Students take central position in learning process, not teachers or school administrators.students are capable of achieving life-long learning goals, which can further enhance student motivation in the classroom. Relate to daily life increases motivation
Problem Based Learning, through the use of problems/issues/triggers, encourages the students to developtheir own learning goals, thereby ﬁlling in the gaps in their knowledge or understanding (Boud and Feletti 1997). A growing practice in course design internationally is the writing of learning outcomes/objectives focusing on what the student will be able to do, rather than on the content being covered by the teacher (UCD Centre for Teaching and Learning 2005). This practice is an example of the move towardsstudent–centred learning in the curriculum and helps to shift the emphasis on the learner as opposed to a coverage model by the teacher.
Strengthens student motivationPromotes peer communicationTeaching strategies to accommodate individual needsLittle research on effectiveness LCA in developing countries.
Active participation in learning processTeacher give students opportunities to apply knowledge/skills/ attitudes through a variety of activities
First check for barriers to introduce SCA with participants.Briefly discuss each criticism or (if no time) refer to workshop sessions.Explain that each criticism has its merit, and it’s important to keep them in mind.Student expectations: based on research.- Prosser and Trigwell (2002) highlight different belief systems between teachers and students. Students should also change their views on learning.
1. National workshop on Student CenteredApproaches for Science EducationIntroduction to Student Centered Approaches RTTC Kandal, January 2012
3. What is a student-centered lesson?
4. Central position for studentsFocus on students’ needs, abilities, interests
5. Changing teaching methodologiesStudents are active, responsible participants in their learning.
6. Shared responsibility for learningStudents make choices in their education
7. Changing role of teacherTeacher functions as facilitator and coach
8. Definition• Lea et al. (2003:322) characterizes student–centered learning as:1. Reliance on active rather than passive learning,2. Emphasis on deep learning and understanding,3. Increased responsibility and accountability on the part of the student,4. An increased sense of autonomy in the learner5. Interdependence between teacher and learner,6. Mutual respect within the learner teacher relationship,7. A reﬂexive approach to the teaching and learning process on the part of both teacher and learner.’
10. How to make lessons student-centered?• Make the student more active in acquiring knowledge and skills• Make the student more aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it.• Make students more interacting with each other• Develop students’ transferable skills.
11. How to make lessons student-centered?Technique Student-centered characterFlash cards Active reading & writing3-2-1 sheets Self-AssessmentClozed worksheets Active readingJigsaw technique Increased involvementCreative writing Increased autonomyCornell Note Taking Transferable skills2-minute papers ReflectionAgreement Circles Peer learningMoral Continuum Student interestsDonut technique Transferable skillsFishbowl Teacher as facilitatorConcept Tests Deep learningConcept Cartoons Peer learningEducational Games Student involvement
12. Criticism for SCA• It takes more time• Not suitable for large class sizes• Not enough learning materials• Students expect teacher-centered instruction
13. Workshop programme• Active reading & writing skills• Reasoning skills• Conceptual thinking• Group work activities• Educational games• Low-cost experiments• Analogies & Models• Scientific Method• Use of science posters• Integrate life skills in science
14. Want more?• Available on request – O’Neill, G. and McMahon, T. (2005) – Lea, S.J., Stephenson, D. and Troy, J. (2003)