Usability in healthcare, general overview on new standards and metrics (International Research Journals)
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Usability in healthcare, general overview on new standards and metrics (International Research Journals) Document Transcript

  • 1. Information Technology Research Journal Vol .3(1), pp. 9 – 18, May, 2013 Available online http://resjournals.com/ITJ ISSN: 2026-6715©2013 International Research Journals Full Length Paper Usability in healthcare: General overview on standards and new metrics *Roberto Miniati1 , Monica Giuli2, Laura Mugnai3 , Prof. Sergio Boncinelli4 and Peter Mitchell5 1 University Spin off Uso Sicuro, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, University of Florence. 2 University of Florence – CESPRO. 3 University Spin off Uso Sicuro - Founder, University of Florence. 4 Department of Medical – Surgical Critical Area., University Spin off Uso Sicuro 5 University Spin off Uso Sicuro *Corresponding Author’s E-mail. roberto.miniati@unifi.it, Tel. 0039-3286017001, Fax. 0039-055494569 Abstract In healthcare, the concept of usability has acquired more and more importance with the passing of time. The issue of usability originated as a specific concern proper of the software and informatics world, it quickly spread to the field of healthcare where, due to the increased complexity of medical equipment, it became essential for the patient safety related to the latent errors linked to the use of devices. On the basis of the methods and suggestions reported on the international standards and scientific literature on usability, a new metrics was defined for a correct estimation of the main characteristics of usability: effectiveness, efficiency, user satisfaction and learnability. This paper aims to provide a guideline to users, decision makers in healthcare, professionals in usability analysis and manufacturers to carry out proper usability tests based on quantitative and semi-quantitative indicators and a scientific methodology which apply a systematic approach to both the single task and the general system levels. Keywords. Usability Analysis, User Device Interaction, Usability in Healthcare, Usability Metrics, Health Technology Assessment. INTRODUCTION The concept of usability has been evaluated for several years now by a specific set of rules which define its characteristics, its main application fields and test procedures - such attention being due to the very important role of usability in the interaction between human beings and machines. The issue of usability originated as a specific concern proper of the software and electronics world, but it quickly spread to the field of electro medical technologies and medical devices in general. This phenomenon was mainly due to the following causes: the increased complexity of medical equipment, its increased accessibility to “normal” users rather than healthcare professionals (as in the case of devices for domiciliary use) and the need to optimize economic resources. Indeed, usability is a key element both in saving on maintenance costs and in maximizing the use of equipment, since higher use satisfaction leads one to use the device more often and to increase its performances. Moreover, thanks to usability, it is possible to decrease indirect healthcare costs due to longer hospital stays caused by latent errors linked to the use of devices. The aim of this research is to present the development of a new set of standardized indicators for usability evaluation in healthcare based on the analysis of scientific literature and of international regulations about usability testing.
  • 2. 10 Figure 1. Methodological steps followed for the usability testing review. MATERIAL AND METHODS Usability and ergonomics are often misunderstood and considered synonymous when designing and evaluating products. Ergonomics (EN ISO 6385-2004) represents the scientific field dealing with the general optimization of a system (e.g. interactions between human and non- human elements of a system and/or principles, data and methods to design systems aimed at human well-being) while usability (and usability engineering) focuses on safety issues with reference to users, tasks and context of use. As shown in figure 1, in order to provide technical guidance on usability testing a systematic review of literature, international regulations and experts' opinions (users' and manufacturers') was carried out by addressing the following key questions:  Have any usability measurable indicators been defined? If so, which ones?  Is any mathematical formula available to calculate each specific usability index and the general one?  What setting/location would be appropriate for carrying out usability tests? Why? INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON USABILITY IN HEALTHCARE The historic development of regulations about usability is shown in Figure 2. The standard upon which the concept of usability was built is ISO 9241-11, in which usability and the procedures to measure it were defined for the first time. The American technical regulations applied the concept of usability to healthcare in 2001. ANSI-AAMI HE 74 represents one of the main foundations of the EN 62366 European Standard (Italian CEI EN 62366), which was published in October 2010 and dealt with usability test of medical devices, and of the three editions of the EN 60601-1-6 European Standard, which were acknowledged by three editions of the Italian Standard CEI EN 60601-1-6 in 2006, 2008 and 2011 respectively. Finally, the need to communicate the results of usability tests in an effective and standardized way lead to the development of the ISO/IEC 25062 International Standard, which states how a Usability Report is to be organized and which features it has to have. ISO 9241-11:1998 The International Standard on “Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) – Guidance on Usability” defines usability as “the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use.” Indeed, usability is based on three basic elements (Figure 3): Effectiveness: level of accuracy and completeness in carrying out the functions the device is meant to perform; Efficiency: effectiveness in relation to the resources used. Time efficiency is related to the time needed to carry out the functions of the device. Other types of efficiency exist, such as economic efficiency (in relation to costs) and human efficiency (in relation to human resources).
