E. Coli Cooperative Monitoring Program


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Update from the Utah Monitoring Council on E. Coli

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  • Infection due to pathogen-contaminated recreational waters- gastrointestinal, respirator, eye, ear, nose, throat, and skin diseases. In 1968 the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration established WQ criteria of 200 colony-forming units per 100 ml of water. In 1986 EPA re-established the WQ criteria to be lower at 126 and that is based on specific levels of risk of acute gastrointestinal illness. (Risk level no more than 8 illnesses per 1000 swimmers for fresh water).
  • The E. coli numeric water quality standard for 1C (drinking water) and 2B (secondary recreation) is 206 CFUs or MPNs per 100ml representing as a 30d geometric mean and the chronic or instantaneous standard is not to exceed 668. For primary recreation designated use, the 30d geometric mean is 126 and instantaneous is not to exceed 409. There are no numeric standards for agriculture and wildlife designated use waters. CFU= colony forming unit and is analogous with MPN (most probable number).
  • Utah’s bacteriological program includes sampling surface waters for fecal contamination using E. coli bacteria as an indicator. E. coli don’t live long in water (outside intestines, less than 48hrs depending on resources) that is why their presence in water means recent fecal contamination. E. coli (type of fecal coliform) indicates fecal contamination since they are one of the most abundant types of intestinal microflora. The main reason we sample for E. coli is because they are easy to detect, they are not present in “clean” water, & the die off slower that other pathogens meaning they are a conservative estimate of the presence of pathogens in the water. E. coli as an indicator came about why EPA looking at the relationship between swimming related illnesses and microbiological quality of the water. E. coli showed a stronger correlation in fresh waters and streptococci in marine waters. Tier 1 is the pilot study period. During Tier 1 monitoring, samples will be collected at high-use reservoirs/lakes and also 2A streams/rivers that are apart of the State’s routine water quality collection runs. Where possible, designated beaches/swimming areas for each lake/reservoir will be sampled. Tier 2 occurs after the pilot study period and will focus efforts on sampling the hot spots. Sampling period coincides with the recreational period April through September. After the 2 years, we will develop a long-term monitoring and assessment strategy.
  • The acute water body standard serves a trigger point for follow up sampling- 4 more samples taken within 30 days. If that geometric mean is greater than the acute WQ std, it will be listed on the 303d list for failing to meet its designated use due to E coli impairments. This list is updated very 2 years. After a waterbody gets listed, a thorough investigation will be conducted (TMDL) to determine sources and implementations needed for reduction in loading.
  • During Tier 1 monitoring, samples will be collected at high-use reservoirs/lakes and also 2A streams/rivers that are apart of the State’s routine water quality collection runs. Where possible, designated beaches/swimming areas for each lake/reservoir will be sampled. Tier 2 occurs after the pilot study period and will focus efforts on sampling the hot spots. We already have several agencies, Universities, and citizens collecting E coli data for us. We provide assistance in funding, training, and guidance and they assist in collecting the samples. (DOC training yearly)
  • These state parks are targeted because they have designated swimming areas and are considered high use for recreation. The ones highlighted already being sampled either by DWQ or cooperators. Hyrum, Starvation, and Steinaker are being sampled by the park rangers. Other lakes and reservoirs that are not state parks are also targeted for the same reasons like Strawberry Reservoir and Joe’s Valley. Streams and rivers will also be sampled and will follow the rotating basin schedule.
  • If a sampling location has an E coli concentration greater than 126, that site will be sampled again (3 spatially distributed replicates). Glenn Cyn has 2 different protocols in place for high-use sites and random sites. If the arithmetic mean from the resampling is greater than 126, the swimming advisory signs are immediately removed. Swimming areas area closed if the arithmetic mean is greater than 126 MPN and issued by Superintendent. Signs are posted and visitors are given Beach Closure handouts. The beach will be resampled daily. Reopening of a swimming area will occur once the most recent 2-5 day geometric means are less than 126. A minimum of 5 samples are required to open beach.
