Dublin Core Social Tagging Workshop 2009




    Scientific social tagging:
background knowledge comes to surface

       ...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                    Background

  Sc...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                             AquaRing project

  eCo...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                            Overview
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ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                         Challenge

 ...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                  Difficulties

  Hu...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                   Remedial actions

...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                                 Appr...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                         Content management

  How c...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                         Content annotation

  How c...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                         Knowledge generation

  How...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                 Knowledge-based content retrieval

  How contents a...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                      Services

 Bac...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                           Semantics
...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                                     ...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                                     ...
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                                                                                               Ontolo...
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                                                                                     Domain coverage
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                                                                                   Free tags

  Free...
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                                                               Ontology learning approach

          ...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                         Ontology editor

  AquaRing...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                                     ...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                       Benefits

  A...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                               Lessons learnt

  Sem...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261




                                www.aquaringweb.eu



 Contacts

 Stefano Bianchi
 Research Team ...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                           About contextualization…

...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                    About contextualization…

  How ...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                         Final demonstration prototype

             ...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                           Search engine

 Hippocampu...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                    Tag cloud
       ...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                         Virtual exhibitions




Buil...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                         Virtual exhibitions


      ...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                              Video

...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                              Map
 We...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                              Architecture details


...
Local digital collections and objects interfacing
                ECP 2005 CULT 038261




                        CENTRAL...
Local digital collections and objects interfacing
                      ECP 2005 CULT 038261




ftp://81.93.5.231        ...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                 Metadata annotation & collections

  Metadata annot...
ECP 2005 CULT 038261
                                                                                               Collec...
Collections & content managements
AquaRing FTP client
                ECP 2005 CULT 038261




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Scientific social tagging - background knowledge come to surface (AquaRing Project)

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Presentation of the scientific social tagging approach undertaken in the EC-funded (eContentPlus Programme) AquaRing project (www.aquaringweb.eu) for the creation of a global virtual digital content space on the aquatic domain - includes a description of how semantics (metadata + ontologies) was used to annotate contents and improve their management and retrieval.

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  • It’s now time to get a flavour of the AquaRing demonstration prototype, having a direct experience of the value added of the services provided…TAG CLOUD--------------------------------------------------------------------------------HabitatsMarine HabitatsDangerous organismsTraumatogenicRed SeaEducationCartoni animatiHabitats mariniSharkResearchMYSTICETI Human foodToxicityMali SEARCH--------------------------------------------------------------------------------User type: educationBottlenose Dolphin+ Sexual reproductionPollution+Mammalia+Bacterian diseaseInglese x mediastranding (animale spiaggiato)ricerca immaginipublisher rbinsInglese x noneaccidentsoccurr in NEtherlands con +
  • Scientific social tagging - background knowledge come to surface (AquaRing Project)

