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A multi-stakeholder magazine on climate change and sustainable development.

A multi-stakeholder magazine on climate change and sustainable development.

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Outreach Magazine: April/May UN meetings day 4 Outreach Magazine: April/May UN meetings day 4 Document Transcript

  • inside: Ending the oceans wild west: why we need a high seas biodiversity agreement Plenty more fish in the sea? a multi-stakeholder magazine on climate change and sustainable development out reach. 26 April 2012www.stakeholderforum.org/sf/outreach/ pic: Aaron Parecki
  • contents. 1 Multiple stressors pushing ocean ecosystems and livelihoods to the brink 2 Ending the oceans wild west: why we need a high seas biodiversity agreement 2 3 Monitoring ocean acidification and its effects: a proposal for Rio+20 Social aspects of sustainable tourism in the context of sustainable oceans, 4 the green economy and the eradication of poverty 5 Riding the crest of ocean decisions for Rio+20 Sustainable energy development: 3 6 The role of coasts, oceans and small island developing states 8 Pacific fisheries need tech to track climate impact 9 Plenty more fish in the sea? Rio+20 Side Event Calendar 10 Reflections on the negotiations 4 pic: Colin Grey OUTREACH IS PUBLISHED BY: Outreach is a multi-stakeholder publication on OUTREACH EDITORIAL TEAM climate change and sustainable development. It is the longest continually produced Editorial Advisors Felix Dodds Stakeholder Forum stakeholder magazine in the sustainable development arena, published at various Farooq Ullah Stakeholder Forum international meetings on the environment; Editor Georgie Macdonald Stakeholder Forum including the UNCSD meetings (since 1997), UNEP Governing Council, UNFCCC Conference Co-editor Amy Cutter Stakeholder Forum of the Parties (COP) and World Water Week. Editorial Assistant Jack Cornforth Stakeholder Forum Published as a daily edition, in both print and web form, Outreach provides a vehicle Print Designer Jessica Wolf Jessica Wolf Design for critical analysis on key thematic topics in Web Designer Thomas Harrisson Stakeholder Forum the sustainability arena, as well as a voice of regional and local governments, women, Web Designer Matthew Reading-Smith Stakeholder ForumAbout Stakeholder Forum indigenous peoples, trade unions, industry, youth and NGOs. To fully ensure a multi- CONTRIBUTING WRITERSStakeholder Forum is an international stakeholder perspective, we aim to engageorganisation working to advance sustainable a wide range of stakeholders for article Arctic Institute of North Kateryna Wowk Marine Policy Consultant contributions and project funding. Magdalena A K Muirdevelopment and promote democracy at a Americaglobal level. Our work aims to enhance open, Nathalie Rey Greenpeace If you are interested in contributing Kirsty Schneeberger Stakeholder Forumaccountable and participatory international Secretariat of the Pacificdecision-making on sustainable development to Outreach, please contact the team Tamasin Ramsay Monash University Johann Bell Communitythrough enhancing the involvement (gmacdonald@stakeholderforum.org or acutter@stakeholderforum.org) MGCY/Environmental Emma Puka-Beals Mount Holyoke Collegeof stakeholders in intergovernmental Naomi Kumazawa Partnership Council Japanprocesses. For more information, visit: You can also follow us on Twitter: Natural Resources Defense Joanna Benn Pew Environment Group Tourism Concernwww.stakeholderforum.org @OutreachLive Council
  • Multiple stressors pushing ocean ecosystems andKateryna M. Wowk livelihoods to the brinkMarine Policy Consultant and co-author of Valuing the Ocean Protecting the ocean must climate change alone could reduce the economic value of key ocean services by up to $2 trillion a year by 2100, be a priority in global but by adopting a rapid emission reduction pathway (and sustainability goals. The limiting temperature increases to 2.2°C) we could avoid almost $1.4 trillion of this total. The study concludes with ocean – and the life-supporting a warning of the need to ‘Plan for Surprise’ in the face ofservices it provides – is facing global environmental change, arguing for new approaches to ‘insure’ against potentially disastrous events that multiple threats including society would have difficulty coping with, together wide a acidification, ocean warming, wide range of policy recommendations. hypoxia, sea-level rise, The study deliberately does not attempt to estimate a pollution, and the overuse monetary value for the ocean itself, its priceless species of marine resources. It is and ecosystems, or some of the critical processes and features of the ocean such as nutrient cycling, ecosystem heavily affected by human functioning, and genetic resources, to which meaningful activities, from climate change prices cannot be assigned. It also does not attempt to provide a monetary value to irreparable losses to cultural to overfishing to waste runoff heritage and the dignity and identity of communities and mineral extraction, which that are anticipated to result from global environmental change, nor does it fully consider the catastrophe that will are destroying habitats and result if global tipping points are reached. What the studyirrevocably changing ecosystems. does provide, among more regional and local messages, is a concrete picture of yet another category to add toGreater than these individual threats, however, is the under- the rising costs of further delaying action on climate andresearched and overlooked issue of the simultaneous, and global environmental change.often synergistic, impacts of multiple stressors. Actingtogether, impacts from multiple stressors could lead to ‘Valuing the Ocean’ calls for bold action to revolutionisedamages far more severe than those from individual threats our strategies for governing oceans and coasts. With soalone. In preparation for Rio+20, preliminary results from a many threats converging on the oceans at once, a global,new research effort that focuses on valuing ocean resources integrated approach, including action