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Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah
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Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah

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Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah

Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah

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  • 1. Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah Using thermocline manipulation to remediate mercury-contaminated reservoirs in southwestern Utah USGS, Utah/Wisconsin/Arkansas Water Science Centers Utah DNR/DWR Utah DEQ/DWQ Finnish Environment Institute USGS, Utah/Wisconsin/Arkansas Water Science Centers Utah DNR/DWR Utah DEQ/DWQ Finnish Environment Institute
  • 2. PROBLEM
  • 3. TOPICSTOPICS ♦Thermocline manipulation in Finland ♦Application to reservoirs in Utah ♦Remediation objectives ♦Thermocline manipulation in Finland ♦Application to reservoirs in Utah ♦Remediation objectives
  • 4. METHYL Hg PROFILEMETHYL Hg PROFILE FromForsiusandothers,2006
  • 5. THERMOCLINE DEPRESSIONTHERMOCLINE DEPRESSIONFromForsiusandothers,2006 Pretreatment epilimnion Post-treatment epilimnion Post-treatment hypolimnion
  • 6. EQUIPMENTEQUIPMENT ♦Experiment originally designed for climate change ♦Artificially decrease thermocline volume ♦Increase depth of oxygen penetration during summer stratification ♦More amenable to wind erosion Thermocline mixing equipment (MIXOX). FromForsiusandothers,2006
  • 7. MIXOX DEPLOYMENTMIXOX DEPLOYMENT ♦Cost is about 2,000 EU ♦Powered via lake bottom cable from on-shore power source ♦Platform provides for easy deployment of additional instruments ♦Powered via wind/solar/hydroelectric at remote reservoir sites Deployment of mixing equipment and surface platform FromForsiusandothers,2006
  • 8. DEPRESSION = 2.0 METERSDEPRESSION = 2.0 METERS DEPTHBELOWLAKESURFACE,INM T, oC
  • 9. DECREASE IN METHYL Hg (Rask and others, in review) DECREASE IN METHYL Hg (Rask and others, in review) Fish tissue Water (small perch, 70-80 mm) (epilimnion) 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 MeHg,ng/L Before During/after pumping pumping Thermocline pumping X = 0.54 X = 0.16
  • 10. DECREASE IN METHYL HgDECREASE IN METHYL Hg ♦Decreased volume of anoxic hypolimnion ♦Increased volume of oxic epilimnion ♦Decreased surface area of anoxic sediment ♦Longer ice-free season Pre-pumping Post-pumping
  • 11. POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO SMALL RESERVOIRS IN UTAH POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO SMALL RESERVOIRS IN UTAH
  • 12. NEWCASTLE RESERVOIRNEWCASTLE RESERVOIR Water/sediment sampling site ♦Reservoir dam completed in 1956 ♦Small reservoir (66 hectares) ♦Mean depth = 7.2 meters ♦Water and sediment sampled during July 2007 ♦Trout/wipers accumulating high Hg levels in 3 months
  • 13. NEWCASTLE BIOTANEWCASTLE BIOTA
  • 14. 10 8 6 4 2 0 14 16 18 20 22 WATER TEMPERATURE, o C DEPTHBELOWWATERSURFACE,INMETERS THERMOCLINETHERMOCLINE Hg(inorg) CH3Hg [HgTot] whole water [1.45 ng/L] [2.91 ng/L] Explanation 2.5 ng/L 0.2 ng/L
  • 15. HISTORIC MERCURY DEPOSITION RATES HISTORIC MERCURY DEPOSITION RATES 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 Hg DEPOSITION (UG/CM 2 /YR) YEAROFSEDIMENTDEPOSITION Dam completion Sediment core, Newcastle Reservoir, Utah Dry mass (g/cm2) * Hg conc. (μg/g) deposition period (yrs) Spillway raised
  • 16. NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION OBJECTIVES NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION OBJECTIVES 1. Calibrate a hydrodynamic model to simulate the naturally induced thermal stratification in Newcastle Reservoir over an annual cycle 2. Utilize the calibrated hydrodynamic model to determine the optimal location(s) and pumping rates needed to depress the thermocline elevation by 1 to 2 meters 3. Utilize results from objective 2 to design a field experiment to depress the thermocline in the experimental reservoir 4. Utilize pre-pumping and pumping data to determine if the thermocline manipulation has resulted in a measurable decrease in mercury concentration in water, sediment, and biota
  • 17. NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION YR 1 TASKS/SCHEDULE NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION YR 1 TASKS/SCHEDULE National Park Service QW sampling boat, Lake Powell, Utah ♦Baseline Hg data ♦Determine if pumping will work
  • 18. NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION YR 2 TASKS/SCHEDULE NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION YR 2 TASKS/SCHEDULE Limnology profiling, Lake Powell, Utah ♦Conduct pumping experiment ♦Model observed pumping results
  • 19. NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION YR 3 TASKS/SCHEDULE NEWCASTLE REMEDIATION YR 3 TASKS/SCHEDULE Sediment coring platform, Newcastle Reservoir, Utah ♦Continue field experiment/modeling ♦Decide if results warrant implementation
  • 20. Hg IN UTAH RESERVOIRSHg IN UTAH RESERVOIRS ♦Many small reservoirs with fish advisories for Hg ♦Cost effective ($4,000/pump to remediate a fishery) ♦Baseline (pre-treatment) fish data already collected ♦Alternative remediation options??

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