*
* ―If the soils had remained, even though the cities were destroyed and the populations dispersed, the area might be re- p...
* "Agriculture in Lesotho faces a catastrophic future; crop production is declining and could cease altogether over large ...
* A large share of the worlds 862 million hungry  people live on land with soils worn thin by erosion.* Mercilessly expand...
* In 2004 the Philippines finally cracked down on illegal  logging, after flash floods and landslides, triggered by  rampa...
* Beginning of the twentieth century, the earths  forested area was estimated at 5 billion hectares.* Note: A hectare is 2...
* The use of firewood, paper, and lumber is expanding.* Just over half of all wood is used for fuel. In developing countri...
* In almost all cases, logging is done by foreign corporations. They are  * More interested in maximizing a onetime    har...
* Furniture, flooring, particle board, and other  building materials are an exploding segment.* China has gone on a loggin...
* Natural forests in Indonesia and Myanmar will be gone within a decade or so.* Papua New Guinea will last 16 years.* Thos...
* Concentrated in the Brazilian Amazon, the Congo  Basin, and Borneo. Guess where our midwest rainfall  comes from? Pumped...
* Was once largely covered with forests, but* Growing firewood demand and land clearing for farming have left forests stan...
* An Island country with 18 million people, is* Following in Haitis footsteps.* Trees are cut, either to produce charcoal ...
* Depends on water that is recycled inland via the  Amazon rainforest, earth’s lungs, a massive water  pump.* As more and ...
* Deforestation and land clearing are proceeding rapidly as  * Firewood use mounts, and as  * Logging firms clear large tr...
* "Driven by energy from the sun, the trees pump water from the water table, through the roots, trunk and leaves, up into ...
* China,  * New Zealand, the  * Philippines,  * Sri Lanka,  * Thailand, and  * Viet Nam.* All too often a ban in one count...
* Typically six inches or so deep,* Formed over long stretches of geological time as new soil formation exceeded the natur...
*
* A third of all cropland is losing topsoil faster than new soil is forming. The* Foundation of civilization is crumbling....
* Accelerating soil erosion over the last century can be  seen in these massive dust bowls. They* Form as vegetation is de...
* In 2005 a Westward moving dust cloud out of central Africa shown by NASA is 3,300 miles long.* If the storm were relocat...
* The Bodele Depression in Chad is the source of  an estimated 1.3 billion tons - up 10-fold since  measurements began in ...
* Silting of reservoirs and in muddy, silt-laden rivers flowing into the sea.* Pakistans two large reservoirs, Mangla and ...
* Losing close to 2 billion tons of top- soil a  year, washed away by rain. This is* One reason Ethiopia always seems to b...
* One tenth of the earths land surface is cropland.* An area four times this size is rangeland,   * Too dry, too steeply s...
* 5 percent are severely degraded.* Growth in livestock numbers tracks that in human numbers.* Demands of the livestock in...
* 71 million people.* 9 million cattle and 80 million sheep and goats, the* Source of wool for its fabled rug-making indus...
* In Chinas western and northern provinces, sheep and goats are destroying the lands protective vegetation. The wind then ...
* Fodder needs of livestock in nearly all developing countries now exceed the sustainable yield of rangelands and other fo...
* Countries across the north of Africa are being squeezed by the northward advance of the Sahara.* Sahel, a region where f...
* Desertification, it is the process of converting  productive land to wasteland through overuse and  mismanagement.* Anyt...
* Nigerias human population grew from 34 million in 1950 to 145 million in 2006.* Livestock population grew from roughly 6...
* 2002 sand storms buried 124 villages in the southeastern province forcing their abandonment.* Drifting sands had covered...
* The Registan Desert is migrating  westward, encroaching on agricultural areas.* Northwest, sand dunes are moving onto  a...
* Between 1950 and1975 an average of 1,560 square kilometers  of land turned to desert each year.* 1975 and 1987, this cli...
* Originate in the northwestern area and western Mongolia.  * On April 18, 2001, the western United States—from the    Ari...
* Deserts are expanding in both Brazil and Mexico.* Brazil economic losses from desertification are estimated at $300 mill...
* Stopping the conversion of   productive land to desert may now rest on stopping the growthin human and livestock numbers.
