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A multi-stakeholder magazine on climate change and sustainable development.

A multi-stakeholder magazine on climate change and sustainable development.

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Outreach Magazine: May UN meetings day 5 Outreach Magazine: May UN meetings day 5 Document Transcript

  • inside: A bold and courageous IFSD Sustainable Development Goals for the New Generation a multi-stakeholder magazine on climate change and sustainable development out reach. 27 April 2012www.stakeholderforum.org/sf/outreach/ pic: Aaron Parecki
  • contents. 1 A bold and courageous IFSD 2 Local action has moved the world: 20 years of local sustainability 3 Freshwater governance: An opportunity for Rio +20 3 4 Building a Global Network of National Councils for Sustainable Development Workshop invitation: Building a Global Network of National Councils for 5 Sustainable Development (NCSDs) 6 Cities, metropolises, regions and their associations contributing to Rio+20 8 Why the science-policy interface should not be forgotten in Rio 4 9 Invitation to a one day workshop on the challenges of IFSD 10 Sustainable Development Goals for the New Generation 12 Dynamic Scaffolding: A New Conceptual Framework for IFSD Japanese stakeholders for the promotion of sustainable development 13 Rio+20 Side Event Calendar 6 14 Reflections on the negotiations pic: Alan English OUTREACH IS PUBLISHED BY: Outreach is a multi-stakeholder publication on OUTREACH EDITORIAL TEAM climate change and sustainable development. It is the longest continually produced Editorial Advisors Felix Dodds Stakeholder Forum stakeholder magazine in the sustainable development arena, published at various Farooq Ullah Stakeholder Forum international meetings on the environment; Editor Georgie Macdonald Stakeholder Forum including the UNCSD meetings (since 1997), UNEP Governing Council, UNFCCC Conference Co-editor Amy Cutter Stakeholder Forum of the Parties (COP) and World Water Week. Editorial Assistant Jack Cornforth Stakeholder Forum Published as a daily edition, in both print and web form, Outreach provides a vehicle Print Designer Jessica Wolf Jessica Wolf Design for critical analysis on key thematic topics in Web Designer Thomas Harrisson Stakeholder Forum the sustainability arena, as well as a voice of regional and local governments, women, Web Designer Matthew Reading-Smith Stakeholder ForumAbout Stakeholder Forum indigenous peoples, trade unions, industry, youth and NGOs. To fully ensure a multi- CONTRIBUTING WRITERSStakeholder Forum is an international stakeholder perspective, we aim to engageorganisation working to advance sustainable a wide range of stakeholders for article ICommittee on International Hiroshi Komiyama, Japanese National Vicki-Ann Assevero Yuko Sakita preparatory committeedevelopment and promote democracy at a contributions and project funding. Environmental Lawglobal level. Our work aims to enhance open, Natalene Poisson UCLG Ania Rok ICLEI If you are interested in contributingaccountable and participatory internationaldecision-making on sustainable development to Outreach, please contact the team Jan-Gustav Michele Morek UNANIMA International Stakeholder Forumthrough enhancing the involvement (gmacdonald@stakeholderforum.org or Strandenaes Meg Patterson WWFof stakeholders in intergovernmental acutter@stakeholderforum.org) Farooq Ullah Stakeholder Forum Olimarprocesses. For more information, visit: You can also follow us on Twitter: Ben Vanpeperstraete Maisonet-Guzmanwww.stakeholderforum.org @OutreachLive Bridget Brady Mount Holyoke College Marian Schreier
  • A bold and courageous IFSD Jan-Gustav Strandenaes Stakeholder Forum Were the delegates who founded in environmental law, but has almost been killed off by delegate after delegate asking rhetorically – what does it the UN braver and more forward really mean, and where in the system is its proper place? looking than those negotiating Perhaps today’s hardened negotiators should be reminded of the words of Kofi Annan, former UN Secretary General: IFSD at present? “A society that cuts off from its youth severs its lifeline.”Almost seventy years ago, back in1945, the founding Sustainable development today is housed within the UNnations of the UN devised and constructed a system of Commission on Sustainable Development, sitting low ingovernance that has proved to be more successful than the UN’s political hierarchy. With little political prestigemany of its critics would give it credit for. The UN and and less credibility, CSD has struggled for years to showits governance system have taken us through Cold War the world that it must take sustainable developmentcrises, civil war on many continents, and both natural seriously. With the advent of Rio+20, many are nowand man-made catastrophes. The system has not always seriously talking about creating a new institution forbeen given the chance to solve problems at their root sustainable development. A brave proposal is to createcauses, but it has been able to give humanity a chance an institution at Council level, with authority secondto struggle out of its many predicaments, and remains a only to the General Assembly. A Council for Sustainablepermanent symbol of hope. Development will give the issue the necessary political prestige, power and clout. And if governments areWith the advent of Rio+20 and the emergence of IFSD as serious enough, they will make sure the institutionone of its key agenda points, it would do negotiators a lot is given the responsibility of integrating the threeof good to think about what kind of governance system dimensions of sustainable development – leading thethey should create to be able to shoulder challenges green economy transition, addressing social issuesand unplanned for events for the next seventy years. The and tackling environmental challenges. Governmentsimpression from the negotiations is not one of people have the power to direct their ministers of finance,thinking ahead, making brave decisions, or embracing the social affairs, environment, and foreign affairs to workfuture. Rather the impression is of people being overly together for and within this institution. Instead of thiscautious about making institutional mistakes and afraid forward looking move, however, governments seemto propose changes that might cost money. The world more preoccupied with what this would cost, and whattoday needs a governance system that is forward looking, structural implications it might have.and will have relevance until 2082 and beyond. Francis Fukuyama, one of the world’s leading politicalEmerging issues are an inevitable part of the Rio+20 theorists has aptly described what appears to beagenda. An emerging issue cannot