at the local level, isin the context of multiple stressors is being circulated to urgently needed. By stressing the links between multiplekey policymakers. The study, Valuing the Ocean, is the work marine stressors and the huge value of the vital servicesof an international, multi-disciplinary team of experts that the ocean provides to humankind, the authors hopesupported by the Okeanos foundation and coordinated by to help kick-start decisive, collective action to strengthenthe Stockholm Environment Institute, in partnership with ocean governance and management across all scales.the Foundation for Design & Sustainable Enterprise. This collaborative international study presents anThe book in preparation consists of 12 chapters, each unequivocal argument in favor of placing the ocean at theprepared by different expert authors, which present the center of plans to build a sustainable future, while for thelatest evidence regarding the way in which the ocean is first time bringing into sharp relief the monetary value ofbeing impacted by different threats, and the expected the critical ocean services that will be degraded if we fail tofuture consequences. Each of the main ‘stressors’ (ocean implement them. National governments and internationalacidification, hypoxia, ocean warming, sea-level rise, organisations must strengthen and integrate their effortspollution and overuse of marine resources) is first tackled toward sustainability to retain the viability of marineindividually. These impacts are then jointly addressed in ecosystems and resources.the ‘Impacts of Multiple Stressors’ chapter, and examinedin a regional context in a chapter dedicated to a case study The cost of inaction will rise with every year we delay.of the Pacific Ocean. The study also includes a chapter Planning and action now will save money – and livelihoodsspecifically focused on ‘Valuing the Ocean Environment’,which estimates the costs – in terms of degraded oceanservices – that could be avoided by addressing the we integrate. . – in the future. There can be no ‘green’ economy unlesscauses of these stressors (CO2 emissions being the most MORE INFOimportant). Under business-as-usual, the study finds that www.sei-international.org/-news-archive/2305 1 RIO+20
  • Ending the oceans wild west: why we need a high seas biodiversity agreement Nathalie Rey Greenpeace Once seen as boundless, today there is a growing 2008 exposed that a staggering $50 billion is lost annually awareness that the world’s oceans are finite and the marine as a result of overcapacity, subsidies and poor fisheries life they hold can indeed be exhausted. Roughly 90% of management. The study concluded that improved oceans big fish have been fished out, coral reefs are disappearing, governance is key to recapturing a large proportion of this we are choking our oceans with pollution, and climate annual loss. In addition, it has been estimated that setting change is permanently altering their chemistry, with aside 20-30% of our oceans as marine reserves could disastrous effects. As technology has improved, ocean create a million jobs, enable fish catches worth US$ 70– life has disappeared faster and faster, fishing fleets are 80 billion per year and ecosystem services with a gross moving further and further away from the coast in search value of roughly US$ 4.5–6.7 trillion per year. The figures of decreasing numbers of fish. International waters that speak for themselves: a green economy will be impossible cover almost two thirds of our planet – an area that used without a blue backbone. to be seen as too far, deep and difficult to exploit – are now in peril. Soon, our oceans will not be able to recover from The changes happening to the oceans will impact the humankind’s reckless destruction. We need to take action poorest people on our planet the soonest and hardest, but fast, and Rio offers a significant opportunity to take a ultimately we will all suffer the consequences. Business- huge step forward on ensuring high seas protection. as-usual is not an option: political urgency must be raised and Rio offers that opportunity to make a wholesale The journey from the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to 2012 change in how we currently manage the high seas. is littered with unfulfilled commitments to protect our oceans. With less than 1% of the high seas currently The world’s governments must give the green light at Rio under any form of protection, the oceans are the least to start negotiations on an agreement that implements protected part of the planet. the relevant marine conservation provisions under the UN Convention on Law of the Sea (paragraph 80 of the So why is it taking so long to protect the oceans that Zero Draft). This implementing agreement under UNCLOS are so necessary to our planet’s survival? There is a should ensure that ocean resources are sustainably used, serious shortfall in the implementation of existing benefits derived from their use are equitably shared, and agreements. But, even if all relevant agreements are that it enables governments to act on their long-standing implemented, massive gaps and loopholes in existing commitments to create a global network of marine governing activities in international waters would reserves. This agreement is supported by the majority still hamper effective protection. These black holes of the world’s governments, however a small handful of in oceans governance include no explicit rules on what governments are currently standing in the way of progress. protection of international waters should look like, We urge these government to stand aside and ensure that little coordination between relevant organisations, no means of establishing marine reserves or assessing the impact of human activities on high seas marine life, poor oceans for now and future generations. . Rio becomes a critical milestone in safeguarding our monitoring, surveillance, compliance and enforcement and no mechanisms to assess and regulate new and emerging human activities. There are also no clear rules that ensure the benefits arising from the use of valuable marine genetic resources found in the global commons are shared fairly. Scientists, countries and corporations are beginning to research the genetic and chemical compounds found in deep sea creatures for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, and are patenting these resources for their own benefit. Given the huge financial, knowledge and other benefits arising from the use of these resources, it is essential that these are fairly and equitably shared amongst countries. Protection of the oceans will have huge benefits – environmentally, socially and economically. A joint World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organisation study in2 RIO+20