*
* After World War II, accelerating population growth and steadily rising incomes drove the demand for seafood upward at a ...
* Many are in decline and some have collapsed.* Oceanic harvests expanded as new technologies evolved, ranging from  * Son...
* The 500-year- old cod fishery of Canada failed in the early  1990s, putting some 40,000 fishers and fish processors out ...
* U.S. Chesapeake Bay, which yielded more than 35 million pounds of oysters per year a half- century ago, now produces sca...
* The history of EU fishery management and the reduction of quotas has been a matter of too little, too late.             ...
* With restrictions on the catch in overfished EU waters, the heavily subsidized EU fishing fleet has turned to the west c...
* Senegal, where local fishers with small boats once  could quickly fill their craft with fish, on many days  now they can...
1. Coastal wetlands,2. Mangrove swamps, or3. Rivers,* Well over 50% of the mangrove forests in tropical  and subtropical c...
* Damage to coral reefs from higher ocean temperatures and  ocean acidification caused by higher atmospheric carbon  dioxi...
*
* 35 percent of these reefs are threatened by sewage discharge, water-based sediment, and pollution from fertilizer.* 15 p...
* Facing extinction due to  * Destructive fishing practices,  * Dredging,  * Sedimentation, and  * Sewage discharge.* Ever...
* Created by nutrient runoff from fertilizer and from  sewage discharge. In the* United States the  * Mississippi River ca...
* It could be by expanding fish farming,* But once fish are put in ponds or cages they have to be fed, most often corn and...
* There have been five great extinctions since life began  * Each representing an evolutionary setback,  * A wholesale imp...
* This one is of human origin.* As various life forms disappear, they diminish    the services provided by nature, such as...
* We are in effect burning one of the great repositories of genetic information.* Our descendants will one day view the wh...
* Habitat alteration from rising temperatures,* Chemical pollution, or the* Introduction of exotic species,* Take your pic...
* If the rich diversity of life that we inherited is continually impoverished…* Eventually we will be impoverished as well.*
* All share the fact that they are vulnerable or in immediate danger of extinction, now measured in double digits:  * 12 p...
* 296 known species of primates other than humans are most at risk   * 114 of these species are threatened with extinction...
* There are 9,817 known bird species.* 70 percent are declining in number.* 1,217 species are in imminent danger of  extin...
* Within the last 30 years … willow warbler, the song thrush, and the spotted flycatcher have fallen 50-80 percent.* No on...
* Principal pollinator of U.S. fruit and vegetable  crops.* 2007 survey found bees in nearly one quarter of  U.S. bee colo...
* Overfishing,* Water pollution, and the* Excessive extraction of water from rivers and  other freshwater ecosystems.* Nor...
* One of the most ancient animals.* Can reach 800 pounds.* Disappearing - 115,000 in 1982 to 34,500 in 1996, a 70% reducti...
* Among the fastest-growing threats to the diversity of plant and animal life today.* Land is cleared to  1.   Graze cattl...
* Non-native species may be responsible for 29 percent of the threatened bird species.        *
* Protecting the diversity of life on earth is  * No longer simply a matter of setting aside tracts    of land, fencing th...
* We now have more information on the state of the earth and the life on it than ever before.* Knowledge is  * Not a subst...
