P E And Or Sport


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P E And Or Sport

  1. 1. Physical Education and/or Sport Dr Will Kay – University of Stirling Simon Bicknell – John Moores University Liverpool Hazel Williamson – YST Scotland
  2. 2. Sue Campbell on physical education / sport <ul><li>In some cases people would say that it is a matter of intention rather than a matter of the activity. In other words, if you go along and watch someone coaching tennis and you go along and watch someone teaching tennis, what the children are doing may look perceptibly the same. They will have a racket in their hands and the ball, we hope, will be going over the net. However, the intention of the person working with them may be quite different. The coach will be looking to increase performance whilst having a concern for the individual. The teacher is looking to achieve wider educational objectives through a physical medium. That distinction is not merely philosophical. It impinges on the way the person leads and structures that activity. What the activity is being used for is the difference. Is it not necessarily that the activity the child is doing looks different, it is the intention of the person working with that child that is different. (Kay 1997: PhD Interview) </li></ul>
  3. 3. New Labour Rationale <ul><li>BBC News (March 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Competitive sport is essential’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alan Johnson – Education Secretary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ‘absurd political correctness’ of banning competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Telegraph (March 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Blair targets college legacy’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased time for sport in the curriculum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Telegraph (March 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range of sport to woo pupils into exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Olympics to encourage more to be active and healthy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Process  Product
  5. 5. PE is SPECCIAL
  6. 6. Curriculum for Excellence <ul><li>Physical Education  Health and Well-being </li></ul><ul><li>4 Capacities </li></ul><ul><li>To enable all young people to become: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful Learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confident Individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible Citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective Contributors </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. National Summit on Physical Education 2005: <ul><li>The perception needs also to be addressed, that the major distinguishing feature of physical education – the focus on learning as opposed to sporting outcome – is in danger at times of being overlooked or subordinated to the purposes of sports development. The implications of such shifts in professional focus, especially for very young children and their teachers, need urgent consideration and remedial action. (BAALPE/PEAUK/CCPR/PEITTN 2005:4) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Physical Education and/or Sport Simon Bicknell Liverpool John Moores University
  9. 9. Physical Education and Sport…are different
  10. 10. <ul><li>“ Physical education develops pupils’ physical competence and confidence , and their ability to use these to perform in a range of activities. It promotes physical skillfulness , physical development and a knowledge of the body in action. Physical education provides opportunities for pupils to be creative , competitive and to face up to different challenges as individuals and in groups and teams . It promotes positive attitudes towards active and healthy lifestyles . Pupils learn how to think in different ways to suit a wide variety of creative, competitive and challenging activities. They learn how to plan, perform and evaluate actions, ideas and performances to improve their quality and effectiveness . Through this process pupils discover their aptitudes , abilities and preferences , and make choices about how to get involved in lifelong physical activity ”. </li></ul><ul><li>DFEE (2000) National Curriculum Physical Education . London: The Stationery Office. </li></ul>What is Physical Education
  11. 11. <ul><li>“ the essence of PE as a core experience is that children’s physical , intellectual and social development takes place in line with their overall development” (Gilliver. 1999). </li></ul>What is Physical Education
  12. 12. <ul><li>The place of PE in schools: </li></ul><ul><li>Historically PE was trying to be an academic subject (developed intelligence, SMSC, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus changed to ‘cultural development’ – i.e. learn to appreciate sports place in our modern culture (e.g. Sport Education) </li></ul>What is Physical Education
  13. 13.  NCPE = - A+D, S+A, E+I, H+F - 6 activity areas  Learning ‘through’ ‘in’ and ‘about’ movement  Education…in a physical context What is Physical Education
  14. 14. ALL CHILDREN (a compulsory subject) PHYSICAL EDUCATION GAMES GYM DANCE ATHLETICS SWIMMING O.A.A. <ul><li>Acquire & develop </li></ul><ul><li>Select & apply </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate & improve </li></ul><ul><li>Health & Fitness </li></ul>KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS & UNDERSTANDING: PHYSICALLY EDUCATED INDIVIDUALS <ul><li>Physical competence, in a range of contexts </li></ul><ul><li>A healthy lifestyle </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is Physical Education <ul><li>The focus of NCPE is: </li></ul><ul><li>for children to learn to move and use their bodies in a physical environment ( as we live in a physical world !) </li></ul>
  16. 16. What is Physical Education <ul><li>The physically educated individual will be able to understand: </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT their bodies can do </li></ul><ul><li>HOW their body can and should move </li></ul><ul><li>WHY their bodies move that way </li></ul><ul><li>WHEN their bodies should move in that way </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE their bodies should move </li></ul>
  17. 18. What is Physical Education <ul><li>The physically educated individual will be..……. </li></ul><ul><li>1. PHYSICALLY COMPETENT </li></ul><ul><li>2. PHYSICALLY ACTIVE & HEALTHY (FOR LIFE) </li></ul><ul><li>At various levels of performance / ability </li></ul><ul><li>Recreational Competitive Elite </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Same activity – different purpose: </li></ul><ul><li>“ while PE and sport utilise the same activities…there is a paradox because they are based on different sets of values ” </li></ul><ul><li>SPORT = Develop winners / competitive success / reject losers </li></ul><ul><li>PE = Do your best / individual targets / support athletes / reward effort, commitment, good behaviour, personal improvement </li></ul><ul><li>(Lee, 2004) </li></ul>PE v Sport
  19. 21. Policy makers / politicians think PE is Sport! Food for thought…….
  20. 22. “ Sport is something you do when you have been educated physically!” Food for thought…….