    1. 1. Dublin Core Social Tagging Workshop 2009 Scientific social tagging: background knowledge comes to surface Stefano Bianchi www.aquaringweb.eu ECP 2005 CULT 038261
    2. 2. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Background  Scientific institutions create, manage and store thousands of digital contents (images, video, documents etc.) for their institutional mission (research, edutainment etc.)  Classifying and aggregating such contents is a benefit o for the scientific institutions, to ease management and reuse o for the “community”, once contents are published online HOW? ONTOLOGY knowledge formalization + METADATA enhanced content annotation Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 2
    3. 3. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 AquaRing project  eContentPlus EC funded programme – CALL 2005 o FOCUS: Cultural and scientific/scholarly content  Project  www.aquaringweb.eu (Sept.06-Mar.09) o a European cross-border virtual global knowledge and content space on aquatic environment and resources IT providers Coordination Dissemination Knowledge & content providers Evaluation Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 3
    4. 4. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Overview Distributed ? content space Additional content providers ? Centralised access Users DETAILS > Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 4
    5. 5. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Challenge integrated, semantic-based, cross-border digital collection of cultural and scientific contents on aquatic and marine sciences = complex knowledge domain HETEROGENEOUS Species, Land, Habitats, Environment, Fishing areas, Vessels, Leisure etc. Different languages, different audiences, DYNAMIC different formats etc. HUGE E.g. FishBase (www.fishbase.org) - 31,200 Species - 276,500 Common names …only fish! Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 5
    6. 6. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Difficulties  Huge, heterogeneous and dynamic knowledge domain o Marine Biology, Aquatic Sciences, Aquatic Environment, Aquatic and marine activities and technology, Marine Culture and Leisure, Education and Awareness etc. etc.  Several different large ontologies/thesauri exist but no one covers the whole domain o Integration/merging to achieve adequate coverage o Introduction of new knowledge as it appears  Mandatory interoperability with ongoing scientific initiatives o Future extensions/collaborations/data exchange o Considering inclusion in Europeana (www.europeana.eu) Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 6
    7. 7. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Remedial actions  To adopt a standard metadata model (DC) o To ensure future interoperability with other organisations / initiatives  To use state-of-the-art existing ontologies o provided by reliable organisations in the field  To transform state-of-the-art existing thesauri/DB views into ontologies o E.g. conversion of ASFA thesaurus into an ontology o E.g. Habitats db view from European Environment Agency  To create a new ontology for uncovered sub-domains o using reliable scientific data as sources (E.g. EDUcational ontology)  To support a mixed annotation approach (ontologies + hierarchical free tags) o to use knowledge from ontologies and incorporate new knowledge  To implement an ontology learning approach o to learn from content annotation creating a unified ontology Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 7
    8. 8. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Approach  How can semantics support a cross-border virtual global knowledge and content space on aquatic environment and resources?  Contents o management o annotation • semantics (meaning) * CONTEXTUALIZATION – Metadata » data about data (e.g. “identity card” of a resource) – Ontology » “an ontology is an explicit specification [i.e. formalization] of a conceptualization” [Gruber,1993]… concepts + relations  Knowledge o generation • from generic to specific  can annotation create new knowledge? o exploitation • content annotation *: semantics for domain-focused tagging • content retrieval: semantics to refine search and guide navigation Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 8
    9. 9. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Content management  How contents are managed? o contents are locally collected and arranged into collections (folders) and then simply moved to a dedicated server (http/ftp) o basic metadata for all digital contents uploaded are automatically created and ready for semantic annotation Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 9
    10. 10. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Content annotation  How contents are annotated? o once uploaded, each content/collection has a metadata record associated, ready to be enriched with information specifying “what the resource is about” (subject) Subject: Hyppocamous spp o tags for subject can be then selected NE ATLANTIC from a) seven multidisciplinary ontologies covering different aspects of the aquatic world or b) can be entered freely to fill possible gaps in coverage of each ontology • distinction is tracked for quality check! o only once all mandatory fields are filled the content is published online • NOTE: annotation is inherited for collections! Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 10
