Knowledge Transfer Network (KTN) activities, acting as a mechanism to foster a space communitythat spans Government, Industry and Academia. The Space SIG is the custodian of the NSTS and its underpinningtechnology roadmaps.The Space SIG is hosted by the Aerospace, Aviation & Defence Knowledge Transfer Network (AAD KTN). To connect with the Space Special Interest Group you can: • email ruth.mallors@aadktn.co.uk regarding getting involved in the Knowledge Space SIG’s activities. • Register for free at www.aadktn.co.uk to access services, networks and to Transfer receive the fortnightly newsletter. • Email the Space SIG at spaceSIG@aadktn.co.uk for further Network information. Aerospace & Defence 25
  26. 26. Notes26
  28. 28. All images in this document are reproduced with the kind permission of: QinetiQ, Astrium, STFC-RAL/CEOI, QUB/CEOI, AvantiCommunications plc, Reaction Engines Ltd, SciSys.