  • Monitoring ocean acidification and its effects: a proposal for Rio+20 Natural Resources Defense Council Addressing the problem The single most important step we can take to address ocean acidification is to dramatically reduce CO2 emissions. But we cannot afford to wait. Ocean acidification is already affecting marine life, and States and coastal communities need information that can help them assess risks, plan for impacts and initiate management strategies, including, for example: • Vulnerability Analyses – Based on current research and observations, scientists have identified broad geographic regions and marine species that are vulnerable. High latitudes, regions of upwelling,pic: USFWS Pacific and coastal estuaries with heavy river input, will experience episodes of corrosive water first. In An Integrated Global Monitoring Network addition, certain species such as tropical corals and some oysters and other mollusks are particularly The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is calling on sensitive to changes in carbonate chemistry. There the international community to develop, on an urgent basis, may be many other marine animals affected, and a an integrated, international program aimed at monitoring more comprehensive and refined understanding of the chemical, biological and socio-economic impacts of vulnerabilities is greatly needed. ocean acidification. Such a monitoring network is essential to provide States and coastal communities with the • Early warning systems - Real-time information information necessary to prepare for the impacts of ocean about ocean chemistry can serve as an early acidification on fisheries, corals and marine food webs. warning system for already affected regions and industries. For example, oyster hatcheries along the west coast of the United States have deployed The problem monitoring systems to alert their operators to Carbon dioxide (CO2) from burning fossil fuels is changing corrosive episodes, which are harmful to larval the fundamental chemistry of our oceans. CO2 reacts with oysters. With the use of these systems, hatchery sea water to form carbonic acid. As atmospheric CO2 has owners have restored their production by 80% and risen, the oceans have become 30% more acidic over the have rescued their businesses. last 150 years. This effect is measurable and undisputed. Rising ocean acidity reduces the availability of carbonate, • Management guidance – Ocean acidification a critical component of shell-building. If acidity gets is happening against the backdrop of a rapidly high enough, ocean water becomes corrosive and shells changing ocean. In addition to changes in ocean literally dissolve. Unchecked, ocean acidification could chemistry, ocean water is getting warmer, oxygen affect marine food webs and lead to substantial changes availability is decreasing, and a host of local in commercial fish stocks, threatening protein supply and stressors exacerbate global change. Enhanced food security for millions of people, as well as the multi- billion dollar global fishing industry. By mid-century, vast ocean regions may be inhospitable to coral growth and ocean observations are critically needed to improve ocean management in a changing world . reefs will begin to erode faster than they can grow. Regions dependent on healthy coral reefs for fisheries, tourism, and storm protection will be profoundly impacted. Currently, there are only approximately thirty monitoring stations capable of measuring ocean acidity, and most of these are in developed countries. There is virtually no monitoring of biological impacts of acidification anywhere in the world. Without better monitoring, it will not be possible to identify areas of vulnerability or develop effective mitigation measures and management strategies. 3 RIO+20
  • Social aspects of sustainable tourism in the context of sustainable oceans, the green economy and the eradication of poverty Tourism Concern When the tsunami struck in December 2005 in India, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Thailand, it devastated coastal areas where both tourism and the fishing industry were embedded. The tsunami, for all its monstrous consequences to life and livelihood, none the less offered an opportunity for change. Crises normally present such an opportunity. If you are in the middle of such a crisis you can neither see that, nor believe it. But when circumstances are at their most fragile, the opportunity is there to rebuild something better – whether it is the way a family lives together Coastal communities in particular are extremely vulnerable or the way buildings are built and towns are planned. It to new tourism developments. Tourism Concern knows of usually takes an outsider or an outside organisation with too many examples when a beautiful beach – once the experience, determination and commitment to look beyond fishing village has been removed – becomes the perfect such externally imposed destruction and perceive its latent site for the next eco-tourism lodge. Since the tsunami, we potential and help to develop a new way of doing things. have been working with coastal groups in India and Sri Everyone can learn from mistakes. Lanka to help them to understand the role of tourism in their current and future lives, and to support them as they Of course, a crisis also opens the door for opportunists combat the challenges to their ways of life, livelihoods and of all kinds. Tourism Concern’s experience gave it the