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1
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PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1

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PLAN B NO BS - H. III RESOURCE RAPE Natural Systems Under Terminal Stress. C5 V1

  1. 1. *
  2. 2. * ―If the soils had remained, even though the cities were destroyed and the populations dispersed, the area might be re- peopled again and the cities rebuilt, but now that the soils are gone, all is gone." *
  3. 3. * "Agriculture in Lesotho faces a catastrophic future; crop production is declining and could cease altogether over large tracts of the country if steps are not taken to reverse soil erosion, degradation, and the decline in soil fertility."* Nearly half of the children under five in Lesotho are stunted physically. "Many," he wrote, "are too weak to walk to school.―* Thank God for affloholism’s hand maiden – denial. *
  4. 4. * A large share of the worlds 862 million hungry people live on land with soils worn thin by erosion.* Mercilessly expanding human demands are putting stresses on forests, rangelands, and fisheries that they cannot and will not withstand.* Worldwide, species are now disappearing at 1,000 times the rate at which new species evolve, and estimated 50 to 250 per day. Per day. Each day.*
  5. 5. * In 2004 the Philippines finally cracked down on illegal logging, after flash floods and landslides, triggered by rampant deforestation, killed nearly 340 people. In* 1989 the government of Thailand announced a nationwide ban on tree cutting following severe flooding and the heavy loss of life in the landslides. In* 1998, following several weeks of record flooding in the Yangtze River basin and a staggering $30 billion worth of damage, the Chinese government banned all tree cutting in the upper reaches of the basin.* Services provided by forests, such as flood control, may be far more valuable to society than the lumber in those forests. *
  6. 6. * Beginning of the twentieth century, the earths forested area was estimated at 5 billion hectares.* Note: A hectare is 250% of an acre.* Since then it has been shrunk to just under 4 billion hectares – half each tropical and subtropical, one fifth of all forests, GONE. In just 100 years. So far.* Tropical forests that are clear-cut or burned off rarely if ever recover.* Only 40 percent of the worlds remaining forest cover can be classified as frontier forest.* So really, we’ve destroyed more than 50% of the natural forests, so far. But we’re working at it more furiously than ever.*
  7. 7. * The use of firewood, paper, and lumber is expanding.* Just over half of all wood is used for fuel. In developing countries, fuel wood accounts for nearly three fourths of the total. * Woods slowly retreat from the city in an ever larger circle, * Triggering the development of an industry for charcoal, a more energy dense, more easily transported form of the wood.*
  8. 8. * In almost all cases, logging is done by foreign corporations. They are * More interested in maximizing a onetime harvest, and * Once a countrys forests are gone, companies move on.* Nigeria and the Philippines have both lost their once-thriving tropical hardwood export industries and are now net importers of forest products.* Pave paradise, put up a parking lot. *
  9. 9. * Furniture, flooring, particle board, and other building materials are an exploding segment.* China has gone on a logging orgy outside its borders, often illegally, fueled by western affloholic consumption, in areas including: * Indonesia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Siberia.* Now China is moving into the Amazon and the Congo Basin, for your new bedroom set. There won’t be any wood left for when your kids have a family, but maybe they’ll like what you buy. *
  10. 10. * Natural forests in Indonesia and Myanmar will be gone within a decade or so.* Papua New Guinea will last 16 years.* Those in the Russian Far East, vast though they are, may not last much more than 20 years.* So, after 2020…, bye bye. *
  11. 11. * Concentrated in the Brazilian Amazon, the Congo Basin, and Borneo. Guess where our midwest rainfall comes from? Pumped up there by the Amazon.* Brazil, * 93 percent of its Atlantic rainforest is now gone. 93%. * Now we’re on to destroying the Amazon rain forest. Since 1970 close to 20 percent has been lost, about 7% per decade. Please pass the steak, and McDonalds.* Africas Congo Basin, the worlds second largest rainforest, spans 10 countries. It is * Under assault, primarily from loggers, miners, and farmers, who sell largely to, you guessed it.* The near-limitless demand for biodiesel now threatens the remaining tropical forests in Borneo and elsewhere. You can show your kids pictures. *
  12. 12. * Was once largely covered with forests, but* Growing firewood demand and land clearing for farming have left forests standing on scarcely 4 percent of its land.* First the trees go, then the soil.* You think Haiti is an aberration? The last of its kind?* It is the first of many, the model of where we are headed, unless you stop this madness. Now. *
  13. 13. * An Island country with 18 million people, is* Following in Haitis footsteps.* Trees are cut, either to produce charcoal or to clear land to grow food.* Madagascar could soon become a landscape of scrub growth and sand. *