    11. 11. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Knowledge generation  How knowledge is generated? o Semi-automatic ontology learning process • Relations between concepts used for annotation are semi-automatically created on the basis of the specific contextual content annotations lives in Subject: SPECIES HABITATS Hippocampus spp NE ATLANTIC lives in Hippocampus spp NE ATLANTIC Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 11
    12. 12. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Knowledge-based content retrieval  How contents are retrieved? o Services exploits annotations and generated knowledge • To focus better search and navigation results • To suggest refinements • To ease content navigation and use Hippocampus spp! Hippocampus spp SEARCH Hippocampus spp Aquariology! is studied by lives in Aquariology NE Atlantic is affected by Illegal fishing Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 12
    13. 13. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Services  Back-office o content management, knowledge formalization • Metadata editor (http://metadata.aquaringweb.eu) RESTRICTED • Ontology editor (http://ontology.aquaringweb.eu) ACCESS!  Front-office (http://www.aquaringweb.eu) o content provision, knowledge exploitation • multilanguage dynamic site framework • (semantic) search engine (5 customised + 1 general) • (semantic) tag cloud • virtual exhibitions SEMANTICS • GoogleMaps-based interactive map Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 13
    14. 14. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Semantics  WHY? o To improve semantic-based content annotation o To support semantic-based retrieval and navigation of contents  HOW? o Identification / adaptation of a suitable metadata formalism • Based on assessed & interoperable metadata standards o Research / definition of a suitable domain ontology • Scientific / technical evaluation of existing ontologies • Reliability / suitability / application domain / multilingual support • Merge / combine of existing ontologies o Mechanisms to allow multilingual user interaction • Support for consortium languages + English • Multilingual annotations • Multilingual ontologies Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 14
    15. 15. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Metadata  DublinCore Qualified o 24 elements (DCMES’ 15 plus some refinements) o 10 mandatory elements – Title, Audience, Abstract, Publisher, Type, Language, Subject, Format, Identifier, Date o 4 purpose-based element groupings • Core Elements – Title, Audience, Abstract, Publisher, Type, Language, Rights, Creator • Semantic Annotation – Subject (terms selected from 7 ontologies + free tags) • Physical Resource – Format, Identifier, Date of creation, Date of Availability, Date of Issuing, Date of Validity, Format extent • Additional Elements – Contributor, Bibliographic Citations, Source, HasVersion, Replaces, Requires, HasPart, References, HasFormat, SpatialCoverage, Temporal Coverage Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 15
    16. 16. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Instances  Instances used to annotate a translation of the original resource o Mandatory • to create at least one instance for each metadata record • to create at least one annotation of the resource in English – the metadata record or an instance • to create an instance in the annotator’s native language (configurable) Title Title in the instance language Abstract Abstract in the instance language Date Date of creation, modification, issuing, availability and /or validity Format MIME type Format Size and / or duration Extent Identifier Physical location of resource Language Language of the translation Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 16
    17. 17. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Ontology  … 7 ontologies selected for content annotation 1. Biological Species By FAO 2. Fishing Areas developed by EC project Neon 3. Land Areas (www.neon-project.org) 4. Vessels 5. Habitats • programmatically developed from EUNIS Habitat types classification 6. ASFA (AQUATIC SCIENCES AND FISHERIES ABSTRACTS) • programmatically developed from ASFA thesaurus, provided by FAO 7. EDUcation • derived from DCMI, LOM, DC-Ed AP, LRE, IMATI ITD  Hierarchical free tags annotation mechanism  AquaRing ontology generated by annotation (ontology learning) o including relationships among the seven ontologies and merging free tags o ontology editor for non-experts* developed for manual refinements Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 17
    18. 18. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Domain coverage Species ASFA (general) FREE TAGS FREE FREE TAGS FREE TAGS FREE TAGS TAGS FREE Habitats TAGS FREE What if a species I need is TAGS missing? Land But only checked names & correct classification, please… EDUcation we are scientists! Fishing Areas FREE TAGS FREE TAGS Vessels FREE TAGS Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 18
