Utah 2009 Comprehensive Report on Homelessness


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The purpose of this report is to inform interested parties of the state of homelessness in Utah.

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Utah 2009 Comprehensive Report on Homelessness

  1. 1. comprehensive report on homelessness Utah 09
  2. 2. Comprehensive Report on Homelessness State of Utah 2009 All rights reserved © October, 2009 Utah Division of Housing and Community Development State Community Services Office 324 South State Street, Suite 500 Salt Lake City, UT 84111 801.538.8700 www.housing.utah.gov Authors Jayme Day, SCSO Jonathan Hardy, SCSO Lloyd Pendleton, SCSO Layout & Design Seth Jeppesen, SCSO Funding Funding for this project was provided by the State of Utah Division of Housing and Community Development through the Pamela Atkinson Homeless Trust Fund Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank all of those who took the time and effort to provide their expertise and information in the preparation of this report.
  3. 3. STATE OF UTAH COMPREHENSIVE REPORT ON HOMELESSNESS 2009 Letter from the Division of Housing and Community Development 1 Introduction 5 THE STATE OF HOMELESSNESS IN UTAH 8 Causes of Homelessness 9 Number of Homeless Individuals 13 Duration of Homelessness 18 Geography of Homelessness 21 Homelessness and Health 25 Characteristics of Homeless Subpopulations 26 ― Domestic Violence Victims 26 ― Homeless Families 28 ― Homeless Youth 30 ― Chronically Homeless Individuals 32 ― Homeless Veterans 34 ― Disabling Conditions 36 SYSTEM OF HOMELESS SERVICES IN UTAH 40 Coordination of Services 41 Homeless Interventions 44 Impact of Interventions on Homeless System 47 Statewide Initiatives 48 Local Homeless Coordinating Committee Profiles 51 Appendix 65
  4. 4. 4 introduction
  5. 5. ▪ H omelessness is a complex social and economic subsidy, such as a voucher, while looking for problem that has negative consequences not shelter or housing only for homeless individuals but also for their • Facing eviction within a week, having no families and their communities as a whole. backup residence identified and lacking the resources and support networks to obtain Impact on Individuals and housing • Being discharged from an institution, having no Communities residence identified and lacking the resources For homeless individuals and families, homelessness and support networks to obtain housing can expose them to traumatic events or aggravate their current circumstances making it more difficult A person is considered chronically homeless if he or to access needed resources and regain the ability she is an unaccompanied individual, 18 or older, with to support themselves. Children are particularly a disabling condition, and has been homeless for at vulnerable to adverse effects of homelessness, which least one year, or four times in three years. can interrupt their schooling, development of positive peer and mentoring relationships, and expose them Not included in the HUD definition of homelessness to dangerous or unhealthy environments. Early are individuals who move in with family or friends, experience with homelessness can have long term also known as “doubling up”, or those who move from effects for children and young adults, including home to home or are “couch surfing”. becoming homeless later in life. Communities also feel the impact of homelessness. Measuring Homelessness Studies nationwide have found the cost of Measuring the scope of homelessness is difficult due homelessness for communities is significant (NAEH, to the nature of the problem. Homeless individuals 2001). Higher utilization of emergency services such have no fixed residence and therefore move in and as emergency rooms, police and ambulance response, out of homelessness often for short periods of time and jail stays are more common among homeless making them difficult to track. individuals due to their increased exposure to outdoor elements, violence, and other unsafe or unhealthy HUD requires that all states with federally-funded environments. Without the ability to pay for emergency homeless services participate in “Point-in-Time” (PIT) services or other services, these costs are covered by counts on the last week in January in odd years. The the taxpayer. PIT count is a physical count of all homeless persons living in emergency shelters, transitional housing, Defining Homelessness and on the streets on a single night. Utah has chosen The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban to conduct its count every year. This enables policy Development (HUD) considers an individual to makers and advocates to determine the size and be homeless if he or she lacks a fixed, regular, and