WorldSTE2013: Student-Centred Learning in Pre-service Science Teacher Education in Cambodia


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Overview of successes and challenges of Introducing Student Centred Approaches in Pre-service Science Teacher Education in Cambodia

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  • Underlying rationale:Increase relevance of science lessonsIncrease motivationAs a result, decrease number of drop-outs and increase proportion of students studying science.
  • Teachers from practice schools
  • Paris Peace Treaty in 1993
  • Progression to secondary school (%): Transition from primary (ISCED 1) to secondary (ISCED 2), general programmes (%). Total is the number of new entrants to the first grade of secondary education (general programmes only) in a given year, expressed as a percentage of the number of pupils enrolled in the final grade of primary education in the previous year. Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsYouth (15-24) literacy rate (%). Total is the number of people age 15 to 24 years who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on their everyday life, divided by the population in that age group. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.School enrollment, primary (% gross)Gross enrolment ratio. Primary. Total is the total enrollment in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.School enrollment, primary (% net):Net enrolment rate. Primary. Total is the ratio of children of the official primary school age who are enrolled in primary school to the total population of the official primary school age. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
  • 1. The primary ANER includes children of primary school age who are enrolled in either primary or secondary school.2. Adult literacy rates are unofficial UIS estimates.3. The survival rate to the last grade of primary was used because the primary education cycle is less than five years
  • Narrow interpretation of SCA
  • Hofstede: high power distance
  • WorldSTE2013: Student-Centred Learning in Pre-service Science Teacher Education in Cambodia

    1. 1. Introducing Student Centred Approaches in Pre-service Science Teacher Education in Cambodia World Conference on Science and Technology Education, September 29 – October 3, 2013
    2. 2. Objectives Successes & challenges in a science teacher trainer development programme between 2008 and 2013 in Cambodia
    3. 3. VVOB in a Nutshell Education for Development Quality, Efficiency and Effectiveness • Technical assistance • Strengthen Capacity • Local partnerships • Focus on Meso-level capacity • Link with Macro-level policy & Micro-level needs Bridge the North and the South • Internships • School Links • Partnerships with Flemish University Colleges Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance Founded in 1982 as a non-profit organisation Main donors are the Belgian and Flemish governments
    4. 4. Objective: Graduate teachers apply improved teaching methodology Strategy: Capacity Strengthening of Pre-service Teacher Training for basic education Teacher Training Programme Science education Biology, Chemistry Physics, Earth Science
    5. 5. Pupils at primary schools/ lower sec schools MoEYS central level (TTD), donors, … SEAL Programme Teacher Trainers at PTTCs/RTTCs Student Teachers at PTTCs/RTTCs Target groups
    6. 6. 75 % of teachers 96 % of university students 67 % of all primary and secondary school pupils …were killed/starved when the Khmer Rouge was in power. Long-term Impact on the Education System and Human & Social Capital in Cambodia Cambodia: the legacy of Pol Pot 71.2% of children aged 12-14 are not enrolled in secondary schools
    7. 7. Education Indicator Year Cambodia Net enrollment primary education (%) 2011 98 Gross enrollment primary education (%) 2011 126 Completion rate primary education (%) 2011 90 Progression to secondary school (%) 2010 80 Overaged primary school attendance (%) 2010 42 % population 15-24 not complete primary edu. (%) 2010 32 Pupil-teacher ratio, primary 2010 48 Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary 2007 29 Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24) 2009 87 Education Indicators
    8. 8. • EFA Development Index 2010 (N = 127) Source: UNESCO 2012 Cambodia: Quality of Education EDI Component Value Ranking 1. UPE 0.957 59 2. Literacy 0.739 94 3. Gender 0.883 97 4. Quality 0.621 111 Overall EDI 0.801 100
    9. 9. Significance • Relevance of teaching quality (Hattie, 2009) • Prevalence of rote learning • Increasing relevance of science lessons & motivation  Reduce number of drop-outs and increase proportion of students studying science.
    10. 10. Theory • PCK – TPACK (Schulman, 1986, 1987; Mishra & Koehler, 2006) – Components of subject knowledge – Vs. generic pedagogical focus (Ball, 1991) and technological determinism (Oliver, 2011) – Including • Alternative representations • Typical misconceptions • Choice of examples • Student activities • Curriculum knowledge
    11. 11. Example PCK Textbook Earth Science
    12. 12. Example PCK Teachers doing a ‘solar system walk’
    13. 13. Theory: Student-Centred Approaches • Learning model (Lea et al., 2003) – Active students – Deep learning and understanding – Shared responsibility & accountability for learning outcomes – Sense of autonomy – Position of teacher – Reflexive approach to teaching and learning
    14. 14. Examples Student Centred Approaches Concept Tests & Peer Instruction Active reading & writing Reasoning (Donuts) Experiments
    15. 15. Zero and Low-Cost Experiments
    16. 16. Zero and Low-Cost Experiments
    17. 17. Programme Implementation • Piloting & mainstreaming stage • 20 days of training (2-year period) • Peer learning workshops • Lesson observations (2/ year) • Support monthly technical meetings at college • Teaching resources in Khmer – Teacher manuals, experiment boxes, posters, multimedia, labs – Quality assurance by MoEYS
    18. 18. Evaluation Outcome Knowledge and skills Usage of materials Impact Behaviour and attitude change Higher motivation and satisfaction. Improved learning outcomes (pupils) Institutional level (MoEYS) Interviews with MoEYS officials Interviews with MoEYS officials Plans (TDAP, ICT Master plan) Organisational level (TTCs) Reports to MoEYS Checklist s Interviews with TTC Management Individual level Teacher trainers Lesson Observations Survey Focus Group discussion Interviews with teacher trainers Teachers Lesson Observations In-depth interviews young teachers Student teachers Lesson Observations during practicum Lesson plan analysis Interviews with student teachers Interviews with young teachers Pupils Lesson observations in schools
    19. 19. Findings: Use of SCA by teacher trainers Comparison of use of various SCA by science teacher trainers in 2012 and 2013
    20. 20. Results: Quantity • High reported usage, but decrease one school year after training – Shorter school year – More selective use after trying out
    21. 21. Results: Quality • Main findings from lesson observations – Limited content knowledge – Deductive approach (use of experiments) – Classroom size & infrastructure – Narrow interpretation of SCA (‘getting student active’) – Positive effects on student motivation
    22. 22. Success Factors • Involvement teacher trainers & MoEYS from early stage • Collaborative definition of priorities in curriculum • Measuring impact using existing data • Week-long workshops complemented with regular ‘lesson study’ sessions to build capacity
    23. 23. Challenges Challenges reported by science, pedagogy and agriculture teacher trainers for integrating SCA (2011 – 2013)
    24. 24. Challenges • Role & authority of the teacher • Availability vs. accessibility of materials • Limited preparation time (salary reform) • ‘Wide and shallow’ curriculum • Weak accountability structures & incentives (North, 1994)
    25. 25. References • Links – – • Contact – @stefaanvw –