by nature be defined, currently happening at UN: “When the surroundingas it is of an unpredictable nature. Global politics are an environment changes and new challenges arise, thereincessant array of emerging issues. To deal with them is often a disjunction between existing institutionsefficiently and adroitly, whenever they emerge, a new and and present needs. We often see existing institutionsrobust institutional system must be in place. supported by legions of entrenched stakeholders who oppose any fundamental change”.Responsible delegates and a hard working UN secretariatcoined the name for the Rio+20 Conference ‘The Future Seventy years ago, novelty, innovation and a desire to createWe Want’. Perhaps they were glancing sideways to institutions that could handle the future were created byfuture generations. The twenty-somethings. Perhaps the founding nations of the UN. With all our knowledgethe delegates hoped that such a move would placate and creativity should we not be able to act in a similar boldthe impatience of youth, demanding a forward looking and courageous manner and create the IFSD for the future? .and constructive outcome from Rio+20. The High Or will the legacy of those at Rio+20 be – ‘they had theCommissioner for Future Generations is a novel idea chance to change, but not the courage to do so’that would incorporate the concerns of youth across allhigh level decision making. The concept is well founded 1 RIO+20
  • Local action has moved the world: Ania Rok ICLEI 20 years of local sustainability In preparation for the Rio+20 Sustainable development has been successfully localised and is no longer a distant, theoretical concept but rather Conference, ICLEI (Local Governments one filled with meaning and evoked in everyday activities. for Sustainability) is publishing However, much more needs to be done in order to escape the impending environmental and social crisis and a Local Sustainability 2012 study, ensure well-being for all within the limits of planetary consisting of a global review of resources. Amongst others, the following conclusions and the position of local governments recommendations form the essence of the review: as sustainable development actors Local consciousness about global and future impacts of and a collection of 14 case studies. todays action has never been as high. However, in order to fully exploit this awareness, information on global trends Both publications include a set of and the impacts of any local activity on the lives of future recommendations for the future of generations must be made available as a standard basis for political and economic decision-making. local action and will be available shortly at www.iclei.org/local2012. A good local sustainability process harnesses various driving forces. The effectiveness of local sustainability The success of local sustainability processes, inspired processes – as well as of programmes designed to support by the Local Agenda 21 mandate and today taking them – could be enhanced by combining the strengths of place in thousands of cities around the world, is widely the five process types identified. acknowledged as one of the most remarkable outcomes of the 1992 Earth Summit. Even though global sustainability Local sustainability processes are hubs of social remains a distant goal, it is clear that local initiatives have innovation. By combining classic methods of consultation profoundly changed the way we think about sustainable and participatory policy development with new forms of development, making a lasting mark not only on local but spontaneous and collective action, local sustainability also on national and international governance systems, processes can strengthen their role as testbeds of pushing the boundaries of what is achievable. sustainable innovation. In recent years there has been significant growth in the Greening the economy is a chance to address the number of cities involved in sustainability initiatives. sustainability crisis. However, for the Green Economy to The variety of local sustainability processes that have become a serious contributor to sustainable development, emerged around the globe – across a range of diverse it has to be linked not only technological – but also social political and economic cultures – is striking. Illustrated – innovation. Decentralised solutions and public control with numerous examples of local initiatives from all over over common goods will be key. the world, ICLEIs review, Local Sustainability 2012: Taking stock and moving forward, focuses on the main Sustainable development needs a multilevel governance driving forces behind local processes and identifies 5 key system with a multi-sectoral approach. Any global types of local sustainability processes: local government governance framework for sustainable development should strategy; civil society initiatives; concerted action; national include local governments as equal governmental partners policy; and international cooperation. By discussing the and at the same time initiate national and international strengths and weaknesses of each type, the report adds legislation that supports their efforts. to the global debate on the need for a new, multi-level governance framework. The case study collection Local Sustainability 2012: Showcasing Progress accompanies the review, portraying Local governments have shown that they are able to drive an active and strong involvement of local governments in the implementation of sustainable development and to pioneering greater urban sustainability. From Portland initiate respective local processes – sometimes much more (USA) to Cape Town (South Africa), from Rizhao (China) effectively than national governments or international to Melbourne (Australia), the examples included in this organisations. The review describes significant changes in how local sustainability has been understood and governed over the last two decades, ranging from an enhanced journey towards urban sustainability . collection confirm that every city can embark on the culture of public participation to the recognition of local governments on the international scene.2 RIO+20