characteristics of the homeless population; however adequate nighttime residence and has a primary it does not capture those who experience only brief nighttime residence that includes – episodes of homelessness nor does it account for changes throughout the year due to economic and • Sleeping in places not meant for human social forces. habitation, such as cars, parks, sidewalks, or abandoned and condemned buildings In addition to the point-in-time count, the Utah • Sleeping in an emergency shelter Homeless Management Information System (UHMIS) • Spending a short time (30 consecutive days is another source of information on homelessness in or less) in a hospital or other institution, but Utah. The function of UHMIS is to collect information ordinarily sleeping in the types of places from participating homeless agencies on their mentioned above clients and the services they provide. With further • Living in transitional/supportive housing, but implementation, UHMIS will be able to disseminate having come from the streets or emergency accurate assessments of trends and the effectiveness shelters of interventions for addressing homelessness in Utah • Staying temporarily in a hotel on some type of such as the information provided in this report. 5
  6. 6. ▪ Report on Homelessness in Utah Approach to Homelessness in Utah This report outlines the trends in homelessness in The vision of the state of Utah is that everyone has Utah over the last few years as well as the solutions access to safe, decent, affordable housing with the implemented to significantly reduce the number of needed resources and support for self-sufficiency and people that experience homelessness. Trends will well-being. focus on the magnitude, geography, and duration of homelessness in Utah. This report will also address The State of Utah’s goals are to end chronic homelessness as it pertains to the many groups homelessness, create a system of homeless services that experience homelessness most often. These that most effectively aids those experiencing groups include domestic violence victims, homeless homelessness, and overall to reduce the amount of families, military veterans, and those with a disabling homelessness in Utah by 2014. condition. Guiding Utah is a “Ten-year action plan” developed by Utah’s Homeless Coordinating Committee. The major Facts about Homelessness in Utah goals of this plan are to: • In 2009, 0.6% of Utah’s population is homeless • End chronic homelessness by moving people or 15,525 individuals, according to HUD’s off the streets and into permanent housing definition of homelessness. with supportive services • Homeless individuals are most often • Expand access to affordable housing and temporarily homeless and 36% stay in shelters reduce overall homelessness by 40 percent for less than 7 days while 67% are homeless for less than 6 weeks. • Prevent homelessness by easing people’s transition from domestic violence shelters, • A smaller portion, or 9% of the homeless jails, prisons, mental health institutions and population, is chronically homeless or remain foster care homeless for long periods of time. The vast majority are male, and 19% are veterans. All • Create a statewide database to chart outcomes struggle with a disabling condition such as a and drive change physical disability, mental illness, or addiction. Many have multiple conditions. State of Utah’s Initiatives • The fastest growing segment of the homeless In order to prevent homelessness from occurring in the population are homeless persons in families, first place, targeted interventions including housing which in 2009 makes up 46%. They are mostly assistance for poor families and creating discharge female headed single parent families with plans that ensure housing for individuals leaving young children and are more often racial and institutions are being implemented. ethnic minorities. • Most homeless people are from Utah, For those who have been homeless for extended including 74% of homeless individuals and periods and have a disabling condition, the State of 88% of homeless families. Utah has adopted the Housing First approach which provides permanent supportive housing to chronically • Most homeless individuals live in urban areas, homeless individuals so they can focus on stabilizing and 89% live along the Wasatch Front mostly their disabling condition in a safe and supportive in Salt Lake and Weber Counties; however environment. Carbon and Grand Counties have the highest concentration of homeless individuals as a percent of the population. Source: NAEH 2001 “The Cost of Homelessness” 6