  • 3. 11 Figure 1. Historic development of national and international regulations about the concept of Usability. Figure 2. Usability Framework according to ISO 9241‐11:1998 - Guidance on usability. User Satisfaction: synergy of information obtained from the user both through behavioural analyses, interviews and questionnaires administered before, during and after a usability test. As reported in the framework shown in Figure 3, a usability test makes sense only if it is set in a specific context of use, which consists of users, tasks, equipment (hardware, software and materials) and of the physical
  • 4. 12 and social environment in which the test is carried out. All of the above mentioned elements can influence the usability of a product in a work system (ISO 9241- 11:1998). Here follow the four main application fields of usability tests:  Comparative Analysis of different products or of different versions of the same product;  Support in designing a product;  Diagnostic Evaluation applied to identify specific elements responsible of usability problems of a device;  Planning specific and appropriate training about how to use a device. The ISO 9241-11:1998 Standard also defines the most appropriate tools to measure the elements to be evaluated through a usability test and states the need to develop and apply clear and measurable quantitative and semi-quantitative indexes. Moreover, this standard underlines the importance of having a simulation laboratory available, where one can arrange different scenarios, simulate several contexts of use and have better control over the variables present while using a device (Daniels et al., 2007). CEI EN 62366:2008 Application of usability engineering to medical devices. The IEC62366:2007 standard acknowledged by Italian regulations in the CEI EN 62366:2008 standard identifies poor usability of medical devices as one of the major causes of use errors, because it is closely linked to poor ease of use and learnability. Moreover, the application field of medical devices proves to be highly critical because of the increased technical complexity of devices and of their availability to users who lack any healthcare training, such as patients themselves. With respect to ISO 9241-11:1998 Standard, two major innovations have been introduced by the American Standard ANSI/AAMI HE 74:2001first, and by the European Standard later. The first innovation consists in the introduction of the concept of learnability within the definition of usability. The second one concerns the definition of “primary operating functions”, which are the functions to be taken into consideration when one carries out a usability test. The definition of primary operating functions includes both the functions which are frequently used and those which are critical in relation to safety. The concept of usability is considered of primary importance in relation to safety, because of the the link between usability test and the process of risk analysis applied to medical devices, as it is described in the EN ISO 14971 Standard which bears the title “Application of risk management to medical devices”. The connections concern the identification of risk elements in using the device according to the manufacturer’s intended use, the identification of risks and the implementation and validation of procedures and actions aiming at reducing risks. ANSI/AAMI HE 74:2001 Human factor design process for medical devices Attachment D of EN 62366 Standard clearly draws on the ANSI/AAMI HE 74:2001 American Standard, which defines the fields of application of usability test in the steps involved in designing a device: Conceptual Design, definition of aims and of the user’s need; Definition of technical requirements and technical solutions; Complete and detailed implementation of the technical solutions chosen; Test on the prototype CEI EN 60601-1-6:2011 Medical electrical equipment – Part 1: General requirements for basic safety and essential performance – Collateral standard: Usability The EN 60601-1-6:2010-04 European standard, acknowledged by Italian regulations in the CEI EN 60601-1-6:2011-05 standard replaces the second edition of IEC 60601-1-6 and aligns with the Usability Engineering Process described in the IEC 62366 standard. This is due to the fact that, as healthcare evolves, less skilled operators, including patients themselves, are now using medical electrical equipment, while the medical electrical equipment itself is becoming more complicated (IEC 60601-1-6). The above mentioned standard provides some important innovations with respect to previous editions for what concerns the following themes: The so-called “primary operating functions” consider correct and safe performances of the device by including the frequently used functions and those functions related to the safety of a medical device; In order to carry out an exhaustive usability test to assess the basic safety and essential performance of a device,