environments being posed by governments and developers knowledge to understand the potential for positive change, and over which they have no control. particularly given that the coastal areas affected by the tragedy were mostly over-developed and had pre-existing Bekal, in the Indian state of Kerala, is a classic example. environmental, economic, social and cultural problems. It illustrates much of Tourism Concern’s research into the Because we did not possess the resource capacity to be tsunami-hit coasts of India, Thailand and Sri Lanka and the supportive, outside organisation, we tried to persuade also our on-going work. Bekal was established as India’s other agencies, with huge resources at their disposal first Special Tourism Area in the 1990s. The Bekal Resorts to take this role. We failed. No-one wanted to hear our Development Corporation Ltd (BRDC), a government message, which was based on considerable research. agency formed to facilitate the development, has acquired 250 acres of land for six resorts. The consequences of our failure for these affected coastal people continue to be experienced today, nearly seven years Whilst the BRDC claims to focus on environmentally- later. These consequences include forced displacement sensitive and socially responsible methods of of people from their land and an inability to maintain development, the reality has seen lack of transparency livelihoods, either because of being placed in new housing and consultation with communities, violations of coastal too far away or because coastal land has been secured for regulations, and aggressive land acquisitions. Many development and fishermen are no longer able to access the local people claim to have been threatened with eviction sea. The opportunity was there to rebuild in a consultative, if they refused to sell their land, often with virtually no appropriate and sustainable way. It is important to prior notice. These include very poor fisher families remember that the areas that were worst affected were who were forced into selling for as little as 25% of the those where sea defences of mangrove and coral had been market rate. Women were allegedly threatened whilst removed as a result of tourism developments. their husbands were at sea. More than a year after their forced displacement, promises to rehabilitate them are Tourism Concern is a campaigning organisation working unfulfilled. Land for building new homes remains flooded, to ensure that people’s human rights are not abused by the rental accommodation provided is of poor quality, tourism. We believe that destination stakeholders have a and rents that the BRDC said it would pay are in arrears. right to benefit from tourism and should also be able to Livelihoods have been undermined as the distance to the participate as stakeholders in its appropriate development. sea makes fishing unviable. Jobs promised at the resorts For more than 21 years, we have gathered evidence which have not materialised. People must travel 1.5 kilometers sadly refutes the idea that tourism in poorer countries to access safe drinking water, and there is no power benefits the poor or that tourism brings people jobs supply. The houses are subject to flooding during heavy that offer them positive opportunities. Tourism too often rains, exacerbating already poor sanitary conditions. embeds people in poverty. Various national laws have allegedly been violated by the BRDC and developers, including the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) notification, Wetland Conservation Act and Environment Protection Act. The developers have reportedly destroyed mangroves, reclaimed wetlands,4 RIO+20
  • diverted rivers and taken over agricultural land. Buildings Principles on Business and Human Rights. Thesehave been constructed within the no-development zone Guiding Principles have received unprecedented levels ofstipulated by the CRZ. support from business leaders, governments and human rights groups. If another disaster occurs, the GuidingBecause of the alleged human rights abuses associated Principles are there to give a focus to any renewal andwith its implementation, the Bekal development has redevelopment. Although the tourism industry has beenattracted significant civil society opposition, including regrettably absent from their formulation, surely Rio+20public campaigning and mass protest. Social tensions is the key opportunity for the industry to move forwardand resentment have led to some local people reportedlywarning tourists not to visit. to respect human rights . and identify how it will accept its business responsibilityThe challenge to governments, tourism associationsand the World Tourism Organization, as well as tourism MORE INFOdevelopers, are to recognise the multiple human rights This article was originally published at the BE Monaco 2011abuses associated with tourism and development. This conference, which took place from 28th-30th Novemberchallenge is reinforced by the new United Nations Guiding 2011: www.bemonaco2011.org, www.tourismconcern.org.ukRiding the crest of ocean decisions for Rio+20Joanna BennPew Environment GroupMany of us are familiar with a common expression that Last October, the worlds population reached 7 billion.we’d rather regret the things we did, than regret the It is predicted to reach 9 billion by 2050, and asthings we didn’t. humanitys numbers continue rising, our dependence on the ocean, both as a source of nourishment andI am writing as governments convene at the UN in New commerce, will only increase.York to discuss the outcome document for Rio+20. Aftera year of hard work, oceans were declared as one of the There is currently a huge mismatch between political will,priorities for Rio+20 in the document. scientific information, and global conservation imperatives. The challenges are vast, but unlike previous generations,However, that is now at risk of becoming a note on a piece we have an advantage: We understand the consequences ofof paper, with the most ambitious and effective language our activities better and know what needs to happen.in danger of being stripped out altogether. The UN