  7. 7. ▪ Myths and Facts Homeless people suffer from the hardship of their condition, but also face alienation and discrimination fueled by stereotypes. Here are some of myths and realities of homelessness. MYTH — People who are homeless stay homeless for a long time. FACT — The vast majority of homeless Utahns—67 percent—are temporarily homeless. They stay in shelters for brief periods, for days or weeks, and often do not return. MYTH — Most are single men. FACT — Persons in families are the fastest growing, comprising 46 percent of Utah’s homeless population. MYTH — The homeless population is transient, migrating to cities with the best services. FACT — 74 percent of Utah’s homeless population lived in Utah when they became homeless. MYTH — They are to blame for their situation. FACT — Many are victims of circumstance: illness and trauma from violence or abuse. About 28 percent are children. Source: 2008 Utah Homeless Count Client interviews conducted by the Utah Division of Housing & Community Development and the National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty. 7
  8. 8. 8 the state of homelessness in Utah
  9. 9. CAUSES OF HOMELESSNESS T he causes of homelessness are very complex and a home. These barriers are especially difficult for include many factors that are both structural individuals who are already homeless. (e.g. housing and job markets) and individually based. Structural forces are often the underlying Poverty or contributing factors that make people more vulnerable for becoming homeless in the event of Lack of a stable income makes finding and maintaining a personal crisis. Although it would be difficult to housing difficult for those living below or near the predict homelessness based on these factors alone, federal poverty level, especially if other factors such as the majority of homelessness would not occur in their a disability or being responsible for children increase absence. Immediate causes of homelessness most the financial demands for individuals and families. often relate to personal crises that include the loss of a Federal poverty guidelines are determined annually job or income, sudden or chronic illness, divorce, death based on inflation rates and the proportion of a in the family, incarceration or an abusive relationship. person’s income that is spent on food. In 2009, a family Many of these situations can make housing precarious of four making less than $22,050 a year is considered for individuals who are already vulnerable due to to be living in poverty. poverty, lack of affordable housing and other economic and social factors. Any financial, health, or personal crisis for those in poverty can make housing precarious. Individuals who become homeless are often the poorest of the Housing poor as they most likely have exhausted all financial The primary cause of homelessness is housing related and social resources to maintain their housing. Once crises. These include evictions, a lack of affordable homeless, individuals are also more susceptible to housing, or having barriers to housing. Evictions can additional crises, thus creating a cycle of poverty and be the result of owing rental or mortgage payments or homelessness that can be difficult for individuals to due to noncompliance with a housing contract such escape. as criminal behavior or having unauthorized tenants. For whatever reason, loss of a job, divorce, unexpected Unemployment bills due to health or house or auto related repairs can create a situation where individuals are not able to Unemployment contributes to poverty and therefore make payments for a time, leading to eviction. is an important factor for homelessness. When job markets decline, there are fewer full time jobs available There is often a lack of affordable housing in that offer a living wage and benefits. Barriers to communities either due to having too few rental employment include lack of education, training, skills, properties or having rental and owner properties that social networks, experience, and often a lack of available are more expensive than individuals or families can jobs in an area that forces many to move and therefore afford based on their income. Moving costs, deposit or separates them from their social networks of support. down payment and first months rent or mortgage also For individuals who are already homeless, finding a make housing less accessible for people with limited job is difficult if they do not have access to resources funds. such as a computer to generate a resume or search for jobs, appropriate attire for a job interview or the There are many barriers individuals face in obtaining transportation to get to a job let alone a job interview. housing in the first place, some of which include In addition, an address and other contact information having a criminal record, poor credit history, being are also required for most job applications. unemployed, not having money for a deposit, lacking transportation, needing references for a loan Lack of Health Care Insurance application or landlord, lacking identification, lacking Lack of health insurance leaves individuals more access to information about available properties or vulnerable to incur debt and therefore less able lacking the ability to navigate the process of finding to pay rent or mortgage if an emergency medical 9