  • 5. the EN 60601-1-6 standard suggests to take into consideration the reasonably foreseeable user’s misuse, besides the correct use intended by the producer. Manufacturers shall not consider any form of incorrect use. Moreover, the usability engineering process concerns risk identification but not mitigation associated with abnormal use. The term “patient” shall include animals as well. Accompanying documents (instruction for use and technical description) have to be included in the usability engineering process as part of operator-equipment interface. Worst case and frequent use scenarios shall be included in the usability engineering process. The standard underlines once again the basic concept that usability is to be assessed within the context of use of a device (Figure 4) taking into consideration the type of user, the specific device and its intended use. Finally, the standard contains a list of the main applications of usability tests:  Support to product design;  Support to product prototyping;  Planning of workload;  Cost-benefit analysis;  Risk analysis;  Comparative analysis between different devices or different versions of the same device. ISO/IEC 25062 Software engineering – Software product Quality Requirements and Evaluation (SQuaRE) – Common Industry Format (CIF) for usability test reports. The significance of this standard lies in the definition of one standard format to present in a clear and effective way the results of a usability test carried out on a device and/or on a method to evaluate the usability of a device. The way such results are communicated is of primary importance, because significant decisions and choices can depend on this. Both the IEC 62366:2007 and IEC 60601-1-6:2010 standards refer to the ISO/IEC 25062 standard to report on the measures obtained in a usability test and include them in a usability engineering file. Here follow the elements which are to be included in a usability test:  Participants in the test must represent the real user population for which the device is intended;  Primary functions are to be defined;  Measures related to effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction are to be defined and included in the report. 13 RESULTS On the basis of the instructions contained in the set of standards analysed above, here are described the proposed new metrics which have been developed to measure the characteristics of usability: effectiveness, efficiency, user satisfaction and learnability. Effectiveness The effectiveness index of a device is the result of the combination of three components: the completeness of the tasks carried out with success by the participants, the number of errors made and the number of assists needed by the participants to carry out the tasks. The effectiveness index can be calculated both in relation to the overall performance of the device and to a specific primary function. In detail, the effectiveness index per task is composed of the following indicators: The Completeness Index per Specific Task-i (ICSi) results from the number of participants who have completed the specific task-i with success divided by the number of participants, while the General Completeness Index (ICS) is the level of completeness which characterizes a device in all of the tasks tested by the participants and it is defined as the sum of the completeness indexes ICSi divided by the number of tasks, as sown in equation (1). [ICS=(∑ICSi)/number of tasks] (1) The Error Index per specific task-i (IEGi) measures the percentage of mistakes which occur while participants use the device in each specific task and it is defined as the total number of errors per task-i divided by the number of participants, while the General Error Index (IEG) provides information about mistakes with relation to the general use of the device and it is defined as the sum of the error indexes per task-i divided by the number of tasks, as shown in equation (2). [IEG = (∑IEGi)/number of tasks] (2) The Assist Index per specific task-I (IAGi) results from the total number of assists per task-i divided by the number of participants, while the General Assist Index (IAG) is the sum of the assist indexes per task-i divided by the number of tasks, as shown in equation (3). [IAG = (∑IAGi)/number of tasks] (3) The General Effectiveness Index per task-i (IGEi) is the synthetic index which represents the general effectiveness of the device for a specific task and it is