  • Freshwater governance: Meg Patterson WWF An opportunity for Rio +20 The need for water is obvious. What is less clear is how The water crisis is increasingly recognised as one of to ensure reliable access to adequate supplies of good governance, first and foremost. Unlike other global quality water for people, environments, and economies. challenges like climate change and desertification, The challenges facing freshwater systems are considerable however, no global legal instrument is in force to govern and include: climate change, increasing urbanisation, these vital resources. In 1997, more than 100 states global population growth, pollution, overexploitation, and joined together to adopt the UN Watercourses Convention. desertification. Freshwater ecosystems are already the Yet, this vital treaty remains the only multilateral most threatened of all biomes, and 20% of all freshwater environmental agreement (MEA) adopted during or as fish species are in rapid decline. Water also plays an a follow-up to the first Rio Conference in 1992, that has integral role in international security, in part due to its not yet entered into force. This is a significant gap in the close linkages with energy and food security. Worldwide, institutional framework for sustainable development – but over one billion people lack access to safe drinking water, one that can easily be remedied. and around 2.6 billion people have no access to adequate sanitation. Water shortages already affect two billion The UN Watercourses Convention is a flexible and people in over 40 countries. overarching global legal framework that establishes basic standards and rules for cooperation between watercourse Such challenges are exacerbated in freshwater systems nation states on the use, management, and protection that mark or cross international boundaries – there are of international watercourses. It offers legal stability and 276 such basins in the world. These transboundary water consistency for preventing and dealing with water-related systems are home to about 40% of the global population, disputes, while providing a flexible instrument in support of cover 50% of the earth’s land surface, and account for inter-state cooperation, which can facilitate adaptive water about 60% of global freshwater flows. Yet only 40% of management in response to ever-changing conditions like the world’s international watercourses have cooperative those caused by the effects of climate change. management frameworks, and many of those agreements have significant gaps and failings. For this reason, WWF and numerous partners have been working since 2006 to raise the levels of awareness and understanding of the UN Watercourses Convention among key actors, in addition to providing support for countries that are interested in assessing the role and relevance of the Convention, as well as going through the ratification process. Having in place an effective UN Watercourses Convention will enable parties to benefit from the linkages with other MEAs, such as the Conventions on Climate Change, Desertification, Wetlands, and Biodiversity, as well as with the Millennium Development Goals. Exploring such linkages will promote the Convention’s aims, principles and procedures to a wider audience, as a contribution to improving the institutional framework for sustainable development. While the freshwater challenge is large, it is not insurmountable. Rio +20 is the perfect venue for governments to show a renewed commitment to sustainable development, and to acknowledge water’s integral role in it. Ratifying the UN Watercourses Convention is an important step in that direction. It is also an easily-measured goal . that is within reach – the Convention needs just 11 more ratifications to enter into force MORE INFO More information on the UN Watercourses Convention and WWF’s work is available at: www.wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/pic: Alan English how_we_work/policy/conventions/water_conventions 3 RIO+20
  • Building a Global Network of National Councils Farooq Ullah Stakeholder Forum for Sustainable Development National Councils for This work has several aims: Sustainable Development (NCSDs) • to see how NCSDs, along with strengthened NSSDs, can be integrated in the Rio+20 work; and National Strategies for • to explore how the councils can play a major role Sustainable Development (NSSD) in delivering and implementing Rio+20 outcomes; were products of Agenda 21 in • to help stimulate and create a network through 1992. Both were given new life which NCSD throughout the world can engage in order to share best practice, discuss lessons and support at the World Summit learned and build support for initiatives. on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002 as integral We hope that Rio+20 will retain the call to re-establish or further develop and strengthen NCSD with appropriately elements of work on sustainable developed national strategies and funding and governance development, where all countries structures where all stakeholders/ major groups are fully integrated. If so, a Global NCSD Network will have committed to have both councils increased importance in helping build capacity and share and strategies in place by 2005. best practice going forward. Not all UN member states managed to comply with For example, as a potential key outcome of Rio+20, the these recommendations. But the importance of NCSD, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be global as well as NSSD, has been reinvigorated by many of the agreed ambitions. Yet delivery of these goals will primarily submissions to the Rio+20 Zero Draft process, including happen at the national level. Joining up the NCSDs in an the outcome documents from the Regional Preparatory international network creates an important level of the Meetings in connection with Rio+20. Currently within the multi-layered governance that is needed for sustainable negotiating text there is a reasonably good call to ‘establish development. And in those countries which have and strengthen, as appropriate, national institutions dealing progressively established and retained their NCSDs in line with sustainable development to enable national efforts to with Agenda 21, it uses existing infrastructure to do so. coordinate, consolidate and ensure the mainstreaming of NCSDs can be an important anchoring point at national cross-cutting issues’ – Para 61. level for international initiatives, and address a relatively underdeveloped part of the Rio+20 agenda. NCSDs have a direct stake in the themes and objectives of Rio+20. The position of the national councils allows However, determining how such a network would work is not them to be actively engaged in the implementation of a job for Stakeholder Forum or the Government of Finland. the Green Economy and bring global recommendations It must be self-determining by member NCSDs themselves. to the national and local level. As the Councils are multi- To this end, we will be working with all stakeholders to draft stakeholder in nature, they represent best practice on a Voluntary Charter of Principles for NCSDs Post-Rio+20 bottom-up approaches and may function as important for sign up at Rio in June. Provisionally entitled Taking Rio vehicles for developing and contributing to good Home, this charter will enable the councils, and related governance at all levels. This in turn will strengthen bodies, to decide how they can work together and learn Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development (IFSD) efforts at the national, regional and local level. Furthermore, as the Councils are national and rely on deliver the future we want . from each other, to promote sustainable development and multi-stakeholder engagement, they are also uniquely pic: Robert Garcia positioned to identify and implement on emerging issues. To help improve the effectiveness of NCSDs, the Government of Finland and Stakeholder Forum along with partners, are working together to establish a global network through which NCSDs can share best practice and promote sustainable development domestically and internationally.4 RIO+20