  • Wyoming WQS = have 2 standards based on the 30 day geometric mean. One for the high use recreational season and the other is for infrequent use. WY also set a single maximum standard and this is based on the frequency of public use.
  • E. Coli Cooperative Monitoring Program

    1. 1. Sandy Wingert [email_address] February 25, 2010
    2. 2. Overview of Presentation <ul><li>Bacteriological Monitoring Program </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>E. coli Work Group </li></ul>
    3. 3. History of E. coli Standard <ul><li>Fecal bacteria increases risk of illness. </li></ul><ul><li>1968 Federal WQ criteria for fecal coliforms set at 200 CFU/100mL water. </li></ul><ul><li>1986 Federal WQ criteria for E. coli set at 126 CFUs/100mL (risk level no more than 8 illnesses/1000 swimmers) </li></ul>
    4. 4. E. coli Numeric Standard <ul><li>For Drinking Water and Secondary Contact uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to exceed 206 CFUs per 100 ml as 30 day geometric mean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to exceed maximum of 668 CFUs per 100 ml in one sample in 30 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For Primary Contact use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to exceed 126 CFUs per 100 ml as 30 day geometric mean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to exceed maximum of 409 CFUs per 100 ml in one sample in 30 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geometric mean is based on no less than 5 samples equally spaced over 30 days. </li></ul>
    5. 6. UDWQ’s Bacteriological Monitoring Strategy <ul><li>Not feasible to monitor for all pathogens, thus we will analyze for E. coli, an indicator of fecal contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiered Monitoring Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 1: Focus efforts at high-use and 2A waters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tier 2: Intensively sample “hot spots” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collect 4 additional samples when results from one sample exceed 126 CFU (MPN) per 100ml </li></ul><ul><li>Samples should be collected within 30 days of initial collection and evenly spaced to reduce bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Idexx Quanti-Tray 2000 methodology for collection. </li></ul>
    6. 7. Assessment and Attainment <ul><li>Waterbodies will be listed on the 303(d) list of Impaired Waterbodies if the 30-day geometric mean exceeds the acute water quality standard. </li></ul><ul><li>For small datasets, if the standard is exceeded, follow up monitoring will be conducted to fully assess impairment. </li></ul><ul><li>Once listed, the TMDL process will begin to determine sources and implement management strategies to reduce loading. </li></ul>
    7. 8. What is Microbial Source Tracking? <ul><li>Method for identifying source of fecal contamination to surface water </li></ul><ul><li>Library dependent methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Library independent methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteroides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time PCR </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. What is Microbial Source Tracking? <ul><li>A novel technique used in diagnosing the sources of fecal contamination in water </li></ul>Match microbes from a polluted site and an animal source to suggest the origin of the fecal pollution MST Fecal matter from dog flows into a water body Unknown fecal contamination found Perform MST to identify the dog as the culprit
    9. 10. Cooperative Monitoring <ul><li>Such intensive monitoring not feasible on a statewide basis given limited monitoring resources thus will use cooperators to assist in collection (Tier 2). </li></ul><ul><li>Form an agreement with cooperators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DWQ: Assist funding equipment ($50K) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperators: Assist in collecting samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperators include: BLM, USFS, NPS, USU Ext, Westminster College, University of Utah, SL County, Western Waters, volunteers </li></ul>
    10. 11. Cooperative Monitoring Agreement <ul><li>Establish MOU between UDWQ and cooperators </li></ul><ul><li>UDWQ will help to fund equipment & cooperators help with sampling. </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment costs: ~$7000 </li></ul>
    11. 12. Monitoring Equipment List <ul><li>Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubator (~$2,000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sealer ($3,500) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UV Light ($120) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supplies (200 samples) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vessels ($200) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reagent ($600) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quanti Trays ($250) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Cost ~$6700 </li></ul>
