Using thermocline manipulation to
remediate mercury-contaminated
reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipul...
PROBLEM
TOPICSTOPICS
♦Thermocline manipulation in Finland
♦Application to reservoirs in Utah
♦Remediation objectives
♦Thermocline ...
METHYL Hg PROFILEMETHYL Hg PROFILE
FromForsiusandothers,2006
THERMOCLINE DEPRESSIONTHERMOCLINE DEPRESSIONFromForsiusandothers,2006
Pretreatment
epilimnion
Post-treatment
epilimnion
Po...
EQUIPMENTEQUIPMENT
♦Experiment originally
designed for climate
change
♦Artificially decrease
thermocline volume
♦Increase ...
MIXOX DEPLOYMENTMIXOX DEPLOYMENT
♦Cost is about 2,000 EU
♦Powered via lake bottom
cable from on-shore
power source
♦Platfo...
DEPRESSION = 2.0 METERSDEPRESSION = 2.0 METERS
DEPTHBELOWLAKESURFACE,INM
T, oC
DECREASE IN METHYL Hg
(Rask and others, in review)
DECREASE IN METHYL Hg
(Rask and others, in review)
Fish tissue Water
(s...
DECREASE IN METHYL HgDECREASE IN METHYL Hg
♦Decreased volume
of anoxic
hypolimnion
♦Increased volume of
oxic epilimnion
♦D...
POTENTIAL
APPLICATION TO SMALL
RESERVOIRS IN UTAH
POTENTIAL
APPLICATION TO SMALL
RESERVOIRS IN UTAH
NEWCASTLE RESERVOIRNEWCASTLE RESERVOIR
Water/sediment
sampling site
♦Reservoir dam
completed in 1956
♦Small reservoir (66
...
NEWCASTLE BIOTANEWCASTLE BIOTA
10
8
6
4
2
0
14 16 18 20 22
WATER TEMPERATURE,
o
C
DEPTHBELOWWATERSURFACE,INMETERS THERMOCLINETHERMOCLINE
Hg(inorg)
CH3Hg
...
HISTORIC MERCURY
DEPOSITION RATES
HISTORIC MERCURY
DEPOSITION RATES
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
0.00 0.01...
NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION
OBJECTIVES
NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION
OBJECTIVES
1. Calibrate a hydrodynamic model to simulate the natura...
NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION
YR 1 TASKS/SCHEDULE
NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION
YR 1 TASKS/SCHEDULE
National Park Service QW
sampling boat...
NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION
YR 2 TASKS/SCHEDULE
NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION
YR 2 TASKS/SCHEDULE
Limnology profiling, Lake
Powell, Utah...
NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION
YR 3 TASKS/SCHEDULE
NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION
YR 3 TASKS/SCHEDULE
Sediment coring platform, Newcastle
Re...
Hg IN UTAH RESERVOIRSHg IN UTAH RESERVOIRS
♦Many small reservoirs
with fish advisories for
Hg
♦Cost effective
($4,000/pump...
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
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Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah

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Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah

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Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah

  1. 1. Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah USGS, Utah/Wisconsin/Arkansas Water Science Centers Utah DNR/DWR Utah DEQ/DWQ Finnish Environment Institute USGS, Utah/Wisconsin/Arkansas Water Science Centers Utah DNR/DWR Utah DEQ/DWQ Finnish Environment Institute
  2. 2. PROBLEM
  3. 3. TOPICSTOPICS ♦Thermocline manipulation in Finland ♦Application to reservoirs in Utah ♦Remediation objectives ♦Thermocline manipulation in Finland ♦Application to reservoirs in Utah ♦Remediation objectives
  4. 4. METHYL Hg PROFILEMETHYL Hg PROFILE FromForsiusandothers,2006
  5. 5. THERMOCLINE DEPRESSIONTHERMOCLINE DEPRESSIONFromForsiusandothers,2006 Pretreatment epilimnion Post-treatment epilimnion Post-treatment hypolimnion
  6. 6. EQUIPMENTEQUIPMENT ♦Experiment originally designed for climate change ♦Artificially decrease thermocline volume ♦Increase depth of oxygen penetration during summer stratification ♦More amenable to wind erosion Thermocline mixing equipment (MIXOX). FromForsiusandothers,2006
  7. 7. MIXOX DEPLOYMENTMIXOX DEPLOYMENT ♦Cost is about 2,000 EU ♦Powered via lake bottom cable from on-shore power source ♦Platform provides for easy deployment of additional instruments ♦Powered via wind/solar/hydroelectric at remote reservoir sites Deployment of mixing equipment and surface platform FromForsiusandothers,2006
  8. 8. DEPRESSION = 2.0 METERSDEPRESSION = 2.0 METERS DEPTHBELOWLAKESURFACE,INM T, oC
  9. 9. DECREASE IN METHYL Hg (Rask and others, in review) DECREASE IN METHYL Hg (Rask and others, in review) Fish tissue Water (small perch, 70-80 mm) (epilimnion) 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 MeHg,ng/L Before During/after pumping pumping Thermocline pumping X = 0.54 X = 0.16
  10. 10. DECREASE IN METHYL HgDECREASE IN METHYL Hg ♦Decreased volume of anoxic hypolimnion ♦Increased volume of oxic epilimnion ♦Decreased surface area of anoxic sediment ♦Longer ice-free season Pre-pumping Post-pumping
  11. 11. POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO SMALL RESERVOIRS IN UTAH POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO SMALL RESERVOIRS IN UTAH
  12. 12. NEWCASTLE RESERVOIRNEWCASTLE RESERVOIR Water/sediment sampling site ♦Reservoir dam completed in 1956 ♦Small reservoir (66 hectares) ♦Mean depth = 7.2 meters ♦Water and sediment sampled during July 2007 ♦Trout/wipers accumulating high Hg levels in 3 months
  13. 13. NEWCASTLE BIOTANEWCASTLE BIOTA
  14. 14. 10 8 6 4 2 0 14 16 18 20 22 WATER TEMPERATURE, o C DEPTHBELOWWATERSURFACE,INMETERS THERMOCLINETHERMOCLINE Hg(inorg) CH3Hg [HgTot] whole water [1.45 ng/L] [2.91 ng/L] Explanation 2.5 ng/L 0.2 ng/L
  15. 15. HISTORIC MERCURY DEPOSITION RATES HISTORIC MERCURY DEPOSITION RATES 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 Hg DEPOSITION (UG/CM 2 /YR) YEAROFSEDIMENTDEPOSITION Dam completion Sediment core, Newcastle Reservoir, Utah Dry mass (g/cm2) * Hg conc. (μg/g) deposition period (yrs) Spillway raised
  16. 16. NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION OBJECTIVES NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION OBJECTIVES 1. Calibrate a hydrodynamic model to simulate the naturally induced thermal stratification in Newcastle Reservoir over an annual cycle 2. Utilize the calibrated hydrodynamic model to determine the optimal location(s) and pumping rates needed to depress the thermocline elevation by 1 to 2 meters 3. Utilize results from objective 2 to design a field experiment to depress the thermocline in the experimental reservoir 4. Utilize pre-pumping and pumping data to determine if the thermocline manipulation has resulted in a measurable decrease in mercury concentration in water, sediment, and biota
  17. 17. NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION YR 1 TASKS/SCHEDULE NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION YR 1 TASKS/SCHEDULE National Park Service QW sampling boat, Lake Powell, Utah ♦Baseline Hg data ♦Determine if pumping will work
  18. 18. NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION YR 2 TASKS/SCHEDULE NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION YR 2 TASKS/SCHEDULE Limnology profiling, Lake Powell, Utah ♦Conduct pumping experiment ♦Model observed pumping results
  19. 19. NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION YR 3 TASKS/SCHEDULE NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION YR 3 TASKS/SCHEDULE Sediment coring platform, Newcastle Reservoir, Utah ♦Continue field experiment/modeling ♦Decide if results warrant implementation
  20. 20. Hg IN UTAH RESERVOIRSHg IN UTAH RESERVOIRS ♦Many small reservoirs with fish advisories for Hg ♦Cost effective ($4,000/pump to remediate a fishery) ♦Baseline (pre-treatment) fish data already collected ♦Alternative remediation options??
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