  10. 10. ▪ situation occurs or chronic illness exists and is costly of violence within abusive relationships due to the to manage. Often people without health insurance increased levels of stress. forgo preventative medical checkups or keeping up with treatments necessary to keep their medical Divorce condition under control. This may cause a more serious condition or disability to occur making it more difficult For many people, two or more sources of income are to maintain employment and therefore income and necessary to maintain housing. Becoming a single housing. For homeless individuals, health problems are person or parent household due to divorce means created or exasperated by increased exposure to the housing payments must be made on one’s own or outdoors and crowding in shelters. In addition, poor divorcees may have to move to accommodate their health conditions make escaping homelessness much loss of income. Divorce can put people with limited more difficult for individuals seeking employment and resources at increased risk for homelessness, especially housing. single women with children. Decline in Public Assistance Incarceration Public Assistance has declined over the last 10 years Individuals leaving prisons or jails have barriers to making it more difficult for individuals living near housing due to their criminal record, which also or below the poverty level to avoid homelessness. narrows their employment opportunities. Recidivism Homelessness is often an impermanent state where rates for homeless individuals are high and often are public assistance can make the difference between due to charges of loitering, trespassing, and public whether individuals or families become homeless or intoxication. not. In addition, public assistance can help homeless individuals regain housing. Family and Social Ties People turn to family and friends most often for Important social services for those with limited support during a financial, health, or personal crisis. resources include housing subsidies, food stamps, Any type of crisis such as a loss of a job, health unemployment benefits, health insurance, etc. emergency, divorce, etc. can also put a strain on those family members or friends. This support network may Disabling Conditions not be able to ameliorate the crisis for long depending Homelessness is often the consequence of mental on their circumstances leaving individuals vulnerable illness, physical disability, or substance abuse for to homelessness without aid from institutional those who do not have access to family or institutional supports. For individuals, childhood exposures to supports. Often these conditions are co-occurring poverty or victimization can not only affect their future as with individuals who use drugs or alcohol to self- circumstances but those of their family making their medicate other illnesses or disabling conditions. safety net less reliable in times of need. Homelessness may also create or exacerbate these conditions. Disabling conditions often occur for military veterans making this population particularly Causes of Homelessness vulnerable to homelessness. in Utah Domestic Violence The 2009 Annual Report on Poverty in Utah reported a Individuals and families fleeing sexual, emotional, shortage of 30,988 affordable housing units in Utah in or physical abuse are considered homeless by the 2009. Many Utahns are renters (28%) and Fair Market Department of Housing and Urban Development when Rent (FMR) is $736 for a two-bedroom apartment, seeking refuge at a shelter. Victims’ living situations requiring a household income well above the poverty and employment are precarious due to violence and level. In Utah, 9.8% of people live below the poverty trying to avoid an abusive partner. Homelessness is line, or 256,283 individuals, which is less than the US often considered both an outcome and contributing at 12.5%. However, several areas in Utah have poverty factor of domestic violence. Poverty, unemployment rates higher than the US (US Census Bureau, 2007). and situational crises may cause increasing rates 10