    12. 13. Targeted State Parks (# 2006 visitors) <ul><li>Deer Creek (308,024) </li></ul><ul><li>*Willard Bay (268,537) </li></ul><ul><li>*Utah Lake (234,175) </li></ul><ul><li>*Bear Lake (208,948) </li></ul><ul><li>Palisade (188,963) </li></ul><ul><li>Antelope Island (184,752) </li></ul><ul><li>Jordanelle (164,226) </li></ul><ul><li>Sand Hollow (151,737) </li></ul><ul><li>Yuba (109,712) </li></ul><ul><li>East Canyon (91,739) </li></ul><ul><li>Quail Creek (89,738) </li></ul><ul><li>Scofield (84,705) </li></ul><ul><li>Rockport (79,941) </li></ul><ul><li>**Hyrum (58,089) </li></ul><ul><li>Otter Creek (51,854) </li></ul><ul><li>Gunlock (48,196) </li></ul><ul><li>**Starvation (46,116) </li></ul><ul><li>**Steinaker (40,288) </li></ul><ul><li>Huntington (40,036) </li></ul><ul><li>Escalante (30,766) </li></ul><ul><li>Red Fleet (25,742) </li></ul><ul><li>Piute (23,808) </li></ul><ul><li>Millsite (17,925) </li></ul>*Sampled by USU Ext **Sampled by Park Rangers
    13. 15. Under Development <ul><li>Statewide Monitoring Council </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Page / Supporting Documentation/ SOPs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TMDL’s require source identification and quantification </li></ul><ul><li>Guide implementation and pollution reduction strategies </li></ul><ul><li>U of U (Dr. Ramesh Goel) currently developing microbial source tracking protocols (library independent) </li></ul>
    14. 17. E. coli Work Group Update <ul><li>E. coli Work Group currently compromised of UDWQ, State Parks, DOH, and local Health Departments. </li></ul><ul><li>2nd meeting (1/28/10): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UDWQ is not writing this into rule – starting with volunteer approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed that an advisory will be issued by ?? if 2 samples exceed 126 MPN/100ml (2A WQS) and remove notice when sample is below 126. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samples should be taken every 2 weeks during the recreational season (May through September). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Next meeting is March 11, 2010. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 18. Glen Canyon Beach Closing Strategy <ul><li>Resample if E. coli concentration > 126 MPN/100mL (3 spatially distributed replicates) </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming Advisories are issued if the geometric mean >235 MPN for high-use sites and if one sample > 235 MPN for random sites. When the arithmetic mean from resampling > 126 MPN, signs are removed. </li></ul><ul><li>Beach Closures are issued by Superintendent are issued if the arithmetic mean >126 MPN. Area posted and visitors are notified via handouts. Resampling will continue daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Beach reopening will occur when the most recent 2-day, 3-day, 4-day, and 5-day geometric means are all < 126 MPN. A minimum of 5 sample values is required to reopen a beach. </li></ul>
    16. 19. Colorado and Wyoming’s Strategy for Natural Swimming Areas <ul><li>Colorado: </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum containment level is 235 MPN/100ml. </li></ul><ul><li>Samples taken every 7 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Beach closed if one sample > 235. If under MOU, close beach if 2 nd sample > 235 or if one sample > 576. </li></ul><ul><li>Levels > 235, notice must be posted. Swimming area reopen when sample levels < 235. </li></ul><ul><li>Wyoming: </li></ul><ul><li>Water Quality Standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May – Sept = 126 (geomean) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oct – Apr = 630 (geomean) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single maximum standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High Use = 235 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate = 298 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light = 410 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infrequent = 576 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Exceedance of single maximum standard results in advisory. </li></ul><ul><li>Water sampled twice per week during recreational season. </li></ul>
    17. 20. Role of Local Health Departments <ul><li>Determine which LHDs want to become cooperators. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop list of targeted recreational areas with each LHD. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate which LHDs have a water quality lab and if they are collecting E. coli data. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask LHDs to send their E. coli data to DWQ. </li></ul>
    18. 21. E. Coli Work Group: Next Steps <ul><li>Expand Work Group to federal and local representatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop consistent sampling, warning and closure protocols. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop MOU with E. coli workgroup partners to outline roles and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Hold monthly meetings. </li></ul>