has sought to promote the ‘peaceful use of theTo the cynics, Rio+20 will be another talk shop. To the seas and ocean, the equitable utilization of their resources,idealists, it is a once in a decade chance to generate and the study, protection, and preservation of the marineagreement around a common ambition and goal, to ensure environment,’ for decades. The world, however, still has athat the ocean and its precious resources are protected long way to go in living up to these grand ideals. We needfor the future. It is a chance for real progress on the role of renewed hope that the promise of stronger internationalocean conservation in sustainable development. stewardship of our ocean will be translated into action.There is no need to list the benefits of ocean protection, Pew and the Zoological Society of London are launchingor to reiterate future doomsday scenarios if we carry on an animation on Tuesday 1st May, depicting the choiceswith business as usual. before governments right now. We have two possible futures. Where do we want to be in 2050? Can we makeHowever, the global community needs to understand that the right decisions in 2012 to make this occur?multilateral action on a shared resource is complex andrequires monumental political will, and that oceans need Let’s think again of the popular Rio tagline – ‘The Futureto be taken beyond the environmental and fisheries worldsand brought firmly into the sustainable development one.One proposal in the initial Zero Draft document was to that could cost us the Earth . We Want’ – and make it happen. Let’s not regret inactionstart the process to create an unprecedented, strong MORE INFOglobal commitment to safeguarding our planet’s ocean. The animation is officially launching in English andThis includes setting in motion negotiations for a Portuguese on Tuesday May 1st but a sneak advancenew international agreement to protect and conserve preview can be seen here:biodiversity on the high seas. Rio could enable the www.youtube.com/watch?v=GkQa1cyvHXEestablishment of additional marine protected areas and www.pewenvironment.org/reserves, and to ensure more sustainable fisheries. www.zsl.org/ 5 RIO+20
  • Sustainable energy development: The role of coasts, oceans and small island developing states Magdalena A K Muir Research Associate, Arctic Institute of North America; Adjunct Professor, John Hopkins University, and Advisory Board Member, Climate, Coast and Marine Union Sustainable energy development is increasingly important For example, the Arctic, SIDS and arid regions have globally, nationally, and within the circumpolar Arctic. The extensive geothermal, ocean, solar, and wind resources tension between environment and development is evident in coastal and marine zones, but typically rely on in the production and use of energy. Fossil fuels have hydrocarbons to generate electricity. In particular, the supported modern societies and lifted billions of people out Arctic and SIDS share common environmental and of poverty. They have also changed landscapes and polluted oil spill risks to land and seas, from the transport of both air and water. Now the production of CO2 is changing hydrocarbons from tanker to refinery. All regions have the climate. Oceans and islands can play a combined and common issues with water quality and water scarcity that supporting role in sustainable energy development. renewable energy, desalination, ground water and aquifer management and replenishment, as well as innovative United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has approaches to water treatment can all address. recently launched the Sustainable Energy for All initiative, and 2012 has been designated as the International Year The Arctic, SIDS and arid regions are also the most of Sustainable Energy for All. The initiative has three vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Each are interlinked global objectives for 2030: ensuring universal already experiencing higher temperatures, fluctuating access to modern energy services; doubling the rate of precipitation rates, depletion of aquifers and groundwater, improvement in energy efficiency; and doubling the share saline intrusion of coastal and island aquifers, and of renewables in the global energy mix. increased water quality issues and increased incidences of waterborne illnesses. Abundant renewable energy can The circumpolar Arctic, remote regions, small island assist in addressing all these concerns. developing states (SIDS), and developing countries all need flexibility in how they generate energy, but this energy can In all regions, the intermittent nature of renewable energy be low carbon, renewable and both delivered and used can be addressed by energy and water storage options efficiently. Terrestrial and offshore winds, solar, geothermal (including hydrogen storage and aquifer re-injection and energy, biofuels, and other renewable resources can management) or by retaining hydrocarbon generation as collectively meet energy needs, while simultaneously a backup, emergency or peak energy source. For adjacent supporting local development, achieving greenhouse gas islands, transmission lines between their coasts can emission reductions, and addressing crucial issues such integrate renewable resources and markets. This is yet as energy and water security. In all of these areas, coasts, another service provided by coasts and oceans. oceans and renewable energy can play a vital role. All regions possess rich sources of both local and National and regional policies, fiscal initiatives, public-private traditional knowledge and technologies with regards to partnerships, and civil society programs are all key tools the use and management of energy and water resources. for encouraging the development of renewable energy and These include rainwater water harvesting and storage; increasing energy efficiency. This is true across all regions, agricultural terracing and irrigation; energy and water with the circumpolar Arctic and SIDS being no exception. efficient traditional architecture and buildings. Such Specific projects focusing on education and training are