  11. 11. ▪ The unemployment rate in Utah was 5.3% in March of Trends in Utah 2009 compared to the US at 8.5%. All counties in Utah Figure 1 displays the self-reported causes of were lower than the US rate during this period. While homelessness for homeless individuals and families in Utah is faring better than the US in terms of jobs, many Utah in 2008 and early 2009. It is important to note individuals remain without health insurance, about that these are self-reported factors for what individuals 10.7% in 2008 and 8% for children, many of whom live and families felt were the largest contributor to their at or near the poverty level. The combination of a lack situation. These are not necessarily the only factor. of affordable housing, poverty, unemployment, and a For instance someone may report a financial crisis as lack of health insurance makes people more vulnerable the cause of their homelessness but that may have to becoming homeless in the event of a crisis. resulted from the loss of a job. Figure 1 — Self-Reported Causes of Homelessness in Utah: Jan 2008 — May 2009 Individuals 2008 10 12 17 6 6 4 13 25 2 5 2009 6 18 19 5 4 2 10 25 2 8 2008 7 6 7 5 11 19 7 22 1 15 Families 2009 5 5 10 4 14 13 6 31 1 11 percentage Source: UHMIS 2008-2009 Note: UHMIS participating agencies only Financial Problems Employment Problems Health Problems Legal/Civic Problems Housing Problems Victimization/Divorce New to the Area Situational Crisis Way of Life Other 11
  12. 12. ▪ Unaccompanied Individuals who are homeless report 55% of families are reportedly headed by females and more problems with employment and their health as 80% of individuals are male. contributing factors compared with families, while families report victimization/divorce and housing Figure 2 displays the self-reported living situation problems more frequently than individuals. Individuals prior to becoming homeless for homeless individuals reported higher percentage of employment and and families in Utah in 2008 and early 2009. Families health problems in early 2009 than in 2008 but a lower were most often living with relatives or friends or percent of financial problems and being new to the area considered to be living in a “doubled up” situation, relative to other contributing factors of homelessness. while individuals were most often living on the Families year over year differences show a decline in streets or places not meant for habitation. For the victimization and divorce, reporting more situational most part these trends have remained constant from crises and housing problems for what caused their 2008 through early 2009, however the proportion of state of homelessness, however these data do not families previously owning increased relative to those include information from domestic violence shelters who were renting in 2009. due to its sensitive nature. In terms of characteristics, Figure 2 — Self-Reported Previous Living Situation for Homeless Individuals in Utah: Jan 2008 — May 2009 Individuals 2008 8 2 6 6 10 10 7 37 2 9 3 2009 7 2 6 5 11 11 9 37 1 8 3 2008 12 5 31 12 11 4 19 7 Families 2009 15 8 1 28 13 10 8 13 5 percentage Source: UHMIS 2008-2009 Note: UHMIS participating agencies only Owned Condo or House Foster Care or Group Home Hospital Hotel or Motel — Not Paid by Voucher Jail, Prison or Juenile Detention Living with Family or Relatives Living with Friends Others Place Not for Habitation (streets, etc.) Psychiatric Facility Sources: Rented Room, Apartment or House NCH June 2008 Fact Sheet #1 “Why are People Homeless?” Substance Abuse Treatment Facility The 2009 Annual Report on Poverty in Utah DWS March 2009 “Utah’s Monthly Employment Situation Report” 12
  13. 13. NUMBER OF HOMELESS INDIVIDUALS C ounting the number of homeless individuals In order to project the number of people who will across the state is a challenging task. experience homelessness throughout the year, or an Homelessness is often a temporary situation annualized count, these rates of turnover are applied and homeless individuals who are not in shelters to the Point-In-Time count. or temporary housing are difficult to locate. This creates the potential to underestimate the size of the Number of Homeless Persons in Utah homeless population for any given period of time. Basic estimates combined with an annual physical On January 28th, 2009 it was estimated that 3,525 count have been used to determine the size of Utah’s people were homeless. From this it is projected that homeless population. The number of homeless roughly 15,525 people will experience homelessness people varies based on how homelessness is defined. in Utah throughout 2009. Homelessness has increased These estimates determine many service and funding by 8% since 2008; however, chronic homelessness decisions in order to most appropriately address has declined by 5%. These changes are larger in homelessness. 