Microbiology ch 1(2)


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Microbiology ch 1(2)

  1. 1. Microbiology Chapter 1
  2. 2. Part I Introduction to Microbiology
  3. 3. Scope of Microbiology <ul><li>Microbes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life forms which require magnification for viewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each group has a distinct set of biological characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single celled vs. multi-celled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell wall vs. no cell wall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophic vs. heterotrophic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular vs. acellular </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
  5. 5. Assigning Characteristics <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Algae </li></ul><ul><li>Helminths </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul>Assign common characteristics to each group
  6. 6. (Top) Coccidioidomycosis Arthrospores (Bottom) Development of Arthrospores Into spherule in lung tissue Fungal Infection of the lung Schistosoma (worms) at two different stages of development – liver Disease and other symptoms Staphylococcus Aureus Gram positive bacteria Staph infections and MRSA Trypanosoma Eukaryotic pathogen African Sleeping Sickness Treponema pallidum Bacterial spirochete Causes syphilis Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Acid fast bacteria (shown in pink) like this causes TB and leprosy. Light blue is Staph epi, a common bacteria cocci which inhabits the Skin. Not a common pathogen Herpes Virus
  7. 7. Size Comparisons
  8. 8. What Do Microbes Do? Photosynthesis Decomposition Soil Fertility & Microbial Ecology Microbial Physiology & Fermentation of Cheese Wine Bread Genetics, Gene Regulation & Biotechnology Bioremediation Oil Eating Bacteria & Fungi Water Purification Infectious Disease & Immunology Ch 4, 7, & 26 Ch 8 & 27 Ch 9 & 10 Ch 27 Briefly Need an Environmental & Applied Micro Course Ch 14 – 16 & Ch 18 - 25
  9. 9. Part II Historical Figures in Microbiology
  10. 10. Superstition of Microbiology <ul><li>Spontaneous generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For thousands of years people believed that living things arose from vital forces present in non living matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mushrooms appearing on rotting wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Afflicted people were thought to be cursed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controversy between… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiogenesis and biogenesis </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. First Look at Microbes <ul><li>In the 1600s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Hooke (English) reported that living things were composed of little boxes or cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antonie van Leeuwenhoek construction microscopes which could magnify 300X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Described microorganisms that he observed in teeth scrapings & rain water </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Abiogenesis vs. Biogenesis <ul><li>Franceso Redi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He wanted to ascertain whether maggots arose from some “vital force” of the meat or were offspring of flies </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Abiogenesis vs. Biogenesis <ul><li>Conclusions of Redi’s Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This and related experiments proved that complex animals such as insects and mice develop through biogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, meat leaf out but covered with gauze would still rot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, the idea that simpler organism could arise from abiogenesis was still accepted </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Proving that Microbes Are Present in Dust Particles <ul><li>Jablot’s vs. Needham’s Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jablots experiment supported the idea that microbes are present in the air </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Proving that Microbes Are Present in Dust Particles <ul><li>However, support for Jablot’s experiment faltered when Needham’s results were reported </li></ul><ul><li>Needham performed the same experiment with mutton gravy </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial growth was in both containers </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think happened here? </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>These disputes would be put to rest with Louis Pasteur’s work </li></ul>Proving that Microbes Are Present in Dust Particles
  17. 17. Pasteurization <ul><li>Pasteur also demonstrated that spoilage bacteria could be killed by heat that was not hot enough to evaporate the alcohol in wine. This application of a high heat for a short time is called pasteurization </li></ul>
  18. 18. Lister’s Work <ul><li>English physician advanced the idea of antisepsis in health care setting 1860’s </li></ul><ul><li>Dressed wounds with carbolic acid (phenol) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced deaths among patients by 2/3 </li></ul><ul><li>Listerine Mouthwash </li></ul>
  19. 19. Koch’s Postulates <ul><li>1876 Robert Koch provided proof that a bacterium causes anthrax and provided the experimental steps, postulates, used to prove that a specific microbe causes a specific disease </li></ul><ul><li>Koch was a physician and Pasteur’s young rival </li></ul>
  20. 20. Koch’s Postulates Mouse dies with sores Take scraping and plate on agar A heterogeneous population of bacteria Grow – which one is the causative agent Isolate all different strains and types and inject into healthy mice and see which mice develop similar phenotype and symptoms Take a sample again from mice which died of same symptoms and isolate the causative agent again
  21. 21. Koch’s Postulates A sequence of experimental steps to relate a specific microbe to a specific disease
  22. 22. Koch’s Postulates Used to prove the specific causative agent of an infectious disease
  23. 23. Jenner’s Work <ul><li>Observed that milkmaids did not acquire smallpox </li></ul><ul><li>Milkmaids were exposed to chronic low doses of cowpox and therefore acquired specific immunity </li></ul><ul><li>1796 Jenner inoculated a person with cowpox virus and found this person was then protected against acquiring small pox </li></ul><ul><li>This protection is known as immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Called vaccinatin from vacca for cow </li></ul>
  24. 24. Alexander Fleming’s Work <ul><li>In 1928 Fleming discovered the first antibiotic by accident </li></ul><ul><li>He observed that Penicillium fungus secreted a substance which killed bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why a fungus would do this </li></ul><ul><li>In 1940s penicillin was tested clinically and mass produced </li></ul>