innovations can augment and compliment renewable required, as well those striving to emphasise the links energy knowledge and technology, and the integration of between renewable energy and water efficiency – especially energy and water systems. Similarly, as projects utilising in places such as the circumpolar Arctic and SIDS. these methods evolve, so too does the scope for knowledge and technology transfer, seeing capacity development Renewable energy projects in coasts and offshore areas occur across the Arctic, SIDS and arid regions. can address water security as well as water quality and quantity, through innovative integrations of energy and Sustainable energy development and water linkages have water systems. A particularly good example here is the already been recognised in the lead up to Rio+20. There integration of renewable energy with desalination and have been preparatory conferences, submissions, and aquifer replenishment and management systems. The paragraphs in the Zero Draft text, which have all explicitly Arctic, SIDS and arid regions all share a common need recognised the links between energy and water. There are to integrate energy and water systems to increase the opportunities for collaboration and strategic allegiances efficient use of both these resources. Increased efficiency at Rio+20 and beyond on research, project development, in these areas can in turn be a driver for poverty alleviation technology and capacity development transfer for energy and mitigate against climate change. and water across all key regions. Additionally, there could be opportunities for building synergies between those arid regions, which are currently leading in the use of renewable energy technologies and projects to address6 RIO+20
  • water security and scarcity, the Arctic, small islands and 2012 at the World Water Forum. Finally, the launch of theother regions of the world. Last, renewable energy projects International Water Summit, in conjunction with the Worldthat are not integrated in electricity grids may also be Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi in January 2013, alsoeligible for carbon credit as small scale renewable energy indicates the growing acknowledgement of the connectionprojects under the Clean Development Mechanism, which between energy and water. Rio+20, therefore, represents anmay improve the economics of some of these projects.Other international meetings and processes have also . ideal opportunity to further strengthen this connection in both policy and practicerecognised the linkages between oceans and energy. Forexample, at the 2nd Assembly of the International Renewable MORE INFOAgency and the World Future Energy Summit in Abu Dhabi This text is derived in part from a sustainable energyin January 2012, there was clear political recognition of the development project being implemented by innexus between energy and water by the arid countries of the cooperation with the Master of Science - Energy PolicyMiddle East and Gulf States, as well as focused assistance & Climate Program at John Hopkins University inon the Pacific region for renewable energy and desalination Washington D.C., the Coastal and Marine Union (EUCC)by Asian states. This connection was also recognised in based in Leiden, Netherlands; and the Arctic Institute ofthe Marseille Declaration, which was issued on March 13, North America at the University of Calgary. 7 RIO+20
  • Pacific fisheries need tech to track climate impact Johann Bell Principal Fisheries Scientist at the Secretariat of the Pacific Community This article was originally published by Science and Simple methods for collecting remotely-sensed data, Development Network (www.scidev.net/en/) and ground-truthing this information, also have a role to play in separating the effects of climate change from other stressors on the coral reef habitats that support Climate change could derail plans fish stocks. Regular mapping of vegetation cover in by Pacific Island countries and water catchment areas will also be needed to monitor territories (PICTs) to use fisheries the success of re-vegetation programmes, designed to prevent sediments and nutrients from degrading coral and aquaculture to foster economic reefs fringing the coast. development and food security. Missing information Bottom-dwelling coastal fish are expected to be hardest But existing monitoring tools are not in place for coastal hit. Under continued high emissions of greenhouse gases, fisheries in many PICTs. Even the basic information stocks of these fish are estimated to decrease by 20% by required for fisheries management, such as the relative 2050 due to global warming and ocean acidification, which abundance and sizes of fish landed at main markets, affect the fish themselves as well as the coral reefs that is often missing. Although the technology underpinning support them. But much uncertainty remains about the some of the priority adaptations to climate change is impacts of climate change. And contrary to assessments mature, additional surveys and planning will be needed to for some other parts of the world, the projections for identify sites with the appropriate conditions. fisheries and aquaculture in the Pacific are not all negative. Alongside these efforts, training programmes are needed Fisheries boost to improve the technical skills of coastal communities In particular, tuna stocks are expected to rise in the eastern that are adapting to climate change by increasing their Pacific, and increased rainfall is likely to improve the tuna catches and engaging in pond aquaculture. The production of freshwater fisheries and pond aquaculture training should extend to improving post-harvest methods in the western Pacific. Indeed, many communities could to increase the shelf life of fish caught and produced in switch their fishing efforts to tuna that frequent coastal remote areas. waters. By installing anchored fish aggregating devices (FADs) to temporarily hold tuna, small-scale fishers could Long-term effort access these valuable resources more easily. PICTs will need to invest in a variety of monitoring programmes to improve