2009 compared to a 2005-2007 baseline where chronic homelessness has declined by 19% and total Methodology – Determining the homelessness has increased by 14%. Number of Homeless People Figure 3 is a map of Utah that displays the number of homeless persons and the percent of each county’s Point-In-Time population estimated to be homeless in 2009. The The federal government requires that each state percent of the population in Utah who is homeless is perform what is called a “Point-In-Time” (PIT) count estimated to be 0.6% for 2009. where all homeless persons are counted on a single night during the last week of January on odd years. Utah performs this count every year. This includes both sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons. The PIT count is based on the HUD definition of homelessness and therefore does not count multiple families or households who are doubling up in a single residence due to lack of a permanent residence. Annualization The Point-in-Time is a prevalence measure — or a snapshot — of the number of people who experience homelessness on a given night. People are often homeless only for a short period of time, making this estimate a drastic undercount of the number of people who experience homelessness throughout the year. Analysis has been conducted to determine the incidence rate or amount of turnover that occurs within the homeless population. It has been determined that those persons experiencing short term homelessness is about five times the number that is seen on a single night. Those who are chronically homeless or are unsheltered are considered to have longer bouts of homelessness, and it has been determined that this population is about two times greater than that observed on a single night. 13
  14. 14. ▪ Figure 3 — Estimated Number of Homeless Individuals in Utah: 2009 % of County Population Cache 0% 702 Box Elder Rich 0.01% − 0.20% 65 0 0.21% − 0.60% State Avg: 0.6% overall Weber 0.61% − 0.90% 2,060 Morgan 0.91% − 2.03% Davis 0 645 Daggett Summit 0 114 Salt Lake Tooele 9,766 86 Wasatch 10 Duchesne Utah 140 Uintah 323 230 Juab 0 Carbon 396 Sanpete 0 Millard 0 Emery Grand 14 101 Sevier 108 Beaver Piute Wayne 2 0 0 Iron 95 Gar eld 0 San Juan 109 Washington Kane 559 0 14
  15. 15. ▪ Table 1 Top Five % of Population Locations with the Highest # of Counties that is Homeless Homeless Persons 2009 1 Carbon Salt Lake 2 Grand Weber 3 Salt Lake Cache 4 Weber Davis 5 Duchesne Washington Source: Utah PIT 2009 Number of Children who are Number of Homeless Persons in Utah Homeless in Utah Compared with the US The US Department of Education includes “doubling Figure 4 is a US Map of the PIT count for all states up”, or living with another family due to lack in the United States in 2008 including the rate of permanent residence, in their definition of of homelessness per 10,000 persons. The rate of homelessness for school children.Table 2 displays the homelessness in Utah is 0.13%, or 13 per 10,000 which number of children who are homeless. This includes is the number of homeless on a single night compared those families who are doubled up and therefore yields to the state’s population. The overall rate for the US is a higher number than what is included in the Point-In- 0.22%. Time count which is based on the HUD definition of homelessness. Table 2 — Number of Homeless School Children in Utah: 2006—2009 2006 2007 2008 2009 Doubled up with another family 7,792 7,587 6,424 8,528 Hotel or motel 342 408 206 303 Emergency or transitional shelter 628 713 384 446 Car, park, or campground 163 108 91 100 Inadequate facilities 729 705 564 628 Unaccompanied minor 433 474 347 383 Statewide total 10,087 9,995 8,016 10,388 Source: Utah Department of Education Point-in-Time Counts 15
  16. 16. ▪ Figure 4 — Number of Homeless Individuals on a Single Night in the USA: 2008 WA 0.34% (21,954) 0.15% − NH ME (2,019) MT 0.20% ND 0.15% − VT (2,632) 0.15% 0.10% (954) (1,417) (615) MN OR 0.15% 0.54% (7,644) (20,653) ID WI 0.10% NY 0.22% − MA SD 0.10% (14,506) (1,464) 0.07% (5,449) 0.31% WY (579) (61,125) 0.14% MI (751) 0.28% (28,248) 0.11% − RI IA PA (1,196) NE 0.11% 0.12% 0.13% − CT NV 0.22% (3,346) (15,378) (4,627) OH 0.48% (3,985) 0.11% (12,610) UT IL IN 0.12% (12,912) 0.13% 0.11% 0.16% − NJ (3,434) CO (14,724) (7,395) WV (13,832) CA 0.11% VA 0.43% 0.30% (2,016) 0.11% − DE (157,277) (14,747) KS MO 0.11% (933) 0.06% 0.13% KY (8,469) (1,738) 0.19% 0.16% − MD (7,687) (9,219) (8,137) NC 1.02% − DC (6,044) TN 0.13% 0.16% (12,411) AZ OK (9,705) 0.19% 0.11% AR SC (12,488) NM (3,846) 0.11% 0.13% 0.15% (3,255) (5,660) (3,015) AL MS 0.12% GA 0.07% (5,387) 0.20% (1,961) (19,095) TX HI 0.17% LA 0.47% (40,190) 0.12% (6,061) (5,481) Source: NAEH.org; HUD AHAR 2009 FL AK % of State’s Population that 0.27% 0.24% is Homeless per 10,000 (50,158) (1,646) 0.00% − 0.11% 0.12% − 0.14% 0.15% − 0.21% USA − 0.22% 0.22% − 0.46% Total # of homeless individuals 0.47% − 1.02% in USA − 664,414 16
