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Green Engineering 101: Building a Sustainable Planet, Michael Lepech, Stanford Engineering
 

Green Engineering 101: Building a Sustainable Planet, Michael Lepech, Stanford Engineering

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Engineers are leading the push to create greener products that will help us meet current and future sustainability challenges. Stanford Engineering Professor Mike Lepech discusses the impact of green ...

Engineers are leading the push to create greener products that will help us meet current and future sustainability challenges. Stanford Engineering Professor Mike Lepech discusses the impact of green engineering on our planet and on our daily lives.

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  • Excellent job Michael. I would love to learn more. I am a practicing civil engineer in Maryland.
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    Green Engineering 101: Building a Sustainable Planet, Michael Lepech, Stanford Engineering Green Engineering 101: Building a Sustainable Planet, Michael Lepech, Stanford Engineering Presentation Transcript

    • Green Engineering 101 Michael Lepech Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Stanford University 2011 Stanford Engineering eDay 16 July 20112011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Our Environment2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Our Behavior2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Why do we do this?2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Engineering a greener world• Systems Modeling• Flow Accounting• Impact Assessment• Valuation• Guided Design• Environmental Looping• Final Assessment 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Engineering a greener world• Systems Modeling• Flow Accounting• Impact Assessment• Valuation• Guided Design• Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs• Final Assessment 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Engineering a greener world• Systems Modeling• Flow Accounting• Impact Assessment• Valuation• Guided Design• Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs• Final Assessment Impacts 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Engineering a greener world• Systems Modeling• Flow Accounting• Impact Assessment• Valuation• Guided Design• Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs• Final Assessment Value, $$$$$$ 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Engineering a greener world• Systems Modeling• Flow Accounting• Impact Assessment• Valuation• Guided Design• Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs• Final Assessment Value, $$$$$$ 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Engineering a greener world• Systems Modeling• Flow Accounting• Impact Assessment• Valuation• Guided Design• Environmental Looping Inputs Outputs• Final Assessment Impacts, Value, $$$$$$ 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Case Study2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • What does it take to make chocolate chip cookies?• Flour • Eggs• Baking Soda • Chocolate Chips• Salt ?• Butter• Sugar (and Brown Sugar)• Vanilla 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • What does it take to make chocolate chip cookies?• Flour • Eggs• Baking Soda • Chocolate Chips• Salt• Butter• Sugar (and Brown Sugar)• Vanilla 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Sugar Production Energy andSugar Production Video Materials Fields & Harvest Sugar Cane Transportation Bagging Refining Pressing Grinding 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • ISO 14040 Life Cycle Modeling Raw Material Acquisition Air pollutants (e.g., Hg) Primary T Materials Water (e.g., ores, biotic Material T Manufacture resources) pollutants Processing & Assembly (e.g., BOD) Recycled Recycling Remanufacture Materials T Solid waste (e.g., MSW)(open loop recycling) Primary Retirement Use & Recovery T Energy Products (e.g., coal) (e.g., goods, services) T T Reuse Disposal Service Co-products (e.g., recyclables, energy) Center for Sustainable Systems (2003) 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Bill of Materials (Batch Recipe)• Flour 2.25 cups• Baking Soda 1 teaspoon• Salt 1 teaspoon• Butter 1 cup (2 sticks)• Sugar (and Brown Sugar) 1.5 cups• Vanilla 1 teaspoon• Eggs 2• Chocolate Chips 2 cups 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • US Electricity Life Cycle Inventory Kim. S. and Dale, B. (2005) 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Environmental Footprint of a Batch (24) Baking Soda, Salt, VanillaEcoPoints Butter Chocolate Eggs Flour Sugar Greenhouse Gases Eutrophication Summer Smog Ozone Depletion Heavy Metals Winter Smog Acidification Carcinogens 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Carbon Footprint of a Batch of Cookies 78g CO2-eq per cookie 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Environmental Impact Flow One Chocolate Chip Cookie2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Environmental Impact Flow2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • ISO 14040 Life Cycle Modeling Raw Material Acquisition Air pollutants (e.g., Hg) Primary T Materials Water (e.g., ores, biotic Material T Manufacture resources) pollutants Processing & Assembly (e.g., BOD) Recycled Recycling Remanufacture Materials T Solid waste (e.g., MSW)(open loop recycling) Primary Retirement Use & Recovery T Energy Products (e.g., coal) (e.g., goods, services) T T Reuse Disposal Service Co-products (e.g., recyclables, energy) Center for Sustainable Systems (2003) 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Environmental Footprint of a Batch (24)EcoPoints Baking Baking Soda, Salt, Vanilla Butter Chocolate Eggs Trucking Flour Sugar Mixing Greenhouse Gases Eutrophication Summer Smog Ozone Depletion Heavy Metals Winter Smog Acidification Carcinogens 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Carbon Footprint of a Batch of Cookies 310g CO2-eq per cookie 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Environmental Impact Flow One Chocolate Chip Cookie US Energy Production2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Our First Design Conclusion…NO BAKE COOKIES! 