Innovative Technologiesf or Developing SpecialtyFood Using Minor Foods and Development of Specialty Foods Ms.Stella Mariem, Faculty, Dept. of Food Technology, College of Dairy and Food Science Technology, MPUAT, Udaipur
Food Processing Sector in India Food is the largest consumption category in India... Food Consumption in India C A G R : 5 .3 2 % 250 So urce: B M I, Q12009 & CSO 229.7 210.3 198 200 191.4 184.4 180.1 168.6 157.7 151.7 150 100 50 0 2005 2006 2007 2008e 2009f 2010f 201 f 1 2012f 2013fSignificant OpportunityIndia as a huge Consumer Market 2
Food Processing Sector in IndiaIndia has huge supply advantages due to diverse agro-climatic conditions and wide ranging raw material base… • 52% cultivable land • Largest livestock compared to 11% population world average • All 15 major • Largest producer of climates in the milk world exist in India • 46 out of 60 soil • Largest producer Significant Opportunity types exist in India cereals India as a global sourcing hub • Second-largest fruit • 20 agri-climatic and vegetable regions producer • Sunshine hours and day length are • Among the top five producers worldwide ideally suited for of rice, wheat, groundnuts, tea, coffee, round the year tobacco, spices, sugar and oilseeds. cultivation 3
Industry Growth Drivers - DemandUrbanisation, rise in disposable incomes and changing lifestyle and aspirations are leading to significant demand for processed food… Increasing spends on health foods Increasing Urbanisation Increasing Nuclear – Lifestyle and Families and Working Aspirations Women Food Processing Demand Drivers Changing demographics Demand for Functional – Rise in disposable Foods incomes Organised Retail and Private Label Penetration 4
Drivers of Demand …Environment …Food …Individual Discerning Organic/Natural Income Products Society Health Taste Lifestyle Quality Speciality Safer Declining Food Support Foods Household Local Size Authenticity Producers EnvironmentalTravel & Dining Convenient Availability Location Products Out
Definition of Functional Foods ILSI – Definition A food is a functional food if it has clearly been documented that it has one or more properties beneficial to human health by improving the state of health or reducing health risks in addition to its nutritional value.IUFoST, May 26, 2004, Berlin 6
• Functional foods, according to their generally accepted definition, are foods including whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods or dietary components that may reduce the risk of chronic disease and provide a health and physiological benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains(2).
Producing Functional Foods Addition of one or Removal of one or more components more components Food Functional Food Concentration of one Modification of one or or more components more components or its/their bioavailabilityIUFoST, May 26, 2004, Berlin 8
Herbal Foods• Botanicals must be correctly identified• Be sure that the herb is a food and that you are using the proper part or preparation• Herbs are to be produced under proper agronomic conditions• Use dried herbs in formulations with oil or properly acidify them first NCState
Dietary Supplements and Nutriceuticals• Dietary Supplement and Health Act of 1984 defines dietary supplements• Dietary supplements are not foods and cannot be represented for use as a sole item of a meal or of a diet• Deemed a food, but excluded from food additive safety and approval requirements when properly labeled NCState
• Nutraceutical can be defined as “ A food or part of food or nutrient, that provides health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of a disease.”
Innovations leading to Innovative Foods Innovations Innovative foodsFormulation technology for premixes, Homogenizationtechniques, Iso-electric precipitation for protein extraction, SupplementsExtraction technologies for fibers &food nutrients, NutraceuticalsTechnologies for reducing salt, sugar & saturated fats, Artificial Fortified foodssweeteners, Microencapsulation Health foodsUse of alternate raw materials and alternate methodologies,Enzyme technology, Gelation, Texturization Imitation foodsGene modification & Bioengineering GM Foods Development of innovative foods have resulted from technologies related to inter- disciplinary approach based on chemistry, physics, biotechnology, bioengineering, nanotechnology, etc.