  • 5RIO+20
  • Cities, metropolises, regions and their associations contributing to Rio+20 Natalene Poisson UCLG United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) and UN-Habitat, with the support of Cities Alliance and United Nations Advisory Committee of Local Authorities (UNACLA), gathered local and regional government leaders and networks in a meeting in New York on 23 April, where they presented key pic: Alistair Knock messages for Rio+20 to UN Secretary- In consideration of the above, local and sub-national General Ban Ki-moon, UN officials and authorities put forward the following recommendations: the group of 23 states, Friends of Sustainable Cities. 1. A new multi-level governance architecture is needed We commit to promoting effective partnerships in building Eight joint recommendations of local and regional government sustainable cities, integrating all relevant partners into plans of action for sustainable urban development at all levels. The ‘Joint Messages of Local and Sub-national We should encourage the exchange of experiences and best Governments’, signed by UCLG, Forum of Global practices from cities, possibly through an e-platform and Associations of Regions (FOGAR), ICLEI (Local a global partnership for sustainable cities, involving multi- Governments for Sustainability), C40 Cities, NRG4SD, stakeholder participation – cities and local governments, with the support of the Ford Foundation and UN-Habitat, civil society, national governments and the private sector. put forward eight recommendations covering sustainable urbanisation, metropolisation and regionalisation. We emphasise the importance of citizen participation and the ability of the local community to involve the many The eight recommendations stress the importance of actors including both civil society and the private sector. acknowledging the positive role that urbanisation can play in development. They advocate for a new multi- As governmental stakeholders, we call on Member States level governance that promotes effective partnerships in to take into account the specific perspective of local and building sustainable cities, and call on Member States to sub-national governments in international governance, take into account the specific perspective of local and sub- deriving from their proximity to citizens. It is essential national governments for addressing global challenges. that these groups are taken into account in any future institutional frameworks for the sustainable development agenda. This is crucial to the implementation of good Good urban development is the key to sustainable development. governance mechanisms based on transparency, participation, equity and accountability. Urbanisation is a driver for global economic growth and development. Yet it is in the cities around the world that the pressures of globalisation, migration, social inequality, 2. Sustainable Cities should be a crosscutting issue in the environmental pollution, climate change and youth unemployment are most directly felt. On the other hand, Sustainable Development agenda. Potential Sustainable they have for centuries been a cradle of innovation and Development Goals (SDGs) should include at least one goal currently produce above 75% of world GDP We should . on ‘Sustainable Cities for All’ and make reference to: strive to achieve cities that are environmentally sustainable, socially responsible and economically productive. A. Access to quality basic services. This is a fundamental responsibility of local and sub- Local and sub-national authorities would like to transmit national governments; they should be a sense of urgency – the need to act is now. This calls for empowered with adequate human and financial concrete actions and measurable commitments and results. resources – unfunded mandates should be avoided. To improve living conditions in cities, we also need to upgrade basic services such as health, 6 RIO+20
  • nutrition, safe potable water, sanitation, and 5. Development of legal mechanisms for local and sub- waste management. City leaders should protect and sustain our natural and built environments, national governments. and foster the development of sustainable and Sound rules are needed for local and sub-national efficient infrastructure through the promotion of authorities to set up good governance systems which will sustainable building regulations and incentives, for instance allow them to: a) develop modern municipal as well as the development of sustainable transport, infrastructure solutions and a solid waste management systems that emphasise the 3Rs renewable energy infrastructure that enables – reduce, reuse, recycle; b) enable urban land registration access to sustainable energy for all. An integrated and land use planning c) optimise urban management approach to infrastructure planning and provision through improved monitoring and intervention. should be maintained across the urban development process. We commit to implement land policy development and B. Social inclusion and equity. This includes gender both regulatory and procedural reform programmes, if equality and the needs of children and youth, necessary, so as to achieve sustainable urban development and should be guaranteed through strong and and to better manage climate change impacts, ensuring accountable local governments. Only by investing that land interventions are anchored within effective land in human capital and ensuring a more equitable governance frameworks. In this context, the link between distribution of wealth – in particular to reduce rural and urban societies is of significant importance. national disparities – will it be possible to achieve The argument has been made that appropriate rural the susta inable eradication of poverty and a policies might be important for the management of the territory balance throughout the development process. urbanisation process. C. Environment. This implies recognising a legal status for global public