  14. 14. * Depends on water that is recycled inland via the Amazon rainforest, earth’s lungs, a massive water pump.* As more and more land is cleared for grazing and farming, the forest begins to dry out.* Weakened rainforest becomes vulnerable to fire as lightning strikes.* Approaching a tipping point beyond which it cannot be saved, earth’s lungs, Amazon rainforest, verging on incinerated, and hundreds of billions of tons more co2 joining the 500 billion tons already frying us. *
  15. 15. * Deforestation and land clearing are proceeding rapidly as * Firewood use mounts, and as * Logging firms clear large tracts of virgin forests. In* Malawi, country of 14 million people in East Africa, * Forest cover has shrunk by nearly a quarter since the early 1970’s. * Cutting of trees to produce charcoal and to cure tobacco is leading to a sequence of events paralleling that in Haiti. *
  16. 16. * "Driven by energy from the sun, the trees pump water from the water table, through the roots, trunk and leaves, up into the atmosphere through the process of transpiration. Collectively the forest pumps millions of liters of water daily to the atmosphere." Given the local climate conditions, this evapotranspiration translates into summer rainfall, helping to sustain crops. When the forests disappear, this rainfall declines and crop yields follow. *
  17. 17. * China, * New Zealand, the * Philippines, * Sri Lanka, * Thailand, and * Viet Nam.* All too often a ban in one country simply shifts the deforestation to others or drives illegal logging. *
  18. 18. * Typically six inches or so deep,* Formed over long stretches of geological time as new soil formation exceeded the natural rate of erosion.* Provided a medium in which plants could grow.* In turn, plants protect the soil from erosion.* Human activity is decimating this relationship. *
  19. 19. *
  20. 20. * A third of all cropland is losing topsoil faster than new soil is forming. The* Foundation of civilization is crumbling. Crumbling. Crumbling. *
  21. 21. * Accelerating soil erosion over the last century can be seen in these massive dust bowls. They* Form as vegetation is destroyed and wind erosion soars out of control: 1. Dust Bowl in the U.S. Great Plains during the 1930s. 2. Dust bowl in the Soviet Virgin Lands in the 1960s. 3. A huge one that is forming today in northwest China. 4. The one taking shape in the Sahelian region of Africa.* Dust bowls are associated with a familiar pattern of overgrazing, deforestation, and agricultural expansion onto marginal land, followed by retrenchment as the soil begins to disappear. *
  22. 22. * In 2005 a Westward moving dust cloud out of central Africa shown by NASA is 3,300 miles long.* If the storm were relocated to the United States, it would cover the country and extend into the oceans on both coasts.* Saharan dust storms—once rare—are now commonplace. They* Increased 10-fold during the last half-century.* Most affected are Niger, Chad, Mauritania, northern Nigeria, and Burkina Faso.* Mauritania, in Africas far west, the number of dust storms jumped from 2 a year in the early 1960s to 80 a year today. 80. Eight zero, per year. Drill baby * drill.
  23. 23. * The Bodele Depression in Chad is the source of an estimated 1.3 billion tons - up 10-fold since measurements began in 1947. Not so* Slowly draining the continent of its fertility and biological productivity, quite literally, its life’s blood.* Dust storms leaving Africa travel westward across the Atlantic, depositing so much dust in the Caribbean that they cloud the water and damage coral reefs. *
  24. 24. * Silting of reservoirs and in muddy, silt-laden rivers flowing into the sea.* Pakistans two large reservoirs, Mangla and Tarbela, which store Indus River water for the countrys vast irrigation network, are losing roughly 1 percent of their storage capacity each year as they fill with silt from deforested watersheds. *
  25. 25. * Losing close to 2 billion tons of top- soil a year, washed away by rain. This is* One reason Ethiopia always seems to be on the verge of famine, never able to accumulate enough grain reserves to provide a meaningful measure of food security.* Ethiopia, as with all countries in the Horn of Africa, have been hit especially hard by the west’s burning of coal and oil, and its planet warming. *
  26. 26. * One tenth of the earths land surface is cropland.* An area four times this size is rangeland, * Too dry, too steeply sloping, or not fertile enough to sustain crop production, but which * Supports the majority of the worlds 3.3 billion cattle, sheep, and goats. * These livestock are ruminants.* 200 million people worldwide make their living as pastoralists tending cattle, sheep, and goats,* In Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, Mongolia, and northwest China.* Controlling overgrazing is difficult. *
  27. 27. * 5 percent are severely degraded.* Growth in livestock numbers tracks that in human numbers.* Demands of the livestock industry now often exceed grassland carrying capacity by half or more.* In 1950, 238 million Africans relied on 273 million livestock. By 2006, there were nearly 926 million people and 738 million livestock. *
  28. 28. * 71 million people.* 9 million cattle and 80 million sheep and goats, the* Source of wool for its fabled rug-making industry—* Irans rangelands are deteriorating from overstocking. *
  29. 29. * In Chinas western and northern provinces, sheep and goats are destroying the lands protective vegetation. The wind then does the rest, removing the soil and converting productive rangeland into desert. *China.