    19. 19. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Free tags  Free tags allowed for each sub-domain (ontology) o to fill in domain gaps not covered by the selected ontologies o functionality available at annotation time o results reusable by all annotators  Annotators advised to consult preferred thesauri o GEMET, Environment field o AGROVOC, Agricultural field (but covers partially Marine Biology) o AQUATEXT, Online Aquaculture Dictionary o MarineSpecies, Marine organisms names o FishBase, contains most of fish species known to science o EUROVOC, EC activity multilingual thesaurus “Guided” free tags (+ ontology editing!) Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 19
    20. 20. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Ontology learning approach ONTOLOGY A “concepts = keywords” used for annotation ONTOLOGY B semi-automatically generated relations HIERARCHICAL FREE TAGS ONTOLOGY C Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 20
    21. 21. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Ontology editor  AquaRing ontology enrichment and improvement (for non-expert*) o Terms and free tags translations (multilingual system!) o Relationships management o Free tags management Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 21
    22. 22. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Results AquaRing ontology 75,00 0! 0 ,000!* over over 2 Ontology # of concepts Relations # Biological Species (Free Tags) 6811 Affects 1876 Biological Species 22343 Considers 332 Educational (Free Tags) 90 Describes 2 Educational 854 Exploits 47 Fishing Areas (Free Tags) 1297 Lies in 3757 Fishing Areas 3583 Occurs_in 4902 Habitats (Free Tags) 1470 Owns 43 Habitats 5764 Studies 6254 Land Areas (Free Tags) 1059 Uses 1151 Land Areas 5049 Includes family 1696 Marine Biology (Free Tags) 5066 Includes order 110 Marine Biology 24188 Includes species 459 Vessels (Free Tags) 28 Related to 122 Vessels 93 * Over 160,000 with translations! Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 22
    23. 23. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Benefits  Access to resources classified in AquaRing knowledge sub- domains  Search performed according to resource meaning and user preferences o User’s preferences: audience type, language, format, etc. • e.g. “videos for children in French”  Ontology terms suggested to refine/complete the search o Knowledge exploration – domain-based guided serendipity!  Access to resources grouped by a representation of usage degree of ontology terms in annotations (+ relations with other terms) • Tag cloud-based navigation + relations Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 23
    24. 24. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Lessons learnt  Semantic technology (and Semantic web) still considerably unknown in domains where CMS and IS might benefit from such formalised approaches o simple yet effective knowledge-based solutions are usually positively evaluated by content providers  Semantic technology’s take-up hampered by difficulties related to the proper formalization of complex scientific knowledge (ontology engineering) and classification of contents (semantic annotation)  Semantic content annotation is a valuable source of information to generate new domain knowledge o From content contextualization to knowledge formalization  Semi-automatic generation is effective provided that according to the domain (e.g. science, health) manual check is allowed / enabled (QoS problem) o “Freedom” is related to the application domain & objectives o “Hierarchical” free tags more meaningful than “flat” free tags o “Guided” free tag approach minimizes contextual noise Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 24
    25. 25. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 www.aquaringweb.eu Contacts Stefano Bianchi Research Team Leader stefano.bianchi@softeco.it Tel. +39 010 6026 368 Thanks for your attention! Fax. +39 010 6026 350 Milan, June 10th 2009 www.softeco.it Tagging Workshop 2009 DC Social 25 www.aquaringweb.eu
    26. 26. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 About contextualization…  Why is contextualization important? NICE IMRESSIONIST LANDSCAPE? eutrophic estuary nutrient enrichment low oxygen http://www.sccwrp.org/view.php?id=82 macroalgal blooms chlorophyll-a aquatic vegetation Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 26
    27. 27. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 About contextualization…  How can contextualization help? Scientific classification Animalia JUST A SHARK? Chordata Vertebrata Chondrichthyes Elasmobranchii Euselachii Human impact Carcharhiniformes BYCATCH Carcharhinidae LINE-FISHING Galeocerdo SHARK FISHERY Galeocerdo cuvier FINNING FISHERY REGULATIONS Geographical area FISHERY MORTAL DATA FISHERY DATA EC PACIFIC HISTORICAL FISHING WC PACIFIC ENDANGERED SPECIES EC ATLANTIC WC ATLANTIC < BACK INDIAN OCEAN Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 27