goods. The adaptation 6. Development of financial mechanisms for local and sub- to climate change, disaster risk reduction and national governments. resilience planning are key issues that should receive increased attention and resources. We We call for increased investments in urban infrastructure also see a need for comprehensive risk and call on national and international financial institutions to management strategies that would ensure greater develop innovative financing mechanisms to enable improved resilience to natural disasters due to geologic service delivery including, among others: i) sustainable instability, weather and climate change impacts transport options and services management, particularly which can all have severe impacts on cities. mass transit and non-motorised transport; and ii) water supply networks and waste water treatment facilities.3. Cohesion among territories in development policies should be fostered 7. Local and sub-national governments as hubs of green growth A structurally and qualitatively different type of economicAs sustainability challenges and responsibilities go beyond growth is needed. Incentives should direct growth towardspolitical borders, consultation mechanisms, solidarity more resource-productive, resilient, low-carbon and lowamong territories and integrated governance frameworks risk urban infrastructure, and renewed urban design. Ashould be promoted in the outcomes of Rio+20. global green gconomy needs to comprise of inclusive green urban economies, and empower both local and sub-Strengthened structural capacities of territories and investments national governments.in infrastructures are crucial to poverty eradication.National urban policies designed in full cooperation with 8. The Rio+20 Conference should be considered as the firstsub-national authorities should enable them to address step towards Habitat III, whose focus will be on the globalsustainable urbanisation. commitment to reinvigorate the urban agenda. We commit to develop national urban policies, defined in4. Culture should be acknowledged as an important dimension full cooperation with local and sub-national authorities. of sustainable development. These policies are integral to integrating efforts across all spheres of government to support a holistic, integratedWe urge local authorities to use culture as a force for and multilevel governance approach to urban designurban regeneration and social inclusion, by encouraging and development that empowers local and sub-nationalheritage preservation, fostering creative industries, and governments, paying special attention to the unique andrecognising the added-value of cultural diversity. critical challenges of metropolitan areas.We encourage the adoption of information and We call upon all states to prioritise sustainable urbancommunication technologies in order to foster smart,connected cities that provide access to the knowledgeeconomy, and enhance public services through development through increased investment in, and attention to, urban design, legislation, economy and governance .e-government websites. 7 RIO+20
  • Why the science-policy interface should not be forgotten in Rio Marian Schreier In the 40 years since the Club of Rome’s ground-breaking book, Limits to Growth, was published, it has become more widely accepted that infinite growth is not possible on a planet with finite resources. Furthermore, since the 1972 Stockholm conference on the human environment, the science around this issue has continued to evolve and solutions to tackle the related challenges have emerged. Nonetheless, governments have – more or less – failed to turn the scientific progress into action. Consequently, what is needed from Rio+20 is a mechanism to facilitate the translation of science into sound policies. The Major Group for Children and Youth, amongst others, thus propose the establishment of an Intergovernmental Panel on Sustainable Development (Sciences) to address the apparent failings on science at the UN level. The following outlines why such a panel is needed and what it could look like. pic: Nicola Since 1972 The international community faces three key challenges The role of the Intergovernmental Panel on Sustainable with regard to science. Development (Sciences) would be threefold: • The fragmentation of the bodies that collect • To review scientific progress; and assess scientific evidence – ranging from the • To bridge the science-policy nexus; and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform • To re-build trust in scientific advice. on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Moving forward in sustainable development, it will be important to avoid the fragmentation that has To address the growing fragmentation of knowledge, occurred with multilateral environmental agreements it could function as an umbrella organisation for all over the last 40 years. international science bodies. A key responsibility would be the design of a sustainable development research agenda for the 21st century, through the review of relevant • The lack of coherence between the scientific and policy communities. In other words, there is scientific knowledge from all strands of science. This a growing sense of mistrust and a clear lack of could be achieved through assessment reports, such as communication. In one of its latest publications – the those of the IPCC. Foresight Report – the United Nations Environment Programme listed the malfunctioning science-policy The strengthening of the science-policy interface could interface as the fourth most urgent issue on a list of be realised through, for example: the development of 21 challenges for the 21st century, which resulted summaries for policy-makers – along with clear-cut policy from a global survey of hundreds of scientists. proposals; the initiation of an open-ended process on how to integrate scientific evidence into policy-making; • The lack of public trust in sustainable development the evaluation of existing and future policies; and the related sciences, which has been undermined in the promotion of science-based decision-making. last few years as a result of several scandals, most notably ‘Climategate’ before the Climate Summit in The history of the IPCC has shown that science can, and Copenhagen in late 2009. The most telling example should, play a crucial role to raise awareness and induce of this development is the rising number of people in the United States who disagree with the notion of behavioural change. Therefore, the Panel’s mandate should man-made climate change. also include public outreach. Duties could encompass the development of easily comprehensible reports, education programmes, public seminars and, most importantly, a transparent methodology and working process, which in sum could help to re-build trust in scientific advice. All in all, an Intergovernmental Panel on Sustainable Development (Sciences) could function as the interlocutor . for sustainable development-related sciences and a key resource for evidence-based policy making8 RIO+20