  25. 25. Germ Theory of Disease <ul><li>All of these aforementioned people and others helped give rise to the germ theory of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Germ Theory states that microorganisms can invade other organisms and cause disease </li></ul><ul><li>Before this many time politics and religion would spur on erroneous theories </li></ul>
  26. 26. Part III Introduction to Disease
  27. 27. Chronic vs. Infectious Disease <ul><li>Chronic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease which persists over a long period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atherosclerosis, cancer & heart failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infectious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism enters and tissues & grows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial – Prokaryotic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viral – Acellular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoan – Eukaryotic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes symptoms in patients </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Conquering Infectious Disease <ul><li>The triumph over infectious disease? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotics discovered in 1940s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinations routinely delivered in the 1950s through today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eradication of polio and small pox </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But then… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MRSA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug resistant TB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ebola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avia Flu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And more </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Conquering Infectious Disease <ul><li>What went wrong? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical advances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older and sicker people live longer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More susceptible to garden variety microbes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population is more mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encroachment of humans into wild habitat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid evolution and biochemical changes to microbes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microbes have a quick generation time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. All Diseases Old Standards Syphilis Measles Staph Infections Chicken Pox Emerging Avia Flu Antigenic shift event HIV in the 80’s West Nile in US in 2001 Continental travel Reemerging Tuberculosis - TB New drug resistant strains Immunocompromised patients
  31. 31. Top Causes of Death * Stands for lower respiratory disease Infectious Diseases are shown in red 1.19 x 10 6 10. Accidents 33,865 10.Septicemia 1.27 x 10 6 9. Malaria 40,970 9. Kidney problems 1.57 x 10 6 8. Tuberculosis 58,870 8. Alzheimer disease 1.80 x 10 6 7. Diarrheal disease 65,680 7. Flu & Pneumonia 2.75 x 10 6 6. Chronic LRD* 73,250 6. Diabetes 2.78 x 10 6 5. HIV/AIDS 106,740 5. Accidents 3.33 x 10 6 4. Cancer 124,800 4. Chronic LRD* 3.88 x 10 6 3. Res infection 162,670 3. Stroke 5.51 x 10 6 2. Stroke 557,270 2. Cancer 8.12 x 10 6 1. Heart Disease 696,950 1. Heart Disease Deaths Worldwide Deaths United States
  32. 32. Infectious Disease Statistics
  33. 33. Part IV Taxonomy & Biological Classification
  34. 34. Organizing Life <ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orderly arrangement of organisms into groups that indicate evolutionary relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nomenclature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning names to various taxonomic rankings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct placement of organism into taxonomic scheme </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Taxonomy <ul><li>Origins of organizing biological life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carl von Linne or Linnaeus 1701 – 1778 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System of recognizing and defining properties of living organism followed by the placement into specific slots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouped according to similar properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grouped according to evolutionary relatedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly being revised and refined </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Taxonomy
  37. 37. Nomenclature <ul><li>Scientists use a standard binomial system </li></ul><ul><li>Overseen by an international group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify that standard procedures were followed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascertain the uniqueness of each name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure no other name exists </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Nomenclature <ul><li>Staphylococcus aureus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staphule – bunch of grapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aureus – golden </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Campylobacter jejuni </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kampylos – curved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bakterion – little rod </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jejunum – section of small intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Giardia lamblia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred Giard – French microbiologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vilem Lambl – Bohemian physician </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Evolution & Phylogeny <ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All new species originate from preexisting species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closely related organism have similar feature due to evolution from common ancestral forms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phylogeny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification based on evolutionary relatedness </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Whittaker’s System
  41. 41. Whittaker’s System <ul><li>Although used for many years this system has problems in terms of evolutionary relatedness </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autotrophs & heterotrops are groups together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Archaea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although these organisms are prokaryotic they are more closely related to eukaryotic cells </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Solution to Whittaker’s Tree <ul><li>Biologist no longer group organisms into a 5 kingdom system </li></ul><ul><li>Currently a three domain system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many original kingdoms still work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants, animals, fungi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, Kingdom Protista & Kingdom Monera have been extensively reorganized into many different kingdoms </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Three Domain System