District Cooling And Desalination

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A short presentation that gives a unique insight into the rapidly evolving technology of heat pumps as they are become more environmentally friendly by using natural refrigerants and are designed to be applied to more novel applications such as desalination and district cooling.

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District Cooling And Desalination

  1. 1. DISTRICT HEATING and DISTRICT COOLING / DESALINATION USING AMMONIA HEATPUMPS David Pearson Director of Innovation Star Refrigeration Stephen Appleton Associate Director Ramboll
  2. 2. Introduction Introduction Low carbon heating and cooling
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>1824, Carnot, “We will call the first the furnace…….” </li></ul><ul><li>1852, Thomson, “a reverse heat engine……….” </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous significant parties over next 158 years </li></ul><ul><li>2009, Mackay, “it is a crime to take a chemical and set fire to it simply to generate low temperature heat”. </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of a viable solution is being rewritten day by day. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key drivers now include direct carbon impact, indirect carbon impact and the use of renewable energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new era of natural heat pumps is upon us….but where should they be used? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction Introduction 90˚C Ammonia Heatpump Low carbon heating and cooling
  5. 5. 90 ˚C Ammonia Heatpump Typical selection 10Bar Diff 90 °C System 24Bar Diff
  6. 6. 90 ˚C Ammonia Heatpump <ul><li>Compressor </li></ul><ul><li>65Bar MAWP </li></ul><ul><li>75Bar Comp </li></ul><ul><li>135 ˚C Td </li></ul><ul><li>>3 years parts </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Vi </li></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction 90˚C Ammonia Heatpump Introduction 90˚C Ammonia Heatpump Applications for Neatpumps Low carbon heating and cooling
  8. 8. Applications for Neatpumps <ul><li>Upto 95 °C </li></ul><ul><li>Upto 41Bar Differential </li></ul><ul><li>Key observations: </li></ul><ul><li>The warmer the heat source the better </li></ul><ul><li>The cooler the distribution the better </li></ul><ul><li>Heat pumps aren’t boilers! </li></ul>
  9. 9. Applications for Neatpumps
  10. 10. Introduction Introduction 90˚C Ammonia Heatpump Applications for Neatpumps 90˚C Ammonia Heatpump Applications for Neatpumps District Heating Low carbon heating and cooling
  11. 11. 90 ˚C Ammonia Heatpump Interstage @ 58C HOR = 14.05MW R eff = 9.61MW COPh = 3.16
  12. 12. 90 ˚C Ammonia Heatpump Interstage @ 58C HOR = 14.05MW R eff = 9.61MW COPh = 3.16
  13. 13. District heating The World’s Largest Natural District Heat Pump –Drammen, Norway 2011
  14. 14. District heating The World’s Largest Natural District Heat Pump –Drammen, Norway 2011 <ul><li>Outline: </li></ul><ul><li>3 off 2 stage compressor packs. </li></ul><ul><li>Single Screw, Oil Injected Compressors </li></ul><ul><li>Condensers in series </li></ul><ul><li>Ancillary heat recovery in Parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Chilling Fjord from +8 °C to 4°C (no beneficial use) </li></ul><ul><li>Heating District circuit from 60 °C to 90°C </li></ul><ul><li>COPh of >3.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Further scope to improve COP>4.0 if higher evap temp </li></ul>
  15. 15. District heating The World’s Largest Natural District Heat Pump –Drammen, Norway 2011 <ul><li>Outline: </li></ul><ul><li>3 off 2 stage compressor packs. </li></ul><ul><li>Single Screw, Oil Injected Compressors </li></ul><ul><li>Condensers in series </li></ul><ul><li>Ancillary heat recovery in Parallel </li></ul><ul><li>Chilling Fjord from +8 °C to 4°C (no beneficial use) </li></ul><ul><li>Heating District circuit from 60 °C to 90°C </li></ul><ul><li>COPh of >3.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Further scope to improve COP>4.0 if higher evap temp </li></ul>
  16. 16. 90˚C Ammonia Heatpump 90˚C Ammonia Heatpump Introduction Applications for Neatpumps District Heating Applications for Neatpumps District Heating Introduction District Cooling / Desalination Low carbon heating and cooling
  17. 17. District Cooling and Desalination Stephen Appleton, Associate Director Ramboll 2010 <ul><li>&quot;The three issues which will have the greatest impact on humanity over the next century are Climate Change, Energy Security & Water. All of these issues need to be addressed now! </li></ul><ul><li>In warmer climates not only is water becoming a scarce resource, but carbon emissions due to countless air conditioning systems, are having a significant impact on climate change. The electrical load associated with hundreds of thousands of air conditioning units is also putting a strain on energy supplies and hence greater risks associated with energy security. </li></ul>
  18. 18. District Cooling and Desalination
  19. 19. District Cooling and Desalination <ul><li>A solution to this would be through the use of ammonia refrigeration heat pumps serving district cooling networks, with waste heat being utilised for desalination purposes.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Appleton, Associate Director Ramboll 2010 </li></ul>
  20. 20. District Cooling and Desalination
  21. 21. District Cooling and Desalination <ul><li>Multiple Effect Distillation - Desalination </li></ul><ul><li>Proven </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Higher capital cost than Rev. Osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Lower running cost that Rev. Osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Source of heat a challenge & cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use waste heat from cooling plant. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. District Cooling and Desalination <ul><ul><li>Solution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use waste heat from cooling plant. </li></ul></ul>Typical District Cooling COPc = 4.0 10MW Cooling 2.5MW Power 12.5MW Waste Heat Combined DC and Desalination COPc = 2.0 10MW Cooling 5.0MW Power (extra 2.5MW) 15MW Waste Heat Incremental COPh = 15/2.5 =6.0 “ Free” waste heat from Power plants is without this energy cost BUT, Power plants are not as convenient an energy source as District Cooling.
  23. 23. <ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>District Heating is useful </li></ul><ul><li>R717 offers lower cost DH </li></ul><ul><li>R717 offers lower GWP DH </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Pumps can deliver 90 °C Heat </li></ul><ul><li>90°C Heat can drive desalination </li></ul><ul><li>District Cooling is a viable heat source for desalination </li></ul>Low carbon heating and cooling Thankyou! District Heating Applications for Neatpumps 90˚C Ammonia Heatpump Introduction District Cooling / Desalination

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