  • 6. 14 Figure 4. Usability engineering process Figure 5. Check-list used for data collection by the evaluators during a usability test. defined as the linear combination between IAGi, IEGi and ICSi, as shown in equation (4), while the General Effectiveness Index (IGE) results from the linear combination between IAG, IEG and ICS, as shown in equation (5). [IGEi=(3*ICSi - 2*IEGi – IAGi )/6] (4) [IGE =(3*ICS - 2*IEG – IAG )/6] (5) Finally, figure 5 shows the specific check-list used to collect data during the test. Thanks to this check-list, it is possible to know if each task was completed, how many mistakes were made and how many assists were given to the participants. Such information is available for each task. Efficiency The efficiency Index can be evaluated as the result of the combination between the effectiveness and the completion times achieved by the participants in the test. The efficiency index can be calculated both in relation to the overall performance of the device and for a specific primary function or a single task. In detail, the efficiency index per task is composed of the following indicators: Time Efficiency index per specific task-i (IETi) results from the number of participants who obtained a completion time higher than the value expected by experts divided by the number of participants who
  • 7. completed the task. The Completion Time can be calculated per specific task (TCi) and results from the sum of the completion times per participant divided by the number of participants, while the General Completion Time (TC) of a device is the sum of the TCi divided by the number of tasks, as shown in equation (6). [TC= (∑TCi)/number of tasks] (6) It is important to underline that in the case of a usability test carried out on one device only involving one homogeneous group composed of several participants, the Expected Completion time per specific task-i (TCi) is provided by field experts. In the case of an analysis carried out on two devices or two versions of the same device or involving two groups of participants, the significance range is calculated through a t-student test. Finally, in the case of a usability test carried out on one device with more than two groups of participants involved or on more than two devices or versions of a device with one group of participants involved, the significance range is calculated through an ANOVA test. The check-list used for the time collection is shown in figure 4, in the areas “starting time” and “ending time.” User Satisfaction and Learnability User satisfaction and learnability can be assesses by administering self-report tools, such as interviews and questionnaires, during various phases of a usability test. Literature about the usability of websites and information systems includes several validated questionnaires which aim at evaluating subjective features of the operator’s use experience. The purpose of some questionnaires is to gather information about the participants’ general opinion about the usability of a system, while other questionnaires aim at evaluating user satisfaction and learnability. Here follow some of the issues surveyed by the above mentioned tools: user’s previous experience (Shneiderman, 1987), ease of use of the device (Lund, 2001), learnability (Kirakowsk et al. 1992, Shneiderman 1987 and Lund 2001), perceived efficiency (Kirakowsk et al. 1992), perceived control on the device (Kirakowsk et al. 1992), use satisfaction (Lewis 1991 and Lund 2001), emotional reactions (Kirakowsk et al. 1992, Isomursu 2007) and user’s expectations (Albert and Dixon 2003, , Thayer and Dugan 2009). Unlike what happens in the field of usability of websites and information systems, no validated questionnaires are known which aim at assessing subjective features of users’ experience with medical devices. A few authors (Chiu et al.2004, Follmann et al. 2010, Garmer et al. 2002, Hersch et al. 2009)) used ad hoc built questionnaires, which were administered at the end of usability tests with the purpose to assess both the 15 participants’ subjective perception about the usability of the electro medical devices tested and, more specifically, the users’ satisfaction and learnability of such devices. In order to assess the user’s general satisfaction with electromedical information devices (electronic medical record system), other authors [Jaspers et al. 2008, Sitting et al. 1999), used the Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction (QUIS) (Chin et al. 1988), which was originally intended to be applied to information systems. For what concerns the timing and phases to administer the questionnaires, there are three possibilities: Pre-test phase: participants are administered questionnaires before the usability test begins. Thayer and Dugan (Thayer and Dugan 2009) defined the questionnaires administered in this phase as ”pre-context questionnaires”, while Rubin and Chisnell (Rubin, J. and Chisnell, 2008) refer to this kind of tool as “background questionnaires”. Such questionnaires aim at