    28. 28. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Final demonstration prototype www.aquaringweb.eu Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 28
    29. 29. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Search engine Hippocampus spp SEARCH CONTENTS RELATIONS to extend and refine the search on the basis of the AquaRing ontology Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 29
    30. 30. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Tag cloud TAGS (ontology concepts): “the larger the font, the more the contents” RELATIONS to ease CONTENTS navigation on the basis of the AquaRing ontology Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 30
    31. 31. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Virtual exhibitions Build value-added learning paths on top of aggregated digital content collections Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 31
    32. 32. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Virtual exhibitions NAVIGATION DESCRIPTION ROOMS CONTENT Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 32
    33. 33. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Video FLASH PREVIEW DOWNLOAD VIDEO BROWSER TOPIC BROWSER Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 33
    34. 34. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Map Web 2.0 GoogleMaps API based content visualization < BACK Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 34
    35. 35. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Architecture details Central system Global Content Space Node CONTENT Local PCs MANAGEMENT Semantic Server repository (metadata + Easily reachable Contents from inside ontologies) (to move contents from Portal local PCs to the server – INTERNET INTERNET Content FTP facility) Management Administration Services services Easily reachable from outside User services (to retrieve contents from the portal – HTTP facility) Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 35
    36. 36. Local digital collections and objects interfacing ECP 2005 CULT 038261 CENTRAL SYSTEM GLOBAL CONTENT SPACE NODE DMZ MINIMAL FTP CLIENT 1 SERVLET (DESKTOP APP) CONTAINER 2a FTP SERVER DMZ 2b FTP SERVER ure ktop 3 ced des METADATA pro r’s EDITOR ot” vide tal HOST (SERVER) -sh pro 4 por 6 “One nt e ing ont quaR m c to A fro SERVLET 5 CONTAINER HTTP SERVER LAN INTERNET Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 36
    37. 37. Local digital collections and objects interfacing ECP 2005 CULT 038261 ftp://81.93.5.231 ftp://81.208.74.210 ?? http://www.nausicaa.fr/aquaring http://81.208.74.210 ? FTP + HTTP FTP + HTTP SERVER SERVER AQR FTPCLIENT AQR FTPCLIENT AQR FTPCLIENT AQR FTPCLIENT http://adg.contents.aquaringweb.eu http://naus.contents.aquaringweb.eu http://lsm.contents.aquaringweb.eu AQR FTPCLIENT AQR FTPCLIENT FTP + HTTP SERVER http://rzoo.contents.aquaringweb.eu http://rbins.contents.aquaringweb.eu http://new.contents.aquaringweb.eu < BACK 3 physical nodes Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 37
    38. 38. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Metadata annotation & collections  Metadata annotation = time consuming task o Review report • “Think about alternative methods and technologies to address the time consuming multilingual metadata annotation” • “The metadata annotation requires a lot of labour-intensive effort and specialized expertise: this might become a risk for the sustainability of the project”  “Hierarchical collections” o Dublin Core: “A collection is an aggregation of items. The term collection means that the resource is described as a group; its parts may be separately described and navigated.”  Many contents with similar “meaning” aggregated in a collection (folder or even folder tree) o Iterative automatic creation of metadata for inner content  Specific annotation can be specified at any level o Necessary requirement for annotation quality!!! Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 38
    39. 39. ECP 2005 CULT 038261 Collections on large tion tion on COLLECTION = FOLDER (or folder tree!) r annota descrip Faste etailed collec tions, d s!!! ontent sp ecific c COLLECTION General description, valid for all METADATA contents included in the collection (e.g. photo campaign on the same area/species/individual etc.) + CONTENT Specific description, valid for a specific METADATA content (e.g. peculiarity, location etc.) = Semantic description (inheritance) Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 39
    40. 40. Collections & content managements AquaRing FTP client ECP 2005 CULT 038261 All available information on files (name, size, format etc.) can be - automatically detected and used for the annotation application simple Java standalone desktop - file/folder selectionMETADATA CREATION AUTOMATIC from local pc - one shot ftp transfer ON CONTENT/FILE FTP TRANSFER Once created, metadata can be refined (E.g. subject) - add/remove file/folder on ftp server LOCAL PC FTP SERVER Fully integrated & synchronized with Metadata Editor functionalities - trigger system for metadata creation/deletion Milan, June 10th 2009 DC Social Tagging Workshop 2009 www.aquaringweb.eu 40
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