  • 9RIO+20
  • Sustainable Development Goals Olimar Maisonet-Guzman and Ben Vanpeperstraete for the New Generation The international community is looking Sustainable Development Goals for a successor to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which will Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) should have sufficient ambition to meet environmental and social expire in 2015. The current framework challenges. The new SDGs framework should tackle the helped the international community to underlying drivers of social injustice and environmental degradation. Furthermore, it should consider, in particular, rally behind a common understanding the links between poverty, gender inequality, climate change, of poverty eradication, and provided biological diversity, and human rights protection. targets and indicators to guide With less than 3 weeks of negotiations left, it will be hard to policy decisions. However, the MDGs capitalise on the valuable lessons of the MDGs to develop a common understanding of poverty eradication that can emphasised economic poverty over be translated into an action-oriented framework. Instead, the other dimensions of deprivation what could be achieved at Rio+20 is the provision of strong guidance on the process to develop the post-2015 and gave limited attention to the framework, crucial content, and guidance on structure. structural causes of poverty. Process In the meantime, the historical and development context in which MDGs were anchored, has changed. For example, the world has seen the rise of the middle-income countries, Rio+20 should take an unambiguous position for an inclusive making poverty and inequality more complex issues. process. Namely, the SDGs must be deliberated though an Additionally, the challenges of climate change, water and open, transparent, and accountable process. Principle 10 biodiversity loss further complicate the interdependencies of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development between poverty eradication and environmental protection. identifies that access to information and decision-making is the foundation of good environmental governance. A series of national consultations of people impacted by The Debate poverty should be run through 2013 and the results must be carefully considered in the formation of the SDGs. The The debate on the post-2015 framework can be summarised final deliberation of the goals must be completed by 2015, into three key viewpoints: making the SDGs an operational framework starting in 2015 • Keep the current MDGs but extend their and running until 2030. deadline to 2020 or 2025; This framework must promote compatibility with the MDGs. • Implement an upgraded version of the MDGs, with global goals, but more room for nationally The MDGs remain a valid set of objectives in their own right. appropriate indicators; The UN General Assembly office, under the guidance of the UN Secretary General, is considering the post-Millennium • Establish a global agreement that combines Development Goals (MDGs) framework. The Secretary poverty eradication targets for developing countries and sustainable consumption targets General has stated that the adoption of the SDGs must for the developed world. be streamlined with the follow-up of the MDGs. In a recent report, the Secretary General acknowledged Rio+20 as an important international event that could contribute to the The final proposal presents the most bold and visionary post-2015 framework. Hence, the SDGs should not create policy position and reflects the needs of young people and an additional process to the elaboration of the post-2015 future generations. Additionally, these goals will represent framework for development. the shifting sustainable development paradigm. The process should provide opportunities to harness synergies between the experienced negotiators in environmental sustainability and those who are active in development.10 RIO+20
  • Content Structure We believe that negotiators have considerable expertise The agreement on SDGs should be universal and the to provide additional guidance on the content of SDGs. goals should be accompanied by guidance and direction Documents such as Agenda 21, the Forest Principles, the for all countries, developed or developing. Common Rio Conventions, the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, but differentiated responsibilities will be considered a and the draft decision on Sustainable Production guiding principle. The SDGs provide an opportunity to and Consumption, offer valuable language on how to focus action by considering the respective capabilities operationalise the interlinked nature of SDGs, and to of states in delivering progress on the goals. Given that capitalise on synergies across sectors. equity should run like a common theme through the SDGs, the framework must target inequality between and The specific trade-offs between environmental sustainability within countries, and respond to the needs of the most and economic development must be addressed by vulnerable and marginalised peoples. negotiators at Rio+20. Consequently, it is important to provide additional guidance on international cooperation A strong accountability framework and related institutional on specific sectors such as: energy, climate, oceans, food, arrangements should be developed to guarantee review and water. While the MDGs have too much focus on the of the implementation and compliance to the sustainable economic dimension of development, we should not get development proposals that will stem out of Rio+20. A UN carried away by focusing exclusively on environmental General Assembly Council on Sustainable Development sectors targets. We must guarantee that all dimensions seems like the premier venue to make timely assessment of sustainable development are considered and both and provide political and technical assistance to countries Green Economy and Institutional Framework elements are on their strategies to achieve SDGs. covered. Moreover, we must include references to human rights, gender equality, and social justice. Finally, such framework should also include an Intergovernmental Panel on Sustainable Development to The goals could, for example, include targets for resource offer new strides in inter- and multidisciplinary scientific efficiency, productive processes and the phase-out of fossil consensus. We consider the proposal of an Ombudsman for fuel subsides. In terms of the institutional framework there Future Generations as a crucial component for the promotion is a need to include targets for national social protection of sustainable development. The Ombudsman will be able to floors and for the establishment of specific sustainable translate these identified challenges into politically salient development institutions. Clear references to existing human issues and guide further debates with a view on the long- rights’ treaties must also be visible in the proposals. term stakes. The debate on SDGs is one that will last beyond Rio+20, because of the need to establish a post-2015 framework that reflects the realities of sustainable development and streamlines existing MDGs’ strategies. Although we do not expect Rio+20 to provide answers to all sustainability challenges, we expect it to be the stepping stone for stronger institutional frameworks and an economy that truly reflects the interests of ours and future generations.pic: Sean Ellis 11 RIO+20