gathering information about the participants’ past experience, which is helpful to better understand their behaviour and performance during the test. This kind of questionnaires is composed of a series of items which survey the subjects’ experiences, attitudes and preferences in the fields which could affect their performance. The above mentioned authors state that these questionnaires are useful to check whether the subjects recruited are appropriate for the test. Test phase: participants are administered questionnaires before and/or after each task. Dumas and Redish (Dumas and Redish, 1999) suggested administering short interviews or questionnaires in this phase and to have participants express their answers using Likert scales. Lewis (Lewis 1991) put together a questionnaire (After Scenario Questionnaire – ASQ) composed of three questions to be asked at the end of each scenario. Participants are required to answer using a 1-5 Likert scale, with a range which varies from strongly disagree to strongly agree, which aims at assessing the participants’ self-referred satisfaction about the tasks they carried out. Sauro and Dumas (Sauro and Dumas 2009) stated that carrying out an evaluation at the end of each scenario has the advantage of providing more diagnostic information about usability and more valid measures. Albert and Dixon (Albert and Dixon 2003) applied a different procedure, which implies asking two questions, that is, one before and one just after each task is carried out, in order to assess both the participants’ expectations and experience as for the ease of use of the device. By comparing such data, useful information can be gathered and, if needed, actions can be planned to improve or correct certain features of the device. Finally, information about subjective experience can be gathered by using the thinking-aloud technique, that
  • 8. 16 Figure 6. Conceptual connection of usability to safety and risk management for medical devices (EN 62366, EN 14971). consists in asking participants to express their thoughts in words while they are carrying out a task. Such thoughts can reveal whether the interaction between the participants and the device is positive or negative and can help observers to identify possible causes of errors. Although this procedure is complex, it has the advantage of better representing the user’s experience because, unlike questionnaires, it is less likely to be subject to participants’ falsifications and distortions. Post-test phase: participants are administered questionnaires at the end of the usability test. Questionnaires administered in this phase, whether validated or ad hoc built, enable observers to gather both data about the participants’ evaluations of the device on the whole and, if needed, about their opinion about specific features of the device. The procedures described so far to evaluate user satisfaction and learn ability study subjective experience as referred by the participants themselves, starting from a series of standard questions. As far as learnability is concerned, more objective procedures can be applied. For instance, Karahoca and coll. (Karahoca et al., 2010), asked participants to carry out tasks again twelve hours after performing the first test. This way, researchers can analyze the learning curve can and gather information
  • 9. about learnability within the passing of time. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, by analysing international regulations, it results clear that the concept of usability has acquired more and more importance with the passing of time. Originally, the issue of usability only concerned the field of software and computer science, but it later spread to the field of electro-medical technology and of medical devices. This paper provides a guideline to users, professionals in usability analysis and manufacturers to carry out usability tests based on indicators and methods which objectively measure usability using a scientific approach both on the level of tasks and on the level of the general device. Efficiency and effectiveness can be assessed quantitatively, while user satisfaction and learnability can be estimated in a semi-quantitative way. The new metrics can be applied to any usability evaluation setting by taking into consideration real experimental data deriving from usability tests and/or estimated performance data gathered from experts' interviews. Regarding the context of use, usability is essential to identify hazards and characteristics related to safety (Figure 6) which are difficult to detect at a manufacturing level by applying a heuristic approach only. Even if a real medical ward represents the ideal context of use to evaluate medical devices, the high cost and organizational complexity, caused by the interruption of regular activity