their understanding of industrial Building networks of inshore FADs to increase coastal tuna fisheries. The returns could be significant, if not vital communities access to tuna is an example of a win- — industrial fisheries contribute 10–40% of government win adaptation: it will help supply the additional fish revenue in four PICTs, and 10–20% of GDP in two PICTs. needed by growing populations in ways that are likely Tuna canneries also provide 12,000 jobs across the region. to be favoured by climate change. Governments should strengthen investments in monitoring the success of There are key improvements that governments should such win-win adaptations. make. Observer programmes that currently monitor fishing practices on industrial tuna fleets need to be Technical solutions expanded to provide the basic biological data needed There are technologies available to help managers to better understand the function of ecosystems that monitor the effects of fishing and climate change on support tuna, and to determine whether these ecosystems coastal fish stocks. For example, digital photography are being affected by fishing and the changing climate. and image analysis can simplify sampling to determine species composition and the size of catches landed at fish Investing in more comprehensive observer programmes markets, providing a baseline against which change can that improve the quantity and quality of data will also be measured. In addition, governments routinely conduct help to build and validate the biophysical models needed household and income expenditure surveys which could be to assess the potential production of tuna across the modified to assess the success of efforts to increase the Pacific. And new technology is needed on-board purse- proportion of tuna in the catch of coastal communities. seine fishing vessels (boats that surround schools of tuna with large nets). The necessary tools and capabilities for long-term monitoring programmes must be developed as soon as possible — the longer the data are available, . the greater the power to detect change and provide the information needed for adaptive management8 RIO+20
  • Plenty more fish in the sea? Kirsty Schneeberger, Stakeholder ForumThis issue of Outreach highlights the critical importance Teaming up with organisations such as the Zoological Society ofof oceans – 70% of the earth – in maintaining the dynamic London (ZSL), the Marine Conservation Society and Greenpeace,equilibrium between our ecosystems that support the flourishing Selfridges put sustainability at the heart of its purchasing practicesof life itself in all its forms. We now face challenges at multiple and launched ‘Project Ocean.’ - transforming its food policies tofronts, from sustaining aquaculture and marine life, to the only buy and sell fish that had been sustainably sourced. It alsorelationship between energy generation and oceans and how to teamed up with lawyers from Clientearth who worked to develop anresponsibly explore these options; as well as responding to the intergenerational contract between young people and their leader,smultiple stresses that the oceans are under. to protect the oceans for future generations. A Declaration of Young Peoples Rights to a Healthy Planet will also be presented in Rio+20,In addition to all of the above factors, we acknowledge the need which calls on leaders to bequeath them a healthy ocean.to respect the services that oceans offer us. Respect is borne outof an understanding and appreciation of the significant role of The initiative sparked some lively debates about the responsibilitysomeone, or something, in our lives; and so it is that for millennia that present decision-makers and leaders (especially businesspeople have understood that whilst they are able to fish for food leaders) have to the next generation. It is an admirable andthat sustains them, so it is that they must be sustainable in the compelling example of how lawyers and young people can workway that they fish. In applying this fundamental approach to together to not only offer current (and future) generations a wayfishing practices, people have been able to ensure that, to use a to have their voices heard; but to also teach them the rules ofturn of phrase, there will always be plenty more fish in the sea. a game that is disproportionately exploiting their share of the resources and natural services that the world provides us all andBut with the rate of overfishing irresponsibly increasing, we are deserves our respect. In so doing, it is hoped that young peopleno longer paying the oceans the respect it deserves, nor are werespecting our responsibilities to future generations to ensurefishstocks do not decline as rapidly as they currently are. Young will be inspired to step off the side-lines and take part in the game; or better still, perhaps even rewrite the rules themselves .people now have something to say about this, and would like the MORE INFORio+20 process to hear their concerns. Amended and updated from the author’s blog for the Environmental Regulation and Information Centre, first published online: www.Almost a year ago, on 24th May 2011, a gathering of 5 – 20 eric-group.co.uk/environmental_regulation_story.php?content_id=248year olds converged on the famous London department store –Selfridges - as part of an event that marked the launch of theintergenerational contract between themselves and policy andlaw makers in the area of fisheries.Rio+20 Side Event Calendar Date Time Room Title Organisers 1:15-2:45 4 The Future We Want for Rio+20 on Oceans and Seas UN DPI 26 April 2012 Governments of Slovenia, Costa Rica, Cape Verde, Iceland, Singapore, UAE (the 1:15-2:45 A Global outlook and local action: water and energy for sustainable development Green Group) Blue Carbon as a Tool to Mitigate Climate Change and Preserve Key Marine and Coastal 6:15-7:45 7 UNESCO, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Ecosystems The State of the World Environment told by UNEP’s GEO-5 report and Global Solutions for 1:15-2:45 7 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 27 April 2012 Sustainability 1:15-2:45 A Rights