  • Dynamic Scaffolding: Vicki-Ann Assevero A New Conceptual Framework for IFSD Committee on International Environmental Law ‘We underscore that a It is helpful to think of this IFSD as dynamic scaffolding. Scaffolding is a temporary structure on the outside of fundamental prerequisite for a building used by construction workers while building, the achievement of sustainable repairing or cleaning an existing building. So while some of us work on the repair and clean up of Nation State development is broad public multilateralism, others need to concentrate on building participation in decision- this temporary structure, which would form a lattice of transparent multi-perspective perches where any and making. Sustainable development all non-state actors could collaborate transnationally to requires major groups… to play a solve specific sustainability problems. This is a structure meaningful role at all levels. for those actors – companies, NGOs, local communities, academic and scientific institutions and individual global It is important to enable all citizens – willing to self organise to optimise wellbeing on, members of civil society to be and for, Planet Earth. actively engaged in sustainable Rio+20 should mandate the construction of a temporary, development…’ Paragraph 17 of transparent and inclusive scaffolding structure – around our current multilateral intergovernmental institutions – the Zero Draft which is specifically dedicated to the creation of pathways among functional sustainability initiatives at local and This aspirational goal of inclusivity in collective decision- community levels. These projects should be community making about the sustainable management of our designed, linked to transnational activism and knowledge planet’s development is uncontested in the Zero Draft. platforms, as well as newly redirected industrial and A good first step. market forces. By creating a space for voluntary civil society collaboration to solve real and immediate problems, we A conceptual problem, however, remains. The supreme will begin to understand what activities actually foster representatives of States are actors in an intergovernmental sustainability, while promoting productive enterprises multilateral system. They cannot change the foundation and, most importantly, what knowledge, technology of that system, which is based on national sovereignty. and skills are required to encourage non-state actors to National sovereignty constrains our ability to address the self organise with the goal of ever widening circles of interconnected nature and complexity of transboundary prosperity. By doing, we re-learn the foundational values, planetary issues. Consequently, delegates should which improve sustainability. acknowledge that no existing institutional framework successfully fosters broad and meaningful civil society At the side event organised by the International Association participation. Being an observer, being consulted, for the Advancement of Innovative Approaches to Global attending a workshop or presenting a paper are all inputs, Challenges (IAAI), the Chair called for a Global Change but they are not substitutes for the legitimacy required in Center right on the North Lawn of the UN Plaza. The a democratic decision-making system by equal partners. Dynamic Scaffolding could start there and it would form a beautiful site and a magnet for those in the vanguard In order to advance the Framework for Action as articulated of shifting the current fossil fuel based industrial growth . in paragraphs 22-24, we need to overcome a steep ‘doing paradigm to an alternative renewable energy based curve’. Paragraph 23 calls for a reinvigoration of the global inclusive and sustainable planetary prosperity partnership for sustainable development, yet there has never been one in existence. There are laudable actions by civil society and governments towards sustainable development solutions but these are ad hoc, disparate, and certainly not coherently coordinated in order to prioritise and address the most vulnerable ecosystems or populations. The multilateral system itself, through its secretariat bureaus, has repeatedly called for coherence, coordination, and integrated multidisciplinary decision- making for its own hydra-headed institutional structure. So a good outcome at Rio+20 would be the creation of a specific, purpose built institutional structure for civil society, which would include all non-nation state actors. pic: Christian Guthier12 RIO+20
  • Japanese stakeholders for the promotion ofHiroshi Komiyama and Yuko Sakita sustainable developmentCo-Chairs of the Japanese National preparatory committee for Rio+20The Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio+20 was an urban planning approach that takes into account localestablished on July 13, 2011, in order to promote dialogue about characteristics, such as initiatives of local communities andRio+20 between stakeholders in Japan. It was established as a the surrounding natural habitat;voluntary gathering of a stakeholders with an interest in Rio+20, • Adoption of mechanisms to ensure employment andincluding the 9 major groups. economic stability aimed at establishing a stable economic infrastructure;In order to develop our input to the Zero Draft of the Rio+20 outcome • Promotion of the UN Decade on Biodiversity anddocument, we hosted workshops to share and exchange information, adoption of mainstream biodiversity practices, such asand collate views, from a wide range of Japanese stakeholders. revitalisation of agricultural, fishing, and mountain villages; • Continual implementation of the UN Decade ofKey messages from Japanese stakeholders to develop a Education for Sustainable Development and thesustainable international society