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Design Challenge2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Design Challenge• Designing a “green” no bake dessert… – Design constraint CO2-eq < 78g – Must use one graham cracker and one spoon of frosting! 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Design Challenge• Designing a “green” no bake dessert… – Parts list…. Item Impact (g CO2-eq) Graham Cracker 25 Chocolate Frosting (1 spoon) 15 Vanilla Frosting (1 spoon) 13 Marshmallow 6 Chocolate Chips 1 Sprinkles (1 spoon) 5 Hershey Kiss 8 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • How do we use this at Stanford? 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Advanced Materials for Green Infrastructure ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composite) 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Ductile Cement-based Materials HPFRCC (ECC) Normal Fiber Reinforced Concrete Concrete w or 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Nanotailoring of Green ECC • Increasing Stress vs. Crack Opening Relation carbon content decreases 7 interfacial 6 friction Stress, s(MPa) 5 • Stress, (MPa) 40% reduction M45 in 4 21% complimentary 3 ` 13% energy 8% 2 Stress vs. Crack Opening Relation 1 Increasing Carbon Content 7 0 6 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04Stress, s(MPa) Stress, (%) 5 Crack Opening, m )(mm) Crack Opening, d (m M45 4 8% 3 14% 21% 2 1 0 L f / 2 cos 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Vf 1 Crack Opening, d (mm) ( ) P( , Le ) g ( ) p( ) p( z )dzd Af 0 z 0 Virgin PVA Fiber Nanocoated PVA 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • ECC Link Slab Concept Links two adjacent bridge spans through continuous deck ECC material accommodates adjacent span deformations Combined flexural, axial, and environmental loads Shear Stud Deck Interface Continuous Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement Shear Stud ECC Link Slab ECC Link Slab Deck Interface Concrete DeckDeck Concrete Concrete Railing Steel Beam Steel Beam Debonding PaperPaper Debonding Concrete Sidewalk 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Life Cycle Model MOBILE6.2 NONROAD KyUCP Emissions Emissions Traffic Flow Model Model Model EnvironmentalModel Parameters Sustainability Indicators - Resource Depletion User Input and System Life Cycle Assessment Model - Energy Use Definition - Global Warming Potential Life Cycle Cost ModelAgency Cost Factors Social Cost Factors- Construction Material - Agency Activity Emissions- Distribution - Vehicle Emissoins Agency Costs Social Costs- Construction (Labor & Equip) - Vehicle Operating Costs- End of Life Costs - User Delay Keoleian et al, Journal of Infrastructure Systems March 2005 51-60 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Detailed Impact Flow (CO2-eq)• Full life cycle model is comprehensive and detailed – 203 nodes visible of 36 908 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Infrastructure Sustainability Indicators Total Primary Energy Consumption • Total primary by Life Cycle Stage energy 90000 consumption is dominated by 80000 traffic-related energy 70000 60000 Gigajoules (GJ) EOL 50000 Distribution Materials 40000 Construction ΔTraffic 30000 20000 10000 0 Keoleian et al, Journal of ECC Conventional Infrastructure Systems March 2005 51-60 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Plastics from Waste Methane 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • OFU Gimsøystraumen BridgeTotal span: 839 meters Maximum clearance to the sea: 30 metersSpans: 9 Opened in 1981Main span: 148 meters 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Management Results CO2 Accrual CO2 Impact Budget Environmental Impact Budgets2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Targeting “Sustainability”• Target reductions to achieve a stabilized atmospheric carbon- equivalent concentration of 490ppm -535ppm (Scenario II) by Year 2050 (Year 2000 baseline). IPCC AR4 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Design Challenge• Designing a “green” no bake dessert… – Design constraint CO2-eq < 78g – Must use one graham cracker and one spoon of frosting! 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Final Thoughts…• We need to take better care of our planet.• Engineers are a big part of that! – Green design is a big part of Stanford Engineering – Lots of ways to design “green” that respect the choices and values of many people 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • Thanks! Questions? Michael D. Lepech mlepech@stanford.edu stanford.edu/~mlepech2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011
    • 2011 Stanford eDay 16 July 2011 © 2011