WorldSTE2013: Accessibility Challenges to Science Education in Cambodia - An Institutional Analysis

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Presentation for the World Conference on Science and Technology Education in Kuching, Malaysia, 29 September - 3 October 2013

Presentation for the World Conference on Science and Technology Education in Kuching, Malaysia, 29 September - 3 October 2013

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  • Paris Peace Treaty in 1993First UN-supervised elections in 1994
  • On track to achieve universal primary education by 2015Progression to secondary school (%): Transition from primary (ISCED 1) to secondary (ISCED 2), general programmes (%). Total is the number of new entrants to the first grade of secondary education (general programmes only) in a given year, expressed as a percentage of the number of pupils enrolled in the final grade of primary education in the previous year. Source: UNESCO Institute for StatisticsYouth (15-24) literacy rate (%). Total is the number of people age 15 to 24 years who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on their everyday life, divided by the population in that age group. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.School enrollment, primary (% gross)Gross enrolment ratio. Primary. Total is the total enrollment in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics.It can be argued that people with disabilities are the most universally excluded from education. Some agencies estimate that 90 per cent of  children with disabilities are not accessing school.School enrollment, primary (% net):Net enrolment rate. Primary. Total is the ratio of children of the official primary school age who are enrolled in primary school to the total population of the official primary school age. Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
  • 1. The primary ANER includes children of primary school age who are enrolled in either primary or secondary school.2. Adult literacy rates are unofficial UIS estimates.3. The survival rate to the last grade of primary was used because the primary education cycle is less than five years
  • Alignment as necessary condition for (economic) progressFormal rules: legislation, guidelines, standardsInformal constraintsEnforcement characteristics
  • Discourse: oppressed victimsthere is a strong religious and cultural belief in the theory that inequity and misfortunes are the result of past actions and present doings.
  • Discourse: oppressed victims
  • Technology can still be a tool for promoting the inclusion of disabled studentsTechnology not value-neutral and impact feelings and relations between studentsNeed for opportunities for the formation of bridging capital between disabled and non-disabled studentsDyslexia: extra time for tests can be big help
  • Technology can still be a tool for promoting the inclusion of disabled studentsTechnology not value-neutral and impact feelings and relations between studentsNeed for opportunities for the formation of bridging capital between disabled and non-disabled studentsDyslexia: extra time for tests can be big help
  • Language barrier and lowinformation literacy
  • Empowerment: organisations, school choice
  • Role models: disabled staff and graduates

Transcript

  • 1. Accessibility Challenges to Science Education in Cambodia World Conference on Science and Technology Education, September 29 – October 3, 2013
  • 2. Objectives • Framework to analyze accessibility challenges for disabled learners in developing countries • Exploration from perspective of science teacher education in Cambodia Photo credit: UNICEF Cambodia
  • 3. 75 % of teachers 96 % of university students 67 % of all primary and secondary school pupils …were killed/starved when the Khmer Rouge was in power. Long-term Impact on the Education System and Human & Social Capital in Cambodia Cambodia: the legacy of Pol Pot 71.2% of children aged 12-14 are not enrolled in secondary schools
  • 4. Education Indicator Year Cambodia Net enrollment primary education (%) 2011 98 Gross enrollment primary education (%) 2011 126 Completion rate primary education (%) 2011 90 Progression to secondary school (%) 2010 80 Overaged primary school attendance (%) 2010 42 % population 15-24 not complete primary edu. (%) 2010 32 Pupil-teacher ratio, primary 2010 48 Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary 2007 29 Literacy rate, youth total (% of people ages 15-24) 2009 87 Education Indicators
  • 5. • EFA Development Index 2010 (N = 127) Source: UNESCO 2012 Cambodia: Quality of Education EDI Component Value Ranking 1. UPE 0.957 59 2. Literacy 0.739 94 3. Gender 0.883 97 4. Quality 0.621 111 Overall EDI 0.801 100
  • 6. Significance • Worldwide disability prevalence: ca. 15% (UN-ESCAP, 2012) • Higher prevalence in developing countries – Higher vulnerability (nutrition, medical care) – Armed conflicts • Cambodia – Official prevalence: 6.3% (2009) – Ratification & Implementation UNCRPD (2012-2013) – Incheon strategy (ASEAN) Photo credit: UNICEF Cambodia
  • 7. Theoretical Framework Theory of Institutional Change (North, 1994; Konur, 2002) Formal Rules Informal Constraints Enforcement Characteristics Alignment
  • 8. Formal Rules • Legislation, guidelines, standards • Can be changed quickly, but… – Path dependency • Existing structures benefit from status quo • E.g. centralizing tendencies limiting initiatives at local level – External factors • Regional integration • International education benchmarks
  • 9. Informal Constraints Norms of behaviour, conventions, self-imposed codes of conduct – Disability as result of ‘bad karma’ (Mak Sau-Man, 2009) – Prejudice against education for disabled children (Stubbs, 2008) – Discourse based on ‘what they can’t do’ (Seale, 2013) – Interpretation of ‘reasonable’ adjustments (Konur, 2006) – Values and expectations (e.g. AT, ‘special’ treatments) (Seale, 2013) Cultural Economic Social Technology
  • 10. Informal Constraints – Poor return on education investments (Banerjee & Duflo, 2011) – Limited employment opportunities & low social mobility (Mak Sau- Man, 2009) – Informal payments (Benveniste et al., 2008) Photo: The Cambodia Trust (CC) Cultural Economic Social Technology
  • 11. Informal Constraints – Avoiding dependency, stigmatization & isolation (Seale, 2013) • Deal with uncomfortable relationship (e.g. jealousy) • Networks of formal and informal support networks – Inclusive education is not just about schools Cultural Economic Social Technology
  • 12. Informal Constraints – Limited resources, implementation challenges, conflicting priorities – Sole focus on compliance with WCAG 2.0 unsuitable (Kelly et al., 2010) • Legacy software, lack of infrastructure • Awareness & diagnostics of learning difficulties (e.g. dyslexia) • Simple aids (e.g. glasses, audiobooks) • Learning materials (e.g large size posters, books in large print) Cultural Economic Social Technology
  • 13. Enforcement Characteristics • Weak enforcement characteristics – Awareness of standards and good practices – Focus on administrative compliance – Limited capacity of organisational structures representing students and parents Photo credit: UNICEF Cambodia
  • 14. Working towards alignment • Weak incentive & accountability structures – Low incentives to invest in skills and knowledge – High cost & few immediate benefits – Low accountability – Low empowerment – Reliance on informal networks Misalignment Alignment
  • 15. Working towards alignment • Primacy of overcoming institutional blockages over resource shortages (North, 1994) – Awareness raising activities – Positive role models (staff and graduates with disabilities) – Information on rights and procedures – Data collection – Organisational capacity of disabled students, parents – Bridging capital between disabled and non-disabled students Misalignment Alignment
  • 16. Conclusions • Importance of informal constraints & enforcement characteristics for generating change • Need for wider, social vision on accessibility beyond compliance with guidelines such as WCAG 2.0 • Focus on removing institutional blockages by strengthening incentive & accountability structures Photo credit:s UNICEF Cambodia
  • 17. More Information • Links – http://vvob.be/cambodia/ – http://www.slideshare.net/StefaanVandeWalle/ – http://www3.open.ac.uk/study/postgraduate/course/h810.htm • Contact – @stefaanvw – Stefaan.vandewalle@vvob.be • References – See paper Photo credit: jbird