for the 21st century establishment of mechanisms that encourage active and responsible actions by consumers;1. Lessons learned from experiences from the Great East Japan • Development and implementation of tools such as Earthquake, Tsunami, and the subsequent Nuclear Power indicators that support new approaches to sustainable Plant Accident development; The international community, together with countries that • Implementation of innovative financial mechanisms that use nuclear power, must learn from this accident and take provide the necessary funding to those in need; fundamental measures to strengthen nuclear power safety. • Dissemination of environmentally sound technologies The spirit of trans-national and trans-regional Kyoujyo (mutual and products throughout the world. assistance) illustrated in the wake of the earthquake and tsunami represents the attitude required to build a sustainable society. Green reconstruction supports the resilience of ecosystems MORE INFO – which are linked to the strength and affluence of a local The Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20 is community – ensuring that nature and society co-exist in harmony. organising a multi-stakeholder dialogue, Lessons from East Japan Japanese earthquake-resistant technologies, safety management Great Earthquakes and Tsunami: Building Our Sustainable and Resilient systems, and disaster prevention measures also played a role. To Communities, in the Japan Pavilion at Rio+20 on 14 June, 2012. this end, we would like to further improve Japanese world-leading technologies and supporting social systems. The objective of the seminar is to: • Disseminate the opinions of the various stakeholders in Japan;2. Recommended policy measures to build a sustainable global • Discuss issues to build sustainable and resilient community are: communities with various stakeholders from across the world; • Introduce the lessons learned from National multi-stakeholder dialogue • Development of a new energy vision for the 21st century, . with mechanisms in place to guarantee its implementation; by The Japanese National Preparatory Committee for Rio +20. • Promotion of a low-carbon and sound material-cycle, with www.mri.co.jp/SERVICE/thinktank/kankyou/2030913_1458.htmlRio+20 Side Event Calendar Date Time Room Title Organisers The State of the World Environment told by UNEP’s GEO-5 report and Global Solutions for 1:15-2:45 7 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 27 April 2012 Sustainability 1:15-2:45 A Rights at Risk: Decoding the Green Economy France Libertes Foundation Danielle Mitterrand 1:15-2:45 4 Planet Under pressure ICSU-UNESCO-IGBP 1:15-2:45 B The Power of One Child – Global Action Classroom Earth Child Institute 30 April 2012 Advancing the Sustainability Science Agenda: To Support Sustainable Development and the 1:15-2:45 7 Chief Scientists Office, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Green Economy 1:15-2:45 3 From Harmful Subsidies to Safe Subsidies Greenpeace International 6:15-7:45 B New York + 20: Youth led action for sustainable development Columbia University Coalition for Sustainable Development 1:15-2:45 7 Moving Towards Meaningful Private Sector Contribution to Sustainable Development Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future 01 May 2012 Taking Natural Capital into account: how can SDG’s, Green Economy Roadmaps and National 1:15-2:45 B Sustainability Plans properly maintain and value the Earth’s Natural Capital as part of a post- BioRegional Development Group Rio+20 framework 1:15-2:45 3 People and the Planet: The priorities for Rio+20 The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) 13 RIO+20
  • Reflections on the negotiations - Thursday, 26th AprilMichele Morek Bridget BradyUNANIMA International Mount Holyoke CollegeThe introductory paragraphs for section IV on the Institutional Wednesday’s afternoon session began with the decision to returnFramework for Sustainable Development express the hope later to paragraph 44 (c) which set the tone for the session. Nothat sustainable development decisions will be based on: good agreement could be found regarding paragraph 44 (e) or 44 (e)information; all stakeholders and partnerships will be involved; bis, especially regarding the language ‘In particular in developingprogress on implementation of previous agreements (such as countries and those in special situations among them, bearingAgenda 21) will be monitored; and that the efficiency of the UN in mind the overarching objective of poverty eradication and the– and other international institutions – will be increased. In the promotion of social inclusion and equity’. Paragraph pre 45, the firstdiscussion, countries seemed fairly aligned on what they wanted and in section B. on the GA, ECOSOC, CSD, SDC proposal, was previouslymuch of the debate centered on where the content should be placed agreed ad ref but was the reopened by the G77 to include: better– in the general introductory section or later in the text. There was a address the urgent global challenges of sustainable developmentconstant ‘tug of war’ between the delegates’ desires to streamline ‘in accordance with the Rio Principles’. This amendment wasthe document and to be sure all favorite ideas were included. supported by Switzerland, but not by the US or the EU. The G77 expressed concerns over the future of the Rio Principles if memberThe most serious area of disagreement centered around paragraphs states refuse to include their mention even when they are not being44 (e) and (f) on monitoring commitments and reinforcing coherence singled out.between UN agencies, when it became clear that the G-77 countrieswanted these paragraphs to call the UN and developed countries to In paragraph 45 ter, the G77 was uncomfortable with the languagefulfill promises made to the developing countries – in Agenda 21 or of "reform and strengthening" of the IFSD, explaining that theMEAs – for financial help and technology transfer. To that end, the wording was too strong and possibly contradictory. There wasG-77 had drafted its own parallel text. The morning session ended also disagreement on whether to mention the specific ‘legal andbest to address their concerns .with the Chair asking the representative of the G-77 to suggest how budgetary implications’ of changing the current IFSD. In paragraph 45, regarding the GA, there was a debate between whether its role and position is ‘central’ or ‘universal’. There was no CST for paragraphs 48-51, which will be returned to later. Negotiations concluded with the review of paragraph 54 and the question of IMF and regional development banks , . whether or not it should include specific text on the World Bank, pic: Alan EnglishOutreach is made possible by the support of