  30. 30. * Fodder needs of livestock in nearly all developing countries now exceed the sustainable yield of rangelands and other forage resources.* In India, the demand for fodder greatly outpaces the supply, leaving millions of emaciated, unproductive cattle. *Fodder needs not being met.
  31. 31. * Countries across the north of Africa are being squeezed by the northward advance of the Sahara.* Sahel, a region where farming and herding overlap - from Senegal and Mauritania in the west to Sudan, Ethiopia, and Somalia in the east. * Explosive demands of growing human and livestock numbers are converting land into desert, * Accelerated due to warming by western coal and oil. *Africa:
  32. 32. * Desertification, it is the process of converting productive land to wasteland through overuse and mismanagement.* Anything that removes protective grass or trees leaves soil vulnerable to wind and water erosion. In the* Early stages of desertification, the finer particles of soil are removed by the wind, creating the dust storms.* Then the coarser particles— the sand—are also carried by the wind in localized sand storms.* Large-scale desertification is concentrated in Africa and Asia—two regions that together contain 5 billion of the worlds 6.7 billion people. *
  33. 33. * Nigerias human population grew from 34 million in 1950 to 145 million in 2006.* Livestock population grew from roughly 6 million to 67 million, an 11-fold increase. The* Northern part of the country is slowly turning to desert. *
  34. 34. * 2002 sand storms buried 124 villages in the southeastern province forcing their abandonment.* Drifting sands had covered grazing areas, starving livestock and depriving villagers of their livelihood. *
  35. 35. * The Registan Desert is migrating westward, encroaching on agricultural areas.* Northwest, sand dunes are moving onto agricultural land in the upper reaches of the Amu Darya basin, their path cleared by the loss of stabilizing vegetation from firewood gathering and overgrazing.* Sand dunes form up to 15 meters high blocking roads, forcing residents to establish new routes. *
  36. 36. * Between 1950 and1975 an average of 1,560 square kilometers of land turned to desert each year.* 1975 and 1987, this climbed to 2,100 square kilometers a year, an acceleration of 34%.* Then until the centurys end, it jumped to 3,600 square kilometers of land going to desert annually, a doubling, a 100% jump in just 25 years.* China is now at war. It is not invading armies that are claiming its territory, but expanding deserts.* Over the last half-century, some 24,000 villages in northern and western China have been entirely or partly abandoned as a result of being overrun by drifting sand. *
  37. 37. * Originate in the northwestern area and western Mongolia. * On April 18, 2001, the western United States—from the Arizona border north to Canada—was blanketed with dust. * Measuring 1,800 kilometers (1,200 miles) across when it left China, the storm carried millions of tons of topsoil, a resource that will take centuries to replace through natural processes. * April 12, 2002, South Korea was engulfed by a huge dust storm from China that left people in Seoul literally gasping for breath. * Koreans have come to dread the arrival of what they now call "the fifth season," the dust storms of late winter and early spring.* Overgrazing is the principal culprit. *10 massive dust storms from China per year,
  38. 38. * Deserts are expanding in both Brazil and Mexico.* Brazil economic losses from desertification are estimated at $300 million per year, much of it concentrated in the countrys northeast.* Degradation of cropland now prompts some 700,000 Mexicans to leave the land each year in search of jobs in nearby cities or in the United States. *
  39. 39. * Stopping the conversion of productive land to desert may now rest on stopping the growthin human and livestock numbers.