  17. 17. ▪ Trends those without shelter; however, the goal is to accommodate all individuals who need shelter or Figures 5 and 6 display how the number of homeless housing. have changed in Utah from 2006 to 2009 and includes trends for family and chronically homeless Overall homelessness has increased since 2007 subpopulations as well as the percent of the population in addition to the number of families who are in Utah. The percent of the homeless population homeless across the state. However, chronic that is sheltered has increased each year starting homelessness has consistently declined each year from 86.7% in 2006 to 92.8% in 2009 and by far the since 2006. smallest population of homelessness has remained Figure 5 — Number of Homeless Individuals on a Single Night in Utah: 2006—2009 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 Total # of Homeless Individuals # of Chronically Homeless Individuals 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 # of Homeless Families with Children Source: Utah Point-in-Time Counts # of Sheltered Homeless Individuals # of Unsheltered Homeless Individuals Figure 6 — Estimated Annual Number of Homeless Persons in Utah: 2006—2009 18000 0.60% 16000 0.50% 14000 12000 0.40% 10000 0.30% 8000 6000 0.20% 4000 0.10% 2000 0 0.00% 2006 2007 2008 2009 # of Homeless Persons Source: Extrapolation of Utah Point-in-Time Counts # of Chronically Homeless Persons % of State Population 17
  18. 18. DURATION OF HOMELESSNESS Measuring Duration of Homelessness FY09 compared to 37 the previous Fiscal Year or an T increase of 2.1% (please see Table 3). This increase is he length of time someone is homeless varies by due to a 6% increase in the length of stay in domestic an individual’s or family’s situation. The majority of violence shelters. individuals are homeless for less than 6 months and most often for less than 7 days. The length of time individuals are homeless is often measured by the Overall Trends number of nights they remain in emergency shelters or Most individuals are homeless for less than 7 days transitional housing. These are termed “Shelter Nights” and this rate has increased in FY09 (see Figure 7). 93% or “Housing Nights” and include the total number of of individuals were homeless for less than 6 months. nights per person in shelters or housing programs so that if 50 people stayed in a shelter for 2 nights that would equate to 100 shelter nights. Figure 7 — Length of Stay in Emergency It is often not possible to measure the length of time Shelters in Utah: July 2007 — June 2009 unsheltered individuals spend on the streets beyond 2500 self-reported durations. A person or family may 2000 become homeless more than once and these durations # of Clients of homelessness are called “episodes”. A homeless FY08 1500 FY09 individual may live in a variety of settings within the 1000 same episode, such as in an emergency shelter, on the streets, in transitional housing, etc. making it difficult to 500 track an individual’s total duration of homelessness. 0 7 Days or Less 1 Week to 6 6 Weeks to 6 6 Months or Length of Stay in Emergency Shelters Weeks Months More Source: UHMIS FY08-FY09 in Utah Note: HMIS participating shelters only The average length of stay for homeless individuals in emergency shelters in Utah is 43 days for FY09 compared to the previous year’s average of 46 days. While this does not take into account the number of The number of persons in families in homeless shelters times a person may be homeless it demonstrates that increased by 4.6% in 2009 but their average length of homelessness is often short term, but even though it stay in emergency shelters has declined by 24%. The may last for the short period, the experience can often overall average length of stay in emergency shelters have long term adverse effects for individuals and for homeless individuals has decreased by 6.5% for families. FY09. When combining homeless and domestic violence shelters the average length of stay becomes 38 for Table 3 — Number of Clients and Emergency Shelter Nights, Utah: July 2007 — June 2009 Total # of # of Emergency Average # of Shelter Period Clients Shelter Nights Nights per Client FY08 9198 340,724 37.0 FY09 9485 358,756 37.8 % Change 3.1% 5.3% 2.1% Sources: UHMIS, DCFS FY08-FY09 18