at Risk: Decoding the Green Economy France Libertes Foundation Danielle Mitterrand 1:15-2:45 4 Planet Under pressure ICSU-UNESCO-IGBP 1:15-2:45 B The Power of One Child – Global Action Classroom Earth Child Institute 30 April 2012 Advancing the Sustainability Science Agenda: To Support Sustainable Development and the 1:15-2:45 7 Chief Scientists Office, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Green Economy 1:15-2:45 3 From Harmful Subsidies to Safe Subsidies Greenpeace International 6:15-7:45 B New York + 20: Youth led action for sustainable development Columbia University Coalition for Sustainable Development 1:15-2:45 7 Moving Towards Meaningful Private Sector Contribution to Sustainable Development Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future 01 May 2012 Taking Natural Capital into account: how can SDG’s, Green Economy Roadmaps and National 1:15-2:45 B Sustainability Plans properly maintain and value the Earth’s Natural Capital as part of a post- BioRegional Development Group Rio+20 framework 1:15-2:45 3 People and the Planet: The priorities for Rio+20 The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) 9 RIO+20
  • Reflections on the negotiations - Wednesday, 25th AprilEmma Puka-Beals Tamasin Ramsay, PhDMount Holyoke College Anthropologist, Monash University, AustraliaWednesday’s negotiations on sections III Yesterday was day three of the second We are all stakeholders in thisand V opened with CST text on green jobs round of Informal Informal negotiations on conversation, and as such our decisionsand social inclusion. The G77 continued the text of the Rio+20 Outcome Document. and activities from now on must reaffirmto work off of CST text, but moved to Governments are showing their strength the dignity of each and every humandelete language on the green job creation and flexibility as they confer on all areas spirit, and the finite capacities andthat it found overly prescriptive. Several of Sustainable Development. In equal delicate state of the earth’s resources.delegates agreed on deleting examples of measure though, resolute sticking points Then government and citizens togetherpotential green jobs, as they felt that thelist was non-exhaustive and unnecessary.All non-CST text was deleted between are also becoming glaringly apparent. One area of debate during the morning us realise the future we all seek. . can create visionary frameworks to helpparagraphs pre73 and 77, at which point session of Working Group 2 was Naomi Kumazawaseveral delegates asked to retain text on international political support for MGCY/Environmental Partnership Council Japansocial protection, rights to resources, and addressing the complex environmental,special reference to indigenous peoples social and economic troubles Negotiations of Working Group 2 (Sectionand migrants. In regards to oceans and experienced on the continent of Africa. I, II, & IV) have reached the second roundseas were very few major edits, with Some government representatives were of reading, streamlining the text. Onsupport for inclusion of a ‘blue economy’ adamant that the text must reflect the some issues, proceeding has seemedand text on limiting ocean fertilisation. lack of political commitments to date in to complicate matters and confuse supporting Africa’s development needs. A the negotiators themselves, such as inAfternoon negotiations on acidification, number of others felt it was a pessimistic paragraph 18, about the participationfisheries and subsidies were more remark, and failed to consider the work of civil society, access to informationcontentious, with delegates expressing that has been done towards alleviating and justice, and communicationconcern over the increasing amount of the problems within Africa so far. technologies (Principle 10); paragraphretained text and growing resemblance 24, on corporate sustainability reporting;of CST paragraphs to the heavily edited I noted with interest that the governments and paragraph 2, on the participation oftext of the negotiated Zero Draft. Text on that are steadfast in their wish to highlight youth and children. Nonetheless, theselimiting fish harvests and transparency the gap between political commitment procedures are beginning to uncover thewas reintroduced, and the conversation and implementation, are the same ones key issues and specific language eachon subsidy reform was inconclusive and who consistently wish to remove explicit member state is pushing for.recommended for deletion, as it had references to areas that empower women:remained unresolved in other fora as well. access to modern technologies, adequate Late in the afternoon, the co-chairIn text on marine resource management, six child and maternal health and family commented "I do not need to remindof ten Zero Draft paragraphs were retained. planning services. They do not accept you, that you have not reached a single women as “powerful agents of change agreement all afternoon." Finding anFundamental differences in opinion arose [delete]”. I couldn’t help but query the agreement point on contradicting issuesduring the discussion on the vulnerability connection. If these governments indeed is one thing, but that is only the start. I doof SIDS, which informed opposing recognised women as key decision not yet see the negotiation process takingdeletions and interventions, and were makers, and the central role of women in forward steps for making differencesinconclusive. In the text on disaster risk facilitating positive change, perhaps they toward a sustainable future. Thereduction, text linking security with the could bring about greater progress from paragraph on participation of youth andthree pillars was retained, and text on within their states, utilising to their fullest children as proposed by some delegatessystems was introduced .a network of global earth observation capacity the inherent potential within their entire social strata. was weakened down to just recognising the influence of present decisions on the (CONTINUED NEXT COLUMN) will make the future we want? . future. Isnt it the decisions we make, thatOutreach is made possible by the support of