and/or the high number of different areas where the device is regularly used, makes the use of a testing laboratory the best solution to combine real environmental aspects with a controlled and multi- configuration area (e.g. offering the possibility to carry out simulations of worst case scenarios). Moreover, a laboratory based approach makes it possible to take more exact measurements (ISO 9241-11:1998). References Albert W, Dixon E (2003). Is this what you expected? The use of expectation measures in usability testing. Proceedings of the Usability Professionals Association 2003 Conference, Scottsdale, AZ. American Standard ANSI/AAMI HE74:2001.Human factors design process for medical devices. Chiu CC, Vicente KJ, Buffo-Sequeira I, Hamilton RM, McCrindle B W (2004). Usability assessment of pacemaker programmers. PACE, 27: 1388-1398. Chin JP, Diel VA, Norman KL (1988). Development of an instrument measuring user satisfaction of the human- computer interface. Proceedings of SIGCHI 17 New York: ACM/SIGCHI. 88:213-218 Dumas J, Redish J (1999). A Practical Guide to Usability Testing. Chicago, IL. European Norm EN 62366:2008-01. Medical devices - Application of usability engineering to medical devices. European Norm EN 60601-1-6:2010-04. Medical Electrical Equipment - Part 1: General Requirements For Basic Safety And Essential Performance - Collateral Standard: Usability, 2011. European Norm EN 14971. Medical devices. Application of risk management to medical devices. European Norm EN ISO 6385-2004. Ergonomic principles in the design of work systems. Follmann A, Korff A, Furtjes T, Lauer W, Kunze SC, Schmieder K, Radermacher K (2010). Evaluation of a synergistically controlled semiautomatic trepanation system for neurosurgery. Conference Proceedings IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2010: 2304-2307. Garmer K, Liljegren E, Osvalder AL, Dahlman S (2002). Application of usability testing to the development of medical equipment. Usability testing of a frequently used infusion pump and a new user interface for an infusion pump developed with a Human Factors approach. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 29: 145-159. Hersch M, Einav S, Izbicki G (2009). Accuracy and ease of use of a novel electronic urine output monitoring device compared with standard manual urinometer in the intensive care unit. Journal of Critical Care, 24: 629.e13-629.e17 International Standard ISO 9241-11:1998. Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) - Part 11: Guidance on usability. International Standard ISO/IEC 25062:2006. Software engineering — Software product Quality Requirements and Evaluation (Square) — Common Industry Format (CIF) for usability test reports. Isomursu M, Tähti M, Väinämö S, Kuutti K (2007). Experimental evaluation of five methods for collecting emotions in field setting with mobile applications. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65: 404-418. Jaspers MWM, Peute LWP, Lauteslager A, Piet JM, Bakker PJM (2008). Pre-post evaluation of physicians’ satisfaction with a redesigned electronic medical record system. Studies in health technology and informatics, 136: 303-308. Daniels J (2007). A Framework for Evaluating Usability. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing (2007) 21:323–330. Karahoka A, Bayraktar E, Karahoka D (2010). Information system design for a hospital emergency department: a usability analysis of software prototypes. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 43: 224-232. Kirakowski J, Porteous M, Corbett M (1992). How to use the software usability measurement inventory: the users' view of software quality. In: Proceedings European Conference on Software Quality, Madrid. Lewis JR (1991). Psychometric evaluation of an after-scenario questionnaire for computer usability studies: the ASQ. SIGCHI Bulletin, 23, 1: 78-81,. Lund A (2001). Measuring usability with the USE questionnaire. Usability and User experience Newsletter of the STC Usability SIG. http://www.stcsig.org/usability/newsletter/0110_measuring_wi th_use.html
  • 10. 18 Rubin J, Chisnell D (2008). Handbook of usability testing. How to plan, design, and conduct effective tests. Wiley Publishing: Indianapolis, IN. Sauro J, Dumas JS (2009). Comparison of Three One- Question, Post-Task Usability Questionnaires. http://www.measuringusability.com/papers/Sauro_Dum as_CHI2009.pdf Shneiderman B (1987). Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, MA.; Sitting DF, Kuperman GJ, Fiskio J (1999). Evaluating physician satisfaction regarding user interactions with an electronic medical record system. Proceeding AMIA, Annual Symposium, 400-404. Thayer A, Dugan TE (2009). Achieving Design Enlightenment: Defining a New User Experience Measurement Framework. IEEE International Professional Communication Conference, 2009.