  19. 19. ▪ Figure 8 — Length of Stay in Emergency Shelters for Homeless Individuals and Families, Utah: 2008 Individuals 30% 32% 32% 7% Families 18% 27% 43% 13% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Source: UHMIS 2008 Note: HMIS participating shelters only 7 Days or Less 1 Week to 6 Weeks 6 Weeks to 6 Months 6 Months or More Unaccompanied individuals are often homeless Length of Stay in Transitional for shorter periods than individuals in families (see Figure 8). It often requires more time and resources Housing and Permanent Supportive to accommodate the needs of a family rather than Housing in Utah unaccompanied individuals. Transitional housing stays have increased for families by 13% and decreased for individuals by 18% in The following two figures (9,10) graph the number FY09 compared to the previous year. Length of stay of emergency shelter nights on a monthly basis in in permanent supportive housing has increased by terms of the total number of shelter nights and the 4% in FY09 compared to the previous year. A longer average number of shelter nights per client per month length of stay is considered a positive outcome as long for Fiscal Years 2008 – 2009. The average length of as it is resulting in stabilization or efforts towards self- stay has declined overall since July 2007 for families sufficiency for individuals. and remained relatively constant for unaccompanied individuals. 19
  20. 20. ▪ Figure 9 — Average Length of Stay in Shelters per Month State of Utah: July 2007 — June 2009 70 Average # of Nights Per Individual or Family 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 r nu r em r em r r r r em r J a be J a be ch ch e ec be br y br y O be O be ov e ov e ly e ne ay ay M y M y te t te t il il A 7 A 8 us s Fe uar Fe ar D mb pr pr r r N tob N tob J u un 0 0 Se g u ua ua ar ar m m 20 20 M M Ju ug A A J n e u c c ly ec p p Ju Se D Source: Utah Homeless Management Information System FY08 - FY09 Families Note: HMIS participating shelters only Individuals Total Figure 10 — Total Number of Shelter Nights per Month State of Utah: July 2007 — June 2009 35,000 Families Individuals 30,000 Total Total # of Shelter Nights 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 r r er er ct r ct r r r J a be J a be ch ch br y br y O be O be e ov e ne J u une ay ay M y M y te st p ust il il A 8 Fe uar Fe uar D mb D mb pr pr r r N ob N ob 0 Se ug u ua ua em em ar ar m m 20 M M Ju ug A A J n n e e te ly ec ec A ov p Se Source: Utah Homeless Management Information System FY08 - FY09 Note: HMIS participating shelters only 20
  21. 21. GEOGRAPHY OF HOMELESSNESS C 60.52% 15.04% 11.00% haracteristics of areas can play a role in 3.99% 2.82% Location of Services† homelessness not only in terms of local Table 5 — Top Five Counties or Regions in Utah Where Homeless Individuals and structural forces that cause homelessness but they also determine the types of situations in which Mountainlands 2008 Davis County homeless persons end up living and the services Five County Salt Lake Morgan Weber/ County available to those individuals. Geographic Origin of Homeless Individuals in Utah Origin of Sheltered Salt Lake 61.07% 15.92% 13.24% Most homeless individuals in Utah come from this 2.82% 2.62% state. In 2008, 74% of homeless individuals reported Individuals Homeless being from Utah. 2008 Morgan Services are Located: 2008, 2009 Weber/ County County County County Davis Utah Five Table 4 — Self-Reported Location of Origin for Homeless Individuals in Utah: 2008 Rank State 2.03% 1.05% 0.95% 0.91% 0.83% as a % of County 1 Utah 74% Homelessness Population 2 Nevada 5% 2009 3 California 4% Duchesne Salt Lake 4 Arizona 3% Carbon Weber Grand 5 Florida 1.5% Source: UHMIS 2008 62.90% 13.27% 4.52% 4.15% 3.60% The origin of homeless individuals within Utah is Annualized PIT Count depicted in Figure 11, which is a map of Utah zip 2009 Washington codes and is based on 1,904 self-reports from HMIS Salt Lake Cache Weber in 2009. A higher proportion of homeless individuals Davis across the state report being from the areas around Vernal, Price, Helper, Cedar City, St. George, Brigham City, and along the Wasatch Front. Development of services around these areas, including measures to 37.40% 19.40% 10.80% Utah Population 2008 8.30% 5.00% prevent homelessness, is informed by where homeless individuals originate. Figure 11 does not include information for domestic violence victims which may Washington distribute differently across the state. Salt Lake Weber Davis Utah Location of Homeless Individuals in Utah Table 5 displays the top five areas where homelessness Rank 1 2 3 4 5 occurs across the state in addition to where the most services are located. By far, most homelessness and homeless services exist in Salt Lake County, primarily †Note: Services include emergency shelter, transitional housing, case management, and other supportive ser- in Salt Lake City. vices (does not include DV services) Sources: UHMIS 2008, Utah PIT 2009, US Census Bureau 2008 21
  22. 22. ▪ Figure 11 — % of Homeless Population in Utah Reporting Zip Code as Previous Address 1 2 3 4 5 6 Source: UHMIS 2008 22