Innovations & their Critical Factors at Different Stages Stage Innovations Critical factors Dehydration Critical control points Processing Ultra-high temperature Quality systems treatment Loss of vitamins &Value-add & avoid High press. processing Extrusion cooking nutrientswastage of Textural changesthe raw foods Fat & oil modification Synthetic food ingredients Residues of chemicals Food additives beyond MRL values Chemical preservatives Residual solvents Use of hydrophobic solvents Trans fats Use of polar solvents & alkalis Lipid oxidation Enzymatic oxidation Poor quality of used chemicals & solvents Quality assurance of all raw materials Chemical degradation All processes to be validated Use of process controls and online sensors Need for capability building & skill development Infrastructure development HACCP & other quality systems to be in place
Innovations & their Critical Factors at Different Stages Stage Innovations Critical factors Shelf-life Radiation processing (UV, X- Excess radiation dose rays & γ - rays) Electrolytic reactions Ohmic heating Enzymatic reactionsPreserve the foodfor a longer period High press. treatment Degradation productson the shelf Pulsed electrical fields Studies for dose optimization for radiation processing Electric fields to be applied Shelf-life studies under accelerated conditions
Innovations & their Critical Factors at Different Stages Stage Innovations Critical factors Texturization, Emulsification & Product quality Consumer Homogenization Product safety Fortification technologiesSafe & quality Hygiene Microwave heatingfood consumed Nutritionin a hygienic manner Sensory appeal Product awareness amongst consumers Studies for bioavailability of nutrients during processing and storage Ensure stability of the product Stringent quality monitoring Abiding regulatory norms Scientific information gathering and analysis Development of capability & infrastructure for monitoring quality & safety of food products Management of food safety crisis Success & failure of the product is determined by the critical factors Critical factor at each step characterizes a new product development from conceptualization of an idea to commercialization of product
History of Food Fortification•Iodised Salt was used in the United States beforeWorld War II•Niacin has been added to bread in the USA since1938•Vitamin D was added to margarine in Denmark inearly 50’s•Vitamin A & D were added to Vanaspati(hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) in india since 1954 asper mandate•Folic acid was added to bread for preventing neuraltube defects in infants in 60’s
Myths of Food Fortification•Food Fortification costs are very high• Food Fortification changes colour, flavour, textureof foods• Food Fortification needs expensive equipments• Food Fortification may increase risk of toxicity oroverdosing of vitamins• Food Fortification is not a long term strategy fordelivering the nutrients• Food Fortification requires specialised trainedmanpower• Food Fortification is a commercial gimmick for foodindustry
Technologies for Food Fortification1. It requires uniform mixing of micronutrients intothe t e food product being processed whether it’s adry powder mixing, oily product blending orwater-miscible liquid blending2. Dosing equipment like dosing meters are requiredto be installed for online continuous productionplants3. Measured quantity of fortificant can be added tobatches of food product during processing4. In case of spray drying process food fortificantscan be added to the slurry before spray drying5. For Fortification of items like sugar and ricespecial technologies have been developed
Current status of Food Fortification Processed foods•Fruit Juices, Nectars:Vitamin A, C,• Powder Soft Drink Conc.: Vitamins A,D3,E, C• Noodles, pasta, extruded snacks : B Comp with Vit C• Biscuits, Breads, confectionery :B Comp with Vit C• Jams, Jellies, Seasonings : Vitamins A, D3, E, C• Milk products like yogurts, flavoured milk, ice cream:Vitamins A,D3, B Complex
Technologies of future Food Fortification: 2010 to 2020•Nanotechnology : to produce designer foods•Biotechnology : to produce foods with probiotics•Microencapsulation :controlled release of vitamins &flavours•Colloidal technology : for creating food gels and sols•Techno foods : nutritional paste form, texturised form•Space Food Technologies: for transporting foods tospaceships to have longer shelf life of more than 2 years•Encapsulated vitamins for dietary supplements;•Micelle systems for low-fat foods.
‘Smart Foods’ Fortification: 2010 to 2020•Modified starch (eg instant dessert mix that uses cold milk)• Genetically modified foods• Anti-oxidants Tocopherol & Ascorbyl Palmitate• Modified enzymes, e.g. chymosin• Pre & Probiotic yoghurts/drinks• Meat analogues, eg: textured vegetable protein (TVP),myco-protein and tofu• functional foods, eg: cholesterol lowering spread
New Fortified Foods Ideas•Fortified Cholesterol reducing butter•FortifiedTexturised VegProtein•Fortified Meat Analogues Tofu•Fortified Mycoproteins for burger fillets
New Fortified Foods IdeasFortified EncapsulatedJelly beans Fortified Sports Energy barsFortified Breads using encapsulatedleavening agents