  40. 40. *
  41. 41. * After World War II, accelerating population growth and steadily rising incomes drove the demand for seafood upward at a record pace.* Advances in fishing technologies, including huge refrigerated processing ships that enabled trawlers to exploit distant oceans, enabled fishers to respond to the growing world demand.* Oceanic fish catch climbed from 19 million tons in 1950 to its historic high of 93 million tons in 1997. *
  42. 42. * Many are in decline and some have collapsed.* Oceanic harvests expanded as new technologies evolved, ranging from * Sonar for tracking schools of fish to * Vast driftnets that are collectively long enough to circle the earth many times over.* 90 percent of the large fish in the oceans had disappeared over the last 50 years,* From giant blue marlin to mighty bluefin tuna, from tropical groupers to Antarctic cod. *
  43. 43. * The 500-year- old cod fishery of Canada failed in the early 1990s, putting some 40,000 fishers and fish processors out of work.* Fisheries off the coast of New England were not far behind.* Europe, cod fisheries are in decline, approaching a free fall; may have been depleted to the point of no return.* Countries that fail to meet natures deadlines for halting overfishing face fishery decline and collapse.* Atlantic stocks of the heavily fished bluefin tuna—a large specimen of which, headed for Tokyos sushi restaurants, can bring in $100,000—have been cut by a staggering 94 percent.* Caspian Sea sturgeon, source of the worlds most prized caviar, fell from a record 27,700 tons in 1977 to just 461 tons in 2000, a 98% decline in 30 years. *
  44. 44. * U.S. Chesapeake Bay, which yielded more than 35 million pounds of oysters per year a half- century ago, now produces scarcely 1 million pounds per year, a 96% decline in 50 years.* Deadly combination of overharvesting, pollutants, oyster disease, and siltation from soil erosion is responsible. *
  45. 45. * The history of EU fishery management and the reduction of quotas has been a matter of too little, too late. *
  46. 46. * With restrictions on the catch in overfished EU waters, the heavily subsidized EU fishing fleet has turned to the west coast of Africa,* Competing there with fleets from China, Japan, Russia, South Korea, and Taiwan.* For impoverished countries like Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau, income from fishing licenses can account for up to half of government revenue. *
  47. 47. * Senegal, where local fishers with small boats once could quickly fill their craft with fish, on many days now they cannot catch enough fish to cover even their fuel costs.* "Poverty came to Senegal with these fishing agreements.‖* MY GOD, MY GOD.* 39-year-old fisherman and father of six, Sail Samba, had beached two of the three fishing boats he used to harvest octopus. "You used to be able to fish right in the port," he said, "but now the only thing you can catch here is water." *
  48. 48. 1. Coastal wetlands,2. Mangrove swamps, or3. Rivers,* Well over 50% of the mangrove forests in tropical and subtropical countries have been lost.* Disappearance of coastal wetlands in industrial countries is even greater than 50%.* Italy, whose coastal wetlands are the nurseries for many Mediterranean fisheries, the loss is a whopping 95 %. *
  49. 49. * Damage to coral reefs from higher ocean temperatures and ocean acidification caused by higher atmospheric carbon dioxide levels,* Damage from pollution and sedimentation, results in* 70% under mortal threat, Threatening these breeding grounds for fish in tropical and subtropical waters. * Between 2000 and 2004 those that had lost 90 percent of live corals, expanded from 11 percent to 20 percent. * 24 percent of the remaining reefs are at risk of imminent collapse. * 26 percent facing significant loss in the next few decades.* As the reefs deteriorate, so do the fisheries that depend on them. *
  50. 50. *
  51. 51. * 35 percent of these reefs are threatened by sewage discharge, water-based sediment, and pollution from fertilizer.* 15 percent are threatened by pollution from cruise ship discharges.* Caribbean coral reefs supply goods and services worth at least $3.1 billion per year. *
  52. 52. * Facing extinction due to * Destructive fishing practices, * Dredging, * Sedimentation, and * Sewage discharge.* Everything that reduces sunlight penetration in the sea impairs the growth of corals, leading to die-off. *
  53. 53. * Created by nutrient runoff from fertilizer and from sewage discharge. In the* United States the * Mississippi River carries nutrients from the Corn Belt and sewage from cities along its route into the Gulf of Mexico. * Nutrient surge creates huge algal blooms that then die and decompose, consuming the free oxygen in the water, leading to the death of fish. * This creates a dead zone each summer in the Gulf that can reach the size of New Jersey.* 2006 there were more than 200 dead zones in the worlds oceans and seas, up from 149 two years earlier, increasing 15% per year.* The Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, the Gulf of Thailand, Ghanas Fosu Lagoon, and Uruguays Montevideo Bay are adding to the list of* Oceanic "deserts." *
  54. 54. * It could be by expanding fish farming,* But once fish are put in ponds or cages they have to be fed, most often corn and soybean meal, putting further* Pressure on land resources. *
  55. 55. * There have been five great extinctions since life began * Each representing an evolutionary setback, * A wholesale impoverishment of life on earth.* The last of these mass extinctions occurred some 65 million years ago, most likely when an asteroid collided with earth causing an * Abrupt cooling obliterated the dinosaurs and * At least one fifth of all other extant life forms. *
  56. 56. * This one is of human origin.* As various life forms disappear, they diminish the services provided by nature, such as * Pollination, * Seed dispersal, * Insect control, and * Nutrient cycling. This* Tears huge gaps in the web of life, never to be repaired.*
  57. 57. * We are in effect burning one of the great repositories of genetic information.* Our descendants will one day view the wholesale burning of this genetic library much as the burning of the library in Alexandria in 48 BC. *
  58. 58. * Habitat alteration from rising temperatures,* Chemical pollution, or the* Introduction of exotic species,* Take your pick. *
  59. 59. * If the rich diversity of life that we inherited is continually impoverished…* Eventually we will be impoverished as well.*
  60. 60. * All share the fact that they are vulnerable or in immediate danger of extinction, now measured in double digits: * 12 percent of the worlds nearly 10,000 bird species * 20 percent of the worlds 5,416 mammal species; and * 39 percent of the fish species analyzed. *
  61. 61. * 296 known species of primates other than humans are most at risk * 114 of these species are threatened with extinction. * 95 of the worlds primate species live in Brazil, where habitat destruction poses a particular threat. * Hunting, too, is a threat, particularly in West and Central Africa, where the deteriorating food situation and newly constructed logging roads….* Bonobos of West Africa may be our closest living relative. * Their numbers fell from an estimated 100,000 in 1980 to as few as 10,000 today. * In one human generation, 90 percent of the bonobos have disappeared. *
  62. 62. * There are 9,817 known bird species.* 70 percent are declining in number.* 1,217 species are in imminent danger of extinction,12%.* Habitat loss and degradation affect 91 percent of all threatened bird species. * 61 bird species have become locally extinct with the extensive loss of lowland rainforest in Singapore.* Great bustard, once widespread in Pakistan and surrounding countries, is being hunted to extinction.* Ten of the worlds 17 species of penguins, 59%, are threatened or endangered, potential victims of global warming. *
  63. 63. * Within the last 30 years … willow warbler, the song thrush, and the spotted flycatcher have fallen 50-80 percent.* No one seems to know why, although there is speculation that habitat destruction and pesticides may be playing a role. *
  64. 64. * Principal pollinator of U.S. fruit and vegetable crops.* 2007 survey found bees in nearly one quarter of U.S. bee colonies had simply disappeared.* ―Colony collapse disorder.‖* Large numbers of colonies have suffered the same fate in Europe, Brazil, and Guatemala.* And French "mad bee disease."* World could face an unprecedented disruption of fruit and vegetable production. *
  65. 65. * Overfishing,* Water pollution, and the* Excessive extraction of water from rivers and other freshwater ecosystems.* North America – in lakes and streams – 65% threatened, endangered, or of special concern.* One third of the 97 fish species in South Africa need special protection. *
  66. 66. * One of the most ancient animals.* Can reach 800 pounds.* Disappearing - 115,000 in 1982 to 34,500 in 1996, a 70% reduction in just 14 years. * Costa Ricas west coast, the number of nesting females dropped from 1,504 in 1989 to 62 in 2003, a drop of 96%. *
  67. 67. * Among the fastest-growing threats to the diversity of plant and animal life today.* Land is cleared to 1. Graze cattle, 2. Plant soybeans, and, more recently, 3. Produce sugarcane for ethanol* Government lacks enforcement capacity. *
  68. 68. * Non-native species may be responsible for 29 percent of the threatened bird species. *
  69. 69. * Protecting the diversity of life on earth is * No longer simply a matter of setting aside tracts of land, fencing them off, and calling them parks and preserves. * Success in this effort depends also on stabilizing both climate and population, now. *
  70. 70. * We now have more information on the state of the earth and the life on it than ever before.* Knowledge is * Not a substitute for action, it is a * Prerequisite